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Anda di halaman 1dari 91

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

Filters

Still

Simon

Chapter

man

hears

and

what

he

wants

to

Garfunkel,

hear,

and

disregards

The

229

the

rest.

Boxer

Outline

5.1

Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

229

5.2 Linear Systems Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

230

5.3 Filters and Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

242

5.4 Filter Types and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

243

5.5 Generic Filter Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

245

5.6 Classes of Low-Pass Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

252

5.7 Low-Pass Filter Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

264

5.8 Filter Input/Output Impedances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

267

5.9

Transient

Response

of

Filters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273

5.10 Band-Pass Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

275

5.11 Noise Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

280

5.12

Butterworth

Filters

in

Detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

5.13

Miscellaneous

Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296

5.14

Matched

Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

297

5.15

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

303

5.16 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.

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.

.

.

303

5.1

INTRODUCTION

A filters job is to remove the signals we dont want while retaining (and

not

distorting)

the

signals we want. The primary discriminator is frequency. However,

consider

the

following:

How much of the unwanted signals can we tolerate? Our filter wont

remove the unwanted signals entirely; the filter will attenuate them by

only

a

finite

amount.

How

much

attenuation

do

we

actually

need?

How much of the desired signal we want can we afford to lose in the

filtering

process?

As our filter removes the unwanted signals, it will also attenuate and

distort

the

signals

we

want

to

preserve.

How does the filter alter the wanted signal? The filter may change the

magnitude

of

the

wanted signal unevenly over its bandwidth, or it may produce more subtle

changes

by

altering

the

signals

phase.

229

McClaning-7200021 book

230

C

H

5.2

ISBN

A

LINEAR

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

SYSTEMS

16,

R

2011

5

8:45

230

Filters

REVIEW

Calling

a

system

linear

implies

several

things:

If we excite a linear system at a particular frequency, we will observe

only

that

frequency

in the system. We may observe phase and amplitude changes, but we will

never

observe

frequencies present in the system that we did not apply.

The transfer function of a linear system does not depend on the

magnitude

of

the

input

signal. In other words, the ratio of the input to the output will be same at

an

input

level

of 1 V or when the input is 1 MV. If the system performance varies with

signal

level,

the

system

is

not

linear.

Superposition works. We can excite a linear system with a signal S 1 and

observe

an

output O1. We then excite the system with a signal S 2 and observe an

output

O 2.

When

we excite the system with a linear combination of S 1 and S2, the output

will

be

a

linear

combination

of

O1

and

O2.

The equations that describe linear systems are well understood and

friendly

to

use.

Nonlinear

mathematics

can

be

unwieldy.

We can approximate any device as a linear device when the input signal

level

is

small

enough (well discuss small enough when we discuss linearity). This

concept

is

the

basis

for

s-parameters

and

small

signal

models.

5.2.1

Pole/Zero

ReviewSeries

RLC

Figure 5-1 shows a series resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit and

characteristic

quantities

we

will

be

analyzing.

The voltage v(t) or V(s) will be the input, and well consider i(t) or I(s) as

the

output.

The

transfer

function

is

I

(s)

V

(s)

=

sL

s2

+

s

R

L

+

LC

1

(5.1)

The behavior of the circuit in Figure 5-1 is described completely by

equation

(5.1).

Since

the roots of the polynomials in the numerator and denominator of

equation

(5.1)

exactly

specify the equation, we need only these roots to unambiguously

determine

the

behavior

of

the

circuit

in

Figure

5-1.

This analysis holds for any transfer function. The roots of the numerator

and denominator are all we need to analyze the behavior of any linear

system.

We

can

put

equation

(5.1)

in

the

form

I

(s)

V

(s)

=

s

sZ1

(s

sP1)

(s

sP2)

(5.2)

FIGURE

simple

circuit.

5-1

series

v(t)

V(s)

i(t)

I(s)

R

McClaning-7200021 book

5.2

Linear

A

RLC

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

231

Systems

Review

231

Combining equations (5.1) and (5.2), we know that the single root of the

numerator

is

s

=

sZ1

(5.3)

Well

derive

the

roots

of

the

denominator

from

s2

+

s

R

L

+

1

LC

=

0

(5.4)

which

produces

sP1,

sP2

=

R

2L

1

2

R

L

2

LC

4

(5.5)

When the denominator is nonzero, then the transfer function (5.2) will be

zero

whenever

s = sZ1. We call the roots of the numerator the zeroes of the transfer

function.

Similarly,

when the numerator is nonzero, the transfer function will be infinite

whenever

s

=

sP1

or

s = sP2. We call the roots of the denominator the poles of the transfer

function.

We can write any transfer function as the ratio of two polynomials

H (s) = (s sZ1) (s sZ2) (s sZ3) . . . (s sZN)

(s

sP1)

(s

sP2)

(s

sP3)

.

.

.

(s

sPM)

(5.6)

where

sZN

=

the

N-th

zero

of

the

transfer

function

sPM

=

the

M-th

pole

of

the

transfer

function

Lets assume that the denominator has complex roots, that is,

R

L

2

<

LC

4

(5.7)

which forces the quantity under the square root to be negative. When we

plot

the

complex

roots on the s-plane, we have a picture that exactly describes the behavior

of

our

series

RLC

circuit.

The

roots

are

plotted

in

Figure

5-2.

Series

Pole

Pole

5

5

3

Real

Imaginary

RLC

Pole/Zero

Plot

Zero

0

FIGURE

pole/zero

simple

circuit

McClaning-7200021 book

232

C

H

Axis

Axis

5-2

plot

of

series

of

ISBN

A

Figure

978-1-891121-80-7 June 16,

P

T

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R

2011

5

8:45

The

the

RLC

5-1.

232

Filters

We can use the pole/zero plot of Figure 5-2 to gain insight into the

behavior

of

the

transfer

function.

5.2.2

Magnitude

of

H(

j)

Let us examine the pole/zero plot for clues to the transfer functions

magnitude.

If

were

interested only in the magnitude, we can rewrite equation (5.6) as

|H

(s)|

=

|s

sZ1||s

sZ2||s

sZ3|

.

.

.

(s

sZN)

|s

sP1||s

sP2||s

sP3|

.

.

.

(s

sPM)

(5.8)

For a sinusoidal input signal at frequency f , s = j where = 2 f . The

term

|s

sZN|

represents the distance between the evaluation frequency s and the N-th

zero.

Likewise,

the term |s sPM| is the distance between the evaluation frequency s and

the

M-th

pole.

In

words,

equation

(5.8)

is

|H (s)| = [dist (s sZ1)][dist (s sZ2)][dist (s sZ3)] . . . [dist(s sZN)]

[dist (s sP1)][dist (s sP2)][dist (s sP3)] . . . [dist(s sPM)] (5.9)

where

dist(s sZN) = the distance between the evaluation frequency s and the

N-th

zero

dist(s sPM) = the distance between the evaluation frequency s and the

M-th

pole

Figure 5-3 shows the RLC pole/zero plot of Figure 5-2 redrawn to

emphasize

the

magnitude

characteristics.

For the RLC circuit of Figure 5-1, equation (5.9) becomes

|H

(

j)|

=

dist

(Z1)

[dist

(P1)][dist

(P2)]

(5.10)

where

dist(Z1) = the distance from zero #1 to the evaluation frequency

dist(P1) = the distance from pole #1 to the evaluation frequency

dist(P2) = the distance from pole #2 to the evaluation frequency

The box labeled s = j in Figure 5-3 represents the evaluation frequency.

FIGURE

S-plane

of

simple

series

5-3

description

RLC

circuit

function

emphasizing

magnitude

characteristics.

box

represents

evaluation

frequency.

Series

Dist(s

Dist(s

Dist(s

s

j

5

5

2

Real

Imaginary

s

transfer

the

labeled

RLC

The

j

the

Pole/Zero

Plot

sP2)

sZ1)

sP1)

j2f

axis

0

1.5

Axis

Axis

0.5

P2

s

Z1

s

P1

McClaning-7200021

book

5.2

Linear

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

233

Systems

Review

233

As the evaluation frequency s = j changes, the distances between s and

the

various

poles and zeroes of the transfer function change. As j approaches a

transfer

function

zero, the distance between j and the zero decreases. This distance will

go

to

zero

if

the

transfer function zero rests directly on the j axis. Since this distance is in

the

numerator

of the transfer function, the magnitude of the transfer function approaches

zero

whenever

j

approaches

a

transfer

function

zero.

Alternately, as the evaluation frequency s = j approaches either of the

two

poles,

the distance between j and the pole decreases. This distance will also

approach

zero

when the pole is very close to the j axis. Since this distance is in the

denominator

of

the

transfer function, the magnitude of the transfer function will get large as

j

approaches

a

pole.

We

can

more

concisely

say

As

j

approaches

any

zero,

|H(

j)|

approaches

0

and

As

j

approaches

any

pole,

|H(

j)|

approaches

(5.11)

5.2.2.1

Large

j

Figure 5-4 shows the RLC pole/zero plot when j is large with respect to

the

pole/zero

constellation.

Examination of Figure 5-4 reveals that, for large j, the distance from the

evaluation

frequency to each pole and zero is about the same, or

dist(s

sZ1)

dist(s

sP1)

dist(s

sP2)

|H

(

j)|

=

dist(Z1)

[dist(P1)][dist(P2)]

1

[dist

(P1)]

1

[dist

(P2)]

(5.12)

Although we cant draw any meaningful conclusions about the magnitude

response,

we

can comment on its rate of change. If |H( j1)| is the magnitude of the

transfer

function

at 1 and |H( j21)| is the magnitude at 21, then we can write

|H

(

j1)|

|H

(

j21)|

1

j1

1

j21

=

2

(5.13)

50

0

50

15

Real

Imaginary

s

j

Series

10

Axis

Axis

j2f

axis

j

RLC

Simple

circuit

function,

characteristics,

large

McClaning-7200021 book

234

C

H

Pole/Zero

ISBN

A

series

Plot

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

FIGURE

June

16,

2011

5

5-4

RLC

transfer

magnitude

with

j.

8:45 234

Filters

In other words, for the simple RLC circuit under large j conditions, if we

double

the

evaluation frequency we halve the magnitude of the transfer function.

A little thought reveals that the magnitude response of any transfer

function

will

drop

off at a constant rate under large j conditions. That rate is the ultimate

roll-off

of

the

transfer

function,

and

it

is

given

by

Ultimate Rolloff = 6Octave dB

(# Poles # Zeroes)

=

20Decade

dB

(#

Poles

#

Zeroes)

(5.14)

where an octave refers to a doubling in frequency (i.e., going from f 1 to 2

f1),

and

a

decade

refers to increasing the frequency by an order of magnitude (i.e. going

from

f1

to

10

f1).

EXAMPLE

Transfer

Function

Ultimate

Roll-Off

Rate

Given the number of poles and zeroes for the following low-pass filters, predict the

ultimate

roll-off

of

each

filter:

a.

6

poles,

5

zeroes

b.

7

poles,

6

zeroes

c.

d.

Solution

Using

a. Ultimate

b. Ultimate

c. Ultimate

d. Ultimate

7

3

poles,

poles,

equation

roll-off = 6dB/octave

roll-off = 6dB/octave

roll-off = 6dB/octave

roll-off = 6dB/octave

(6

(7

(7

(3

zeroes

zero

(5.14),

we

poles 5 zeroes) = 6

poles 6 zeroes) = 6

poles 2 zeroes) = 30

poles 1 zero) = 12

find

dB/octave

dB/octave

dB/octave

dB/octave

5.2.3

Angle

of

H(j)

We can also use the pole/zero plot to glean information about the transfer

functions

angle.

Figure 5-5 shows the pole/zero plot of our RLC circuit with emphasis on

finding

the

phase

of

the

transfer

function.

Emphasizing

the

transfer

function

angle,

equation

(5.6)

is

H ( j) = [ (s sZ1) + (s sZ2) + (s sZ3) . . . + (s sZN)]

[ (s sP1) + (s sP2) + (s sP3) . . . + (s sPM)] (5.15)

where

(s sZN) = the angle between the evaluation frequency s and the N-th

zero

(s sPM) = the angle between the evaluation frequency s and the M-th

pole

McClaning-7200021 book

5.2

Linear

ISBN

Series

Angle

Angle

Angle

s

5

5

2

Real

Imaginary

s

RLC

of

of

of

=

978-1-891121-80-7

June

Systems

16,

Review

Pole/Zero

(s

(s

sP1)

(s

2011

8:45

235

235

Plot

sZ1)

sP2)

(Negative)

j2f

0

Axis

Axis

P2

s

Z1

s

P1

FIGURE

S-plane

of

circuit

function

emphasizing

the

characteristics.

simple

series

5-5

description

RLC

transfer

phase

In words, the angle of H(s), H(s), is the sum of the angles from the zeroes

to

the

evaluation frequency (s = j) minus the sum of the angles from the poles

to

the

evaluation

frequency.

Note the definition of the angles in Figure 5-5. We measure the angle

between

a

line

parallel to the real axis and the line connecting the pole or zero to the

evaluation

frequency.

Counterclockwise

represents

a

positive

angle.

From Figure 5-5, the angle of the series RLC transfer function is

H( j) =

(s sZ1) [ (s sP1) +

(s sP1)] (5.16)

where

(s sZ1) = the angle between the zero and the evaluation frequency

(s sP1) = the angle between the first pole and the evaluation frequency

(s sP2) = the angle between the second pole and the evaluation

frequency

Each angle changes with changing frequency. When the evaluation

frequency

is

in

the

neighborhood of a pole or a zero, the pole or zero will have a significant

impact

upon

the phase response of the transfer function. See the section titled

Dominant

Poles

and

Zeroes

for

more

information.

5.2.3.1

Large

j

If j is very large with respect to the pole/zero constellation, we can make

some approximations regarding the ultimate phase of the transfer

function.

Figure 5-6 shows Figure 5-5 redrawn under large j conditions.

Figure 5-6 suggests that, for large j, the angles between s (the frequency

of

interest)

and the poles of the transfer function all approach 90 . The same

relationship

holds

for

the

angles between s and the zeroes of the transfer function. Equation (5.2),

which

describes

our

simple

RLC

circuit,

can

be

written

as

H ( j) =

(s sZ1) [ (s sP1) +

(s sP1)]

90

[90

+

90]

=

90

(5.17)

McClaning-7200021 book

236

C

H

FIGURE

Simple

circuit

function,

characteristics,

large

50

0

50

15

Real

Imaginary

s

j

Series

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

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June

16,

R

j

RLC

8:45

236

Filters

5-6

RLC

transfer

phase

with

j.

series

10

2011

5

Pole/Zero

Axis

Axis

j2f

axis

Plot

The term ultimate phase describes the phase of the transfer function ( H( j))

attains

for

large j. For large j, the ultimate phase of a general transfer function is

Ultimate

Phase

=

90[#Poles

#Zeroes]

(5.18)

EXAMPLE

Transfer

Function

Ultimate

Phase

Given the number of poles and zeroes for the following low-pass filters, predict the

ultimate

phase

of

each

filter:

a.

6

poles,

5

zeroes

b.

7

poles,

c.

7

poles,

d.

3

poles,

Solution

Using

equation

(5.18),

a.

Ultimate

phase

=

90

(6

poles

b.

Ultimate

phase

=

90

(7

poles

c. Ultimate phase = 90 (7 poles 2

d.

Ultimate

phase

=

90

(3

poles

6

2

6

zeroes)

zeroes

zeroes

zero

we

find

zeroes)

=

90

zeroes)

=

90

= 450 = 90

zero)

=

180

5.2.4

Dominant

Poles

and

Zeroes

Figure 5-7 shows the pole/zero plot of a transfer function containing five

poles.

These poles are very close to the j axis. We know the magnitude

response

of

any

transfer

function

is

|H

(

j)|

=

(Distance

from

j

to

each

Zero)

Distance

from

j

to

each

Pole)

(5.19)

McClaning-7200021 book

5.2

Linear

2.5

2

1

1

5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

2

Real

Imaginary

Dominant

s

s

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Systems

June

16,

Review

2011

8:45

237

237

.5

Pole

j

2

Axis

Axis

Example

j2f

P1

s

P2

s

P3

s

P4

s

P5

FIGURE

Pole/zero

transfer

containing

poles.

plot

of

5-7

a

function

five

For

Figure

5-7,

equation

(5.19)

is

|H

(

j)|

=

1

[dist

(P1)][dist

(P2)][dist

(P3)][dist

(P4)][dist

(P5)]

(5.20)

where

dist(PN) = the distance from pole #N to the evaluation frequency s = j

Lets examine the case shown in Figure 5-7, where j is near zero. The

transfer

function

contains a pole sP3, which is very close to = 0, so the distance between

sP3

and

s

=

j

will be very small when = 0. Equations (5.19) and (5.20) suggest that

when

the

distance

between one of the poles and the evaluation frequency is small, then |H(

j)|

will

be

large

regardless

of

the

distances

to

the

other

poles.

In Figure 5-7, the magnitude of the transfer function is controlled almost

entirely

by

sP3 when j is in the neighborhood of sP3. We say sP3 is the dominant pole

when

j

is

near

zero.

Figure 5-8 shows the case when j is in the neighborhood of sP5.

2

Real

Dominant

2.5

2

1.5

1

5

0.5

0

1.5

2

2.5

Imaginary

s

2

Axis

Example

Pole

1

Axis

P1

s

P2

s

P3

s

P4

s

P5

FIGURE

Pole/zero

containing

poles.

j

neighborhood

pole

McClaning-7200021 book

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is

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plot

five

frequency

the

of

sP5.

8:45 238

Filters

The distance from s = j to sP5 is very small, and equation (5.20) tells us

that

the

magnitude

of

the

transfer

function

will

be

very

large.

The concept of a dominant pole applies whenever the distance between

j

and

any

pole is small relative to the other distances on the pole/zero plot. When

this

condition

is

true, then the behavior of the transfer function is dominated almost

entirely

by

the

closest

or dominant pole. Pole s P1 is a dominant pole whenever

dP1

dP2

dP1

dZ1

dP1

dP3

dP1

dZ2

dP1

dP4

and

dP1

dZ3

...

...

dP1

dPn

dP1

dZk

R

(5.21)

where

dPN = the distance from pole #N to the evaluation frequency

dZ N = the distance from zero #N to the evaluation frequency

Similarly, the concept of a dominant zero applies whenever the distance

between

the

evaluation frequency, s, and a zero is much smaller than the other

distances

on

the

pole/zero

plot.

Zero

Z1

is

a

dominant

zero

if

dZ1

dP1

dZ1

dZ2

dZ1

dP2

dZ1

dZ3

dZ1

dP3

and

dZ1

dZ4

...

...

dZ1

dPn

dZ1

dZk

(5.22)

where

dPN = the distance from pole #N to the evaluation frequency

dZ N = the distance from zero #N to the evaluation frequency

5.2.4.1

Magnitude

Characteristics

Figure 5-9 shows the pole/zero diagram of a transfer function with several

dominant

poles

and

no

zeroes.

Weve also plotted the magnitude of the transfer function. Note the

peakiness

of

the transfer function as increases from sP1 (at = 2) to sP5 (at =

+2).

The

transfer function exhibits peakiness when is near a dominant pole

because

the

distance

between the evaluation frequency and dominant pole changes rapidly

over

frequency

in

that neighborhood while the distances between the evaluation frequency

and

the

other

poles/zeroes

are

almost

constant.

Figure 5-10 shows an all-zero transfer function that exhibits dominant-zero

behavior.

Note the suck-outs, or areas of high attenuation, in the transfer function

magnitude

response

when

is

in

the

neighborhood

of

a

dominant

zero.

Careful study of Figure 5-9 and Figure 5-10 might give us the idea that we

can

use

the pole/zero concept to construct any arbitrary transfer function by

judiciously

placing

McClaning-7200021 book

5.2

Linear

2

0

5

10

1

Real

s

s

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Systems

June

0

2

1

3

1.5

1

1

2

j

j

16,

Review

2011

8:45

239

239

2

0

3

Axis

j1.5

j1.5

(rad/sec)

2

Imaginary

Transfer

Magnitude

s

0

Axis

Function

P1

s

P1

s

P2

s

P2

s

P3

s

P3

s

P4

s

P4

s

P5

s

P5

Dominant

Pole

pole

function

dominant

2

Real

2

2

Imaginary

s

Example

FIGURE

5-9

All

transfer

with

poles.

2

Axis

0

Axis

Z1

s

Z1

s

Z2

s

Z2

s

Z3

s

Z3

s

Z4

s

Z4

s

Z5

s

Z5

s

s

3

4

Transfer

Magnitude

Dominant

All-zero

function

dominant

j

j

2

1

3

Zero

1

2

Example

1.5

2

1

FIGURE

j1.5

j1.5

3

(rad/sec)

0

Function

5-10

transfer

with

zeroes.

poles and zeros. This is, in fact, how many filters are realized. Figure 5-11

and

Figure

5-12

show the pole/zero and magnitude plots of an elliptic filter.

The positions of the poles and zeroes have been manipulated carefully to

produce

the

desired amplitude response. Sections of the transfer function of Figure 512

have

been

labeled with the pole or zero most responsible for the characteristic.

5.2.4.2

Phase

Characteristics

Lets examine the phase response of a transfer function as the input

frequency

passes

by

a

dominant pole or zero. Figure 5-13 shows the j axis with a dominant zero

at

f

Z1.

Weve

also drawn an expanded version of the j axis around f Z1.

McClaning-7200021 book

240

C

H

FIGURE

Pole/zero

elliptical

filter

designed

transition

filters

its

2

1

1

5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Imaginary

0.5

Real

sZ9

sZ8

sZ2

sZ1

sP6

sP7

sP4

sP5

Elliptic

FIGURE

Magnitude

of

This

designed

transition

filters

its

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1

sP7

sP6

sP3

sZ1

Z2

sP4

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240

Filters

5-11

an

This

been

rapid

the

to

passband.

of

filter.

has

for

8:45

a

from

stopband

.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

Axis

0.1

Axis

sP3

filter

Pole-Zero

an

filter

elliptical

has

a

for

from

stopband

2

Plot

5-12

response

filter.

been

rapid

the

to

passband.

0

sZ8

s

sZ9

sP5

Elliptic

Transfer

Filter

Transfer

Function

Plot

(rad/sec)

Magnitude

Function

Lets set the evaluation frequency at point [1] in Figure 5-13. This is well away

from

f Z1, and the zero is not dominant at this frequency. The angle z represents the

amount

of phase shift contributed by the zero to the overall transfer function.

When

were

very

far away from the zero as we are at point [1], the zero at f Z1 contributes

almost

90

of

phase

shift

to

the

transfer

function.

As the frequency increases and we move from position [1] to position [2],

the

phase

of the transfer function changes from 90 to 45. We have to change

the

frequency

quite

a

bit

to

get

the

phase

to

change

by

45 .

Looking at the enlarged portion of Figure 5-13, as we change the

frequency

from

[2]

to [3] to [4], we change the phase shift from 45 (at [2]) to 0 (at [3]) to

+45

(at

[4]).

Weve changed the total phase shift by 90 in a very small frequency

change.

We

had

to move the entire distance from [1] to [2] to produce the same 45 phase

shift.

In

the

neighborhood of a dominant pole or zero, the phase of the transfer

function

changes

very

rapidly

with

frequency.

McClaning-7200021 book

5.2

Linear

5

sZ1

sZ1

4

to

5

to

1

z

FIGURE

Transfer

behavior

neighborhood

dominant

90

75

60

45

30

15

0

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

15

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Systems

43

June

2

16,

Review

2011

8:45

241

241

1

2

in

of

5-13

function

the

a

pole.

30

Phase

FZ

Shift

(deg)

45

60

75

90

Dominant

Transfer

behavior

the

a

(rad/sec)

Zero

Transfer

Function

Phase

FIGURE

(phase)

neighborhood

dominant

5-14

function

in

of

pole.

Finally, we move from position [4] to position [5] and change another 45 .

When

were at position [1] or position [5], were in the large j region of the

graph.

Figure 5-14 shows the phase response of the transfer function as we move

from

position

[1]

to

position

[5].

Note how the phase changes rapidly as the frequency changes from [2] to

[3]

to

[4]

and how the phase change is fairly mild from [1] to [2] and from [4] to [5].

The

phase

changes over a 180 range as the frequency moves from [1] to [5].

During this analysis, weve assumed that the zero at f Z1 is a dominant

zero.

In

other

words, weve assumed that the distances from our evaluation frequency to

all

of

the

other

poles

and

that

zeroes

havent

changed

significantly.

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Filters

The moral here is that we can see very rapid phase changes when were

dealing

with

poles or zeroes that are close to the j axis (i.e., high-Q poles or zeroes).

EXAMPLE

Dominant

Poles

and

Zeroes

in

Filter

Responses

Figure 5-11 and Figure 5-12 shows the magnitude response of a low-pass filter and

its

associated

pole/zero

plot.

a.

Reconcile

the

pole/zero

plot

with

the

magnitude

response.

b. Are the poles or zeroes responsible for the sharp drops (or suck-outs) in the

magnitude

response?

Solution

This is an elliptic filter. This term is normally used to describe a filter that uses

transfer

function

zeroes

to produce a quick transition from the filters passband to its stopband. They are

called

elliptic

filters

because you must solve elliptical integrals to generate the required component

values.

a. The filter exhibits severe attenuation when the evaluation frequency is near

any

of

the

zeroes

(at

low

and high frequencies). The filter shows only a small amount of attenuation when

the

frequency

is

in the neighborhood of the transfer function poles. The pole/zero plot corresponds

to

the

magnitude

response.

b. Comparing the pole/zero plot with the filters magnitude response, we can see

that

the

zeroes

are

responsible

for

the

magnitude

suck-outs.

5.3

FILTERS

AND

SYSTEMS

We are concerned with three aspects of a filters transfer function: (1) the

magnitude

response; (2) the phase response; and (3) the group delay response. All

three

metrics

are

meaningful only when we consider the steady-state performance of a

filter.

Figure 5-15 shows the circuit diagram we will be considering.

Figure 5-15 shows a signal source consisting of a voltage source V S and an

internal

source resistor labeled RS. This model is reasonably accurate for signal

generators, receiving antennas, and just about any other signal source.

We

will

connect

the

input

port

of the filter to the signal source and the output port of the filter to a load

resistor

RL.

The

voltage present at the input of the filter is V in, and the voltage across RL is

Vout.

In a radio frequency (RF) environment, we are most often interested in

power

transfer

not voltage or current. The magnitude response in which we are most

interested

is

PRL

PAvail

=

Power

Dissipated

in

RL

Maximum

Power

Available

From

the

Signal

Source

(5.23)

FIGURE

Circuit

filter

radio

system.

model

placed

5-15

a

an

(RF)

of

in

frequency

Filter

Signal

R

Source

VS

V

R

out

L

V

in

McClaning-7200021

5.4

Filter

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

243

Types

and

Terminology

243

where Maximum Power Available From the Signal Source is the signal

power

we

would

measure in a matched load resistor connected directly to the signal

source.

The exact wording of this definition is important. We have previously seen

that

we

will pull the most power from the signal source when the input impedance

of

the

filter

is

matched to the source resistor, R S. If the input of the filter is not matched,

we

will

not

accept all the available signal power from the source. This definition

considers

the

filters

input

impedance.

In a similar sense, if the output impedance of the filter is not matched to

RL,

the

power

delivered to RL will be less than the maximum power available from the

filter.

Finally, this definition considers the filters internal losses. If both the input

and

output

are properly matched yet the filter dissipates some of the signal power

internally

(due

to

component losses), the loss will be expressed in equation (5.23).

5.4

FILTER

TYPES

AND

TERMINOLOGY

Before

proceeding,

we

must

define

several

filter

terms.

5.4.1

Filter

Terminology

The following common filter terms refer to a filters magnitude response in

the

frequency

domain:

Passband: A band of frequencies that a filter will allow to propagate from

the

filters

input to its output with minimum attenuation. The frequencies within the

passband

usually

contain

the

signals

of

interest.

Stopband: A band of frequencies that the filter attenuates severely.

Frequencies

in

the stopband are not signals of interest and can cause problems if they are

allowed

to

propagate

further

into

a

system.

Transition band: Lies between a filters passband and its stopband. Ideally,

we

would

like a filter to transition immediately from its passband (where the filter

passes signals without attenuation) to the filters stopband (where the

filter

attenuates

signals

significantly). This characteristic not realizable in the real world.

Figure

5-16

illustrates

these

terms.

Frequency

Transition

Pass

Pass-Transition-Stop

Attenuation

50

40

30

20

10

0

FIGURE

Illustration

passband,

band,

regions.

McClaning-7200021 book

244

C

H

FIGURE

Ideal

high-pass

Band

Band

Band

Band

Illustration

(dB)

Stop

5-16

filter

transition

stopband

of

and

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244

Filters

5-17

low-pass,

filter,

band-pass,

band-stop

magnitude

responses.

and

30

25

25

20

15

10

4

1

5

20

15

10

3

0

fc

,3dB

fLow,3dB

fc

fc

fHigh,3dB

LPFLow

BPFBand

P

PRLPAVAIL

5

30

25

20

15

10

3

5

30

25

20

15

10

3

0

fc

fHigh,3dB

Pass

Filter

Pass

fLow,3dB

BSFBand

RLPAVAIL

(dB)

Stop

Filter

Filter

(dB)

,3dB

HPFHigh

P

PRLPAVAIL

5

Pass

(dB)

Filter

RLPAVAIL

(dB)

The boundaries among the passband, transition band, and the stopband are not

always

defined clearly. In Figure 5-16, we arbitrarily drew the boundaries at the filters 3

dB

and

20

dB

attenuation

levels.

5.4.2

Filter

Types

We will be discussing four types of filters, labeled according to their

magnitude

responses.

As you read the following paragraphs, refer to Figure 5-17.

5.4.2.1

Low-Pass

Filters

These filters pass only the lower frequency components of a signal and

attenuate

the

higher-frequency components. The frequency marking the boundary

between the lowfrequency passband and high-frequency stopband is the

cutoff

frequency.

We

normally

label the cutoff frequency as f c (although well occasionally use more

descriptive

labels

such

as

f

c,ER or fc,3 dB). We will often abbreviate low-pass filter as LPF.

Due to realization effects, the magnitude response of an LPF often

misbehaves

at

frequencies well above its cutoff frequency. The filter wont provide the

attenuation

that

the mathematics says it will. We must often specify the highest frequency

at

which

we

want

the

LPF

to

behave.

5.4.2.2

High-Pass

Filters

A high-pass filter allows the higher-frequency components of a signal pass

while

it

severely

attenuates the lower-frequency components of a signal. The cutoff

frequency,

f c,

marks

the boundary between the high- and low-frequency bands of the filter. We

will

abbreviate

high-pass

filter

as

HPF.

McClaning-7200021 book

5.5

Generic

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

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245

Filter

Responses

245

The magnitude response of a HPF does not extend to infinite frequency.

Often

when

building or buying a high-pass filter, we must specify the highest

frequency

we

would

like

the

filter

to

pass.

5.4.2.3

Band-Pass

Filters

Band-pass filters pass only a band of frequencies while attenuating signals

both

below

and

above the filters passband. The center frequency of the filter is f c, while

the

lower

and

upper cutoff frequencies are designated f low and fhigh, respectively. We will

abbreviate

band-pass

filter

as

BPF.

Often, a band-pass filter has an intrinsic power loss at the center

frequency.

This

is

the insertion loss of the filter, which we will designate as IL.

5.4.2.4

Band-Stop

(or

Band-Reject)

Filters

Band-stop filters are the exact opposite of band-pass filters. Their job is to

pass all frequencies except for a particular band where the filter should

provide

attenuation.

Like

the

band-pass filter, the center frequency is f c, while the lower and upper

frequencies

are

flow

and

f

high.

Like the high-pass filter, a band-stop filters magnitude response will not

extend

to

an

arbitrarily

high

frequency.

5.5

GENERIC

FILTER

RESPONSES

We will examine the four types of filters with regard to their magnitude,

phase,

and

group

delay and how those characteristics relate to the filters pole/zero plot.

5.5.1

Magnitude

Response

Figure 5-18 shows a generalized magnitude response of a low-pass filter.

Areas of the amplitude response of Figure 5-18 are labeled (1) through (4).

These

numbers refer to particular sections of the filters response, and we have

indicated

the

same

fc

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Frequency

(1)

(3)

(2)

Re-Entrant

(4)

LPFLow

Ultimate

10

P

RLPAVAIL

FIGURE

Low-pass

magnitude

with

regions

terms

figure

high-pass,

band-pass,

band-stop

with

modifications.

McClaning-7200021 book

246

C

H

Amplitude

Ultimate

Initial

Ripple

Rollof

Rollof

Response

(4)

Filter

Attenuation

Pass

(dB)

5-18

filter

response

important

The

this

to

labeled.

used

also

in

apply

and

filters

minor

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246

Filters

labels on the plots for the filters pole/zero plot (Figure 5-19), phase

response

(Figure

5-21),

and

the

group

delay

response

(Figure

5-23).

Amplitude ripple (Area 1): Variations in the magnitude response of the

filters

transfer

function, particularly in the passband. Some filters exhibit passband ripple,

whereas

others

show a flat magnitude response. The specifications for amplitude ripple

usually

read

something

like

0.5

dB

of

ripple

over

the

passband.

Initial roll-off (Area 2): Measures how fast the magnitude response of the

filter

initially

drops off just above the filters cutoff frequency ( f c). The more amplitude

ripple

we

allow

in the filters passband, the steeper the initial roll-off of the filter.

R

Ultimate roll-off (Area 3): Eventually, the initial roll-off rate gives way to

the

filters

ultimate roll-off rate. To reach the ultimate roll-off rate, we must be in the

large

j

area

of

the filters pole/zero plot. Equation (5.14) gives an expression for the

ultimate

roll-off

of

an ideal filter. Due to realization effects, we may never reach the ultimate

roll-off

rate

of

equation

(5.14)

.

Ultimate attenuation (Area 4): Simple filter design equations predict that a

filter

will

roll off forever. That is, at some given frequency far out in the filters

stopband,

the

mathematics predict huge values of attenuation (e.g., 200 dB). In the real

world,

the

filter

eventually reaches a point where it will provide only so much attenuation

and

no

more.

This is the ultimate attenuation of the filter. This effect rises from the

realization

details

or from the physical configuration of the filter. Typical values can range

from

30

dB

in

commercial, physically small band-pass filters to 110 dB in large, carefully

packaged

units.

Reentrant response (Area 5): The behavior of a filter in its stopband. At

some frequencies, the filters magnitude response will creep up from high

values

of

attenuation

to

much

lower values. At some frequency in the stopband, for example, the filters

attenuation

will

change

from

90

dB

to

20

dB.

Like ultimate attenuation, reentrant responses are purely a realization

problem

and

caused by, for example, how the filter was built, and what kind of

components

were

used

and

how

they

were

placed.

5.5.2

Pole/Zero

Plot

Figure 5-19 shows the pole/zero plot of the filter from Figure 5-18.

Amplitude ripple (Area 1): Area (1) in Figure 5-19 corresponds to area (1)

in

Figure 5-18the filters passband. The poles of this particular filter are

positioned

on

an ellipse whose long axis runs along the j axis.1 As j increases from

zero

radians/sec,

it passes by each pole in turn. The closest pole at a particular j becomes

slightly dominant, so as j passes each pole we get a bump in the

magnitude

response

of

the

filter.

This is exactly the condition we see in the magnitude response of Figure 518.

Initial roll-off (Area 2): Area (2) corresponds to the initial roll-off portion of

Figure 5-18. As j begins to pull away from the constellation of poles, the

magnitude

response drops very quickly because the distances to all of the poles are

rapidly

increasing.

However, j has not increased to the point where the filter exhibits the

ultimate

roll-off

1Equivalently,

both

foci

of

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN :

5.5

Generic

1

0.2

Real

Filter

(1)

(2)

(3)

j

Ultimate

Re-Entrant

Increasing

Increasing

Frequency

LPFPole/Zero

(4)

Imaginary

0.1

4

fc

the

ellipse

lie

on

the

j

axis.

978-1-891121-80-7 June 16, 2011 8:45 247

Filter

Responses

0

Axis

Poles

Ripple

Rollof

Rollof

'big'

Attenuation

Responses

j

0.1

Amplitude

Initial

Ultimate

is

Plot

0.2

3

0.3

2

0.4

1

,3dB

FIGURE

Low-pass

pole/zero

related

Figure

areas

through

correspond

same

magnitude

shown

Figure

247

5-18.

numbered

to

areas

of

Axis

0.5

0

5-19

filter

diagram

to

The

(1)

(4)

the

the

plot

as

5-18.

because we cannot yet make the approximation that the distances to all of

the

poles

and

zeroes

are

equal.

Ultimate roll-off (Area 3): This section of the pole/zero plot corresponds to

the

ultimate

roll-off area of Figure 5-18. We can assume that the distances from j to

each

pole

or

zero

are

equal.

In

this

area,

j

is

big.

Ultimate attenuation, reentrant response (Area 4): The simple pole/zero

plot

of

Figure 5-19 does not predict the ultimate attenuation or reentrant

responses.

According

to

this figure, the magnitude response should continue to fall off at the

ultimate

roll-off

rate.

Component losses, stray capacitance, stray inductance, and component

coupling

all

play their part in these effects. The component vagaries combine to

produce

transfer

function poles that were not present in the original design. However, these

poles

are

often

at relatively high frequencies and do not affect the transfer function until

j

is

large

with

respect to the filters cutoff frequency. Figure 5-20 shows the pole/zero plot

of

function

a

with

these

parasitic

poles

0.2

Axis

f

0.2

Real

Filter

c

Parasitic

LPFPole/Zero

Imaginary

0.4

8

10

transfer

added.

Plot

0.6

6

0.8

4

FIGURE

Pole/zero

plot

of

low-pass

containing

poles

and

Note

the

change

this

figure

Figure

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN : 978-1-891121-80-7 June 16,

248

C

H

A

P

T

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R

FIGURE

5-21

phase

of

low-pass

filter

Figure

5-18.

This

the

phase

of

voltage

function

of

the

(Vout/Vi

n).

frequency

scale

logarithmic.

LPFLow

fc

10

PolesZeros

Parasitics

Axis

1

0

with

Pass

FilterPhase

2011

5

5-20

a

filter

parasitic

zeros.

scale

between

and

5-19.

8:45 248

Filters

The

the

from

is

the

transfer

filter

The

is

Response

f

10f

c

0

100

200

300

400

500

Angle

Maximum

Around

of

VOUT

Phase

VIN

(deg)

Slope

f

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

At

10,

About

Final

90(#Z

Frequency

Phase

Phase

is

4pole

is

#P)

5.5.3

Phase

Plot

Figure 5-21 shows the phase plot of the filter from Figure 5-18.

(Area 1) Amplitude ripple: This is the filters passband. A typical filter will

normally

exhibit see some phase change beginning at 1/10 of the cutoff frequency.

This

phase

change

occurs long before any significant amplitude changes occur. For example,

a

Butterworth

filter exhibits about 4 of phase shift per pole at 1/10 of f C.

(Area 2) Initial roll-off: As the frequency increases, the slope of the phase

transfer

function approaches a maximum in the general neighborhood of the cutoff

frequency

f C.

The phase is approximately 1/2 of the final phase at f C.

(Area 3) Ultimate roll-off: As the frequency of interest increases beyond f C,

the

phase

responses slope decreases, and the phase value approaches the ultimate

phase

value

given

by

equation

(5.18).

5.5.4

Group

Delay

Let us refer to the circuit diagram of Figure 5-15. At some radian frequency

0,

the

filter

produces a phase shift of 0 (the minus sign signifies that V out is delayed

in

time

from

Vin). Figure 5-22 shows the steady-state time domain plots of Vout and Vin.

We can interpret the phase shift 0 as a time delay tPD. We know that one

cycle

of

a

sine wave at frequency f0 requires 1/ f0 seconds to complete. We also know

that

there

are

2 radians in one cycle. Combining these two facts produces

0

tPD

=

2

1

f0

=

2

f0

=

0

(5.24)

Rearranging

equation

(5.24)

produces

tPD

=

0

0

(5.25)

The quantity tPD is phase delay time or carrier delay time. This is the time

required

for

a

sine wave to pass through a filter under steady-state conditions. Figure 522

shows

that

0

McClaning-7200021 book

5.5

Generic

1

1.5

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

Signal

Time

Note

ambiguity

Group

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Filter

Amplitude

n

Delay

June

16,

Responses

2011

8:45

249

249

(V)

360

Definition

(rad)

0

t

(sec)

PD

V

out

V

in

FIGURE

Group

time

delay

in

5-22

the

domain.

and t0 represent the same amount of time; the quantities are simply

expressed

in

different

formats.

We are not interested in absolute amount of time required for a signal to

pass

through

a filter. We are interested in the differential time delay through the filter. If

some

frequency

components of a signal take longer to pass through a filter than other

frequency components, the phase relationship those components will be

ruined.

This

differential

delay

can

cause

severe

distortion,

especially

in

complex

signals.

Group delay is a measure of the differential time delay caused by a filter.

The

quantity

describes how individual frequency components are going to be delayed

with

respect

to

other

component.

We

will

define

group

delay

as

Group

Delay

=

tgd

=

(5.26)

Equation (5.26) represents the slope of the V out/Vin phase versus frequency

curve.

The

greater the slope of the Vout/Vin phase curve, the higher the value of group

delay.

A flat group delay curve indicates that all of the frequency components of

a

signal

pass through the filter in the same amount of time. There is no differential

delay.

A

lumpy

or uneven group delay curve tells us that some components will take

longer

to

get

through

the filter than other components. At the output of the filter, the phase

relationships

among

the signals components will be upset, and the signal will be distorted.

Figure 5-23 shows the phase response of a filter and its corresponding

group

delay

plot.

The group delay plot is the derivative of the phase plot with respect to

frequency.

If

the filters phase plot exhibits ripple, the group delay plot will be lumpy.

Group delay usually peaks at or near a low-pass filters cutoff frequency. In

a

band-pass

filter, the group delay usually peaks near the edges of the passband.

Group delay does not directly describe the filters transient response.

Group

delay

is a steady-state measurement while transient measurements speak to

non-steady-state

conditions.

narrower

a

filters transition band, the larger the delay peaks. Generally, filters with

many

poles

and

McClaning-7200021 book

250

C

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FIGURE

Group

to

response.

ISBN

A

LPFLow

fc

10

0

400

200

Angle

Maximum

fc

10

20

15

10

5

Group

...

results

log(Frequency)

Pass

978-1-891121-80-7

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June

16,

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2011

5

FilterGroup

Delay

10fc

fc

VIN

Phase

VOUT

of

the

(deg)

Response...

10fc

fc

in

Delay

Peak

250

Filters

5-23

related

phase

delay

filter

of

Slope

8:45

in

the

Group

0

(sec)

Delay

filters with close-in stopband zeroes have large delay peaks. Conversely, low

selectivity

filters with large transition bands tend to exhibit smaller delay peaks.

5.5.4.1

Effects

of

Group

Delay

Inappropriate group delay can unrecoverably distort signals. Amplitude

modulation

(AM)

is immune from the effects of group delay due to the methods we use to

demodulate

the

signal. However, we will use an AM signal to show how group delay can

affect

modulation.

Using Figure 5-15 as our circuit model, we will assume the signal source

consisting

of VS in series with RS is an AM source and that VS takes the form of

Vs

=

VPK[1

+

ma

cos

(2

fmt)]

cos

(2

fct)

(5.27)

where

ma

=

modulation

index

(0

<=

ma

<=

1)

fc

=

RF

carrier

frequency

fm

=

modulation

frequency

For this example, we will assume a modulation index m a of 0.5, the carrier

frequency

fc

is 1 MHz, and the modulating frequency fm is 1 kHz. Figure 5-24 shows VS

in

the

time

domain,

the

frequency

domain,

and

as

a

phasor.

A Fourier analysis of the input waveform V S shows the signal consists of

three

separate

sine

waves:

The

carrier

at

f

The upper sideband (USB) is at a frequency of ( f c + fm)

The phasor interpretation of Vs will be the most useful to our present

discussion

(see

Figure

5-25).

McClaning-7200021 book

5.5

Generic

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Filter

Real

(LSB)

Imag

fc

fm

fc

fcfm

fc

fm

fc

Vs

fc

FIGURE

Amplitude

modulation

time,

phasor

(USB)

t

fc

fm

(LSB)

fc

(USB)

fc

fm

fc

fm

(LSB)

fc

t

June

16,

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2011

8:45

251

251

(USB)

fm

5-24

in

frequency,

fc

the

and

domains.

fm

0

(LSB)

fc

fm

fc

fm

fc

t

(USB)

(LSB)

fc

fm

fc

fm

fc

t

3

4

m

(USB)

(LSB)

fc

fc

fc

t

m

(LSB)

FIGURE

Detailed

diagram

amplitude

modulation.

symmetry

sidebands

the

exhibiting

modulation.

fm

fm

=

(USB)

5-25

phasor

of

of

The

two

prevents

from

phase

the

resultant

The carrier will be our reference and, as such, it will be stationary in the

phasor

plots

of Figure 5-25. We can place the USB at thend of the carrier. When

positioned

so,

the

USB

rotates counterclockwise (CCW) about the end of the carrier vector. The

rotation

rate

is

fm

. Similarly, the LSB appears to rotate clockwise (CW) around the end of the

carrier

at

the

same

rate.

In an undistorted AM signal, the phases of the LSB and USB are

symmetrical

about

the carrier. The upper and lower sidebands rotate about the end of the

carrier

at

the

same

rate but in opposite directions. The net effect is the LSB and USB combine

to

lengthen

and

shorten

the

carrier.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

252

C

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A

FIGURE

effect

of

delay

modulation.

unequal

of

the

the

modulation

phase

P

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5-26

filter

on

group

filter

2011

5

8:45

252

Filters

The

group

amplitude

The

delay

converts

amplitude

into

modulation.

Frequency

fc

fm

(USB)

fc

fm

(LSB)

GD

USB

GD

LSB

BPF

Delay

GD

carrier

fc

(USB)

fc

fm

Group

(LSB)

fc

fm

fc

The symmetry of the LSB and USB is critical. If one sideband experiences a

time

delay (or, equivalently, a phase shift) with respect to the other sideband,

the

AM

waveform

will

be

distorted.

Figure 5-26 shows our AM waveform passing through a filter with a

nonsymmetrical

group

delay.

The filters group delay has destroyed the symmetry of the USB and LSB

with

respect

to the carrier, so the instantaneous amplitude of the waveform is

distorted.

Since

the

angles

of the USB and LSB no longer cancel out, the carrier is now shifting in

phase

at

a

rate

of

f m.

Group delay distortion is easy to visualize for the AM case; however, group

delay

usually is not an issue in AM systems since the information is carried in the

amplitude

of

the signal. Group delay can be a big problem in frequency- or phasemodulated

systems

and in digital signals since the information is carried by the phase of the

signal.

Like

AM, the sidebands of FM and PM systems must vectorially add to produce

the

proper

composite waveform. If the sidebands do not combine properly, the

distortion

produced

plays havoc with the demodulator and the demodulated waveforms will

suffer

badly.

5.6

CLASSES

OF

LOW-PASS

FILTERS

In this section, we will describe and compare four common types of filters.

All

of

the

filters

are five-pole low-pass filters, but the low-pass characteristics of each filter

will

transfer

to

the

equivalent

high-pass,

band-pass,

and

band-stop

filters.

Well graph the filter performance on a logarithmic frequency axis. This

scale linearizes the plot and brings out aspects of the plots that wouldnt

be

obvious

if

we

used

a

linear

scale

on

the

x-axis.

In this section, were going to be very careful to specify filter cutoff

frequencies

as

either

f

c,3 dB (the 3 dB or half-power cutoff frequency, which is the most common

specification) or fc,ER (the equal-ripple cutoff frequency normally

associated

with

Chebychev

filters,

pronounced

Chebi-shev).

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5.6

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of

978-1-891121-80-7

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253

fc

,3dB10

10

60

50

fc,3dB

10fc,3dB

40

30

20

10

0

70

80

90

V

VIN

OUT

log(Frequency)

5-Pole

Maximally

Passband

Smooth

the

Stopband

FIGURE

magnitude

of

Butterworth

low-pass

Butterworth

Flat

(dB)

LPFMagnitude

or

(No

Transition

Passband

into

5-27

a

Response

Monotonic

Ripples)

from

the

The

response

five-pole

filter.

5.6.1

Butterworth

Low-Pass

Filters

The Butterworth filter is the simplest and most common filter. Since its

characteristics

are

simple to describe mathematically, we will use the Butterworth as

calculation

standard.

Whenever we are interested in calculating the attenuation of a filter in a

system,

we

will

assume the filter is a Butterworth filter. For more information, see the

section

Butterworth

Filters

in

Detail

later

in

this

chapter.

The cutoff frequency of the Butterworth filter is the frequency at which the

output

power has dropped by 1/2 or 3 dB from its maximum value. This is the 3

dB

or

half-power

frequency,

and

its

symbol

is

f c,3

dB.

Figure 5-27 shows the magnitude response of the Butterworth filter.

At low frequencies (well below f c,3 dB), the filter does not attenuate the

signal.

As

the

frequency increases, the attenuation of the filter increases slowly at first

and

then

more

rapidly as the frequency increases beyond f c,3 dB. This type of response is

maximally

flat

or monotonically decreasing. The response does not exhibit ripples, and

the

filter

exhibits

a smooth transition from the passband to the stopband and beyond. The

filter

reaches

its

ultimate

roll-off

rate

almost

immediately

beyond

f c,3

dB.

Figure 5-28 shows the pole/zero plot for a five-pole Butterworth low-pass

filter.

Simple Butterworth filters consist only of low-pass poles (no zeroes), which

lie

on

a

circle centered about the origin. No one pole is ever dominant, which is

why

the

Butterworth

filter exhibits the smooth magnitude response of Figure 5-27.

Figure 5-29 shows the phase and group delay responses for a five-pole

Butterworth

low-pass

filter.

The phase and group delay plots exhibit several interesting features:

The phase response begins to change long before the magnitude

response

begins

to

show

any significant attenuation. At f C,3 dB/10, a Butterworth low-pass filter will

exhibit

a

phase shift of about 4 per pole. Our five-pole Butterworth LPF shows

about

20

of

phase shift at fC,3 dB/10. Measurement on a Butterworth filter showed less

than

0.1

dB

of

attenuation

and

18

of

phase

shift

at

fC,3

dB/10.

The phase slope is steepest in the neighborhood of the 3 dB cutoff

frequency

fC,3

dB.

Since the group delay is the derivative of the phase plot, the group delay

has

a

peak

around

the

same

spot.

McClaning-7200021 book

254

C

H

FIGURE

pole/zero

five-pole

Butterworth

low-pass

1.5

1.5

0

5

0.5

1

1.5

Imaginary

Real

Butterworth

Increasing

Increasing

fc

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

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5-28

plot

June

16,

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2011

5

8:45

254

Filters

The

a

of

filter.

0

0.5

0.5

.5

Axis

Axis

Plot

Frequency

j

LPFPoleZero

,3dB

FIGURE

phase

delay

five-pole

Butterworth

low-pass

5-Pole

fc

,3dB/10

0

500

400

300

200

100

Angle

Steepest

Ultimate

fc

,3dB10

6

5-29

and

responses

of

The

group

a

filter.

Butterworth

Low

Pass

FilterPhase/Group

10fc,3dB

fc,3dB

of

VOUT

slope

near

fc,3dB

2

Delay

VIN

(deg)

fc

Phase

10fc,3dB

0

Group

Peak

log(Frequency)

Delay

near

(sec)

fc

When the frequency increases to well beyond fC,3 dB, the large j

approximations

are

valid, and the filter approaches the ultimate phase given by equation

(5.18).

A

five-pole

LPF exhibits a final phase of 90 (5 0) = 450.

At very high frequencies (i.e., large j), the filter reaches its ultimate

phase.

However,

at

10 fC,3 dB, we still havent reached the final phase given by equation (5.18).

At

10

fC,3

dB,

were still about 4 per pole away from the final phase.

5.6.2

Chebychev

Low-Pass

Filters

The Chebychev filter is the second most common filter in use. As Figure 530

shows,

the Chebychevs magnitude response displays ripples in the passband and

a

steeper

initial

roll-off than the Butterworth. Allowing ripples in the passband (which is

undesirable)

is

the price we have to pay for the steeper initial roll-off (which is desirable).

McClaning-7200021 book

5.6

Classes

fc

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

of

June

Low-Pass

16,

2011

Filters

8:45

255

255

,3dB

50

40

30

20

10

0

Frequency

Chebychev

Amplitude

Chebychev

Butterworth

1Butterworth

FIGURE

magnitude

of

Chebychev

low-pass

50

40

30

20

10

0

Chebychev

Chebychev

Butterworth

Frequency

Amplitude

fc

LPF

5-30

LPF

Magnitude

2

(Hz)

(dB)

,3dB

FIGURE

magnitude

of

Chebychev

low-pass

The

response

five-pole

I

filter.

2Butterworth

(Hz)

Magnitude

(dB)

1

5-31

a

The

response

five-pole

II

filter.

5.6.2.1

Nomenclature

Some authors cite two types of Chebychev filters: Chebychev I and

Chebychev

II.

Figure 5-30 shows a Chebychev I filter. The passband exhibits amplitude

ripple,

and

the theoretical stopband attenuation increases monotonically. Figure 5-31

shows a Chebychev II filter. The passband is flat, but the stopband exhibits

amplitude

ripple

and

is

not

monotonic. In this work, we will refer to the Chebychev I filter simply as a

Chebychev

filter. We will refer to any filter with a nonmonotonic stopband response as

an

elliptic

filter.

5.6.2.2

Chebychev

Characteristics

A Chebychev filter allows us to trade passband ripple for steepness of the

initial

roll-off.

The more passband ripple we allow, the faster the initial roll-off.

There are two cutoff frequencies associated with a Chebychev filter. Well

call

them

fc,

ER and fc,3 dB. The fc,3 dB is the same half-power cutoff frequency we

associated

with

the

McClaning-7200021 book

256

C

H

FIGURE

passband

magnitude

of

Chebychev

low-pass

6

5

4

3

2

1

1

Frequency

1-dB

Amplitude

fc

,ER

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

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5

8:45

256

Filters

The

response

five-pole

filter.

Ripple

Chebychev

0

(Hz)

LPF

(dB)

fc,3dB

Butterworth filter. The equal-ripple cutof frequency, f c,ER, takes a little more

explaining.

We might specify a Chebychev filter with the following statement:

A five-pole, 0.1 dB ripple Chebychev low-pass filter with a 25 MHz equalripple

cutoff

frequency.

The 0.1 dB part of the description tells the designer that we will allow the

passband

to

exhibit 0.1 dB of ripple. This passband ripple is the price we will pay for

the

steeper

initial

roll-off

the

Chebychev

will

provide.

The 25 MHz equal-ripple cutoff frequency tells us that when the filter

heads

from

the

passband into the stopband it will exhibit 0.1 dB of attenuation at 25 MHz.

The

filters

attenuation will increase as the frequency increases from that point. This

is

the

equal-ripple

cutoff frequency or fc,ER. The Chebychev filter also has a 3 dB cutoff

frequency

which

well

call

f

c,3

dB

(see

Figure

5-32

for

details).

When most people speak of the cutoff frequency of a Chebychev low-pass

filter

or

the bandwidth of a Chebychev band-pass filter, they usually mean the

equal-ripple

cutoff

frequency or the equal-ripple bandwidth. In this book, we will specifically

state

either

the

equal-ripple cutoff frequency, f c,ER, or the 3 dB cutoff frequency, f c,3 dB.

Others

may

not

follow

suit.

Since Chebychev filters with more than 3 dB of passband ripple are

uncommon,

it

holds

that

fc,

3

dB

fc,ER

(5.28)

The

difference

between

f

c,ER and fc,3 dB is important when comparing a Chebychev filter

with a Butterworth. Figure 5-33 shows a five-pole Chebychev low-pass

filter and a fivepole Butterworth low-pass filter. Both have the same 3 dB

cutoff

frequency,

fc,3

dB.

If

we were trying to make a comparison between a Butterworth and

Chebychev

filter

for

a

design, the comparison wouldnt be fair if we used the Butterworths 3 dB

cutoff

frequency

and the Chebychevs equal-ripple frequency. The test would be biased in

favor

of

the

Butterworth.

As Figure 5-33 shows, the initial roll-off of the Chebychev filter is greater

than

the

Butterworths. However, the ultimate roll-off of both filters is the same

because

they

are

McClaning-7200021 book

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Classes

ISBN

of

978-1-891121-80-7

Low-Pass

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2011

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8:45

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257

70

80

90

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Parallel

dB

Chebychev

log(Frequency)

fc

fc,3dB10

V

1Butterworth

LPF

,3dB

Magnitude

10fc,3dB

OUTVIN

(dB)

1

Chebychev

Butterworth

FIGURE

comparison

magnitude

responses

five-pole

Butterworth

low-pass

five-pole

I

5-33

of

A

the

of

filter

and

a

Chebychev

filter.

low-pass

Chebychev

filter

will

offer more attenuation than the Butterworth filter. The difference in

attenuation

between

the Butterworth and Chebychev filter (labeled dB in Figure 5-33) increases

if

we

allow

more

ripple

in

the

passband

of

the

Chebychev.

Figure 5-34 shows the pole/zero plot of a five-pole, Chebychev low-pass

filter.

Like

the

Butterworth filter, the Chebychev is an all-pole filter. The poles of a

Chebychev

low-pass

filter lie on an ellipse whose long axis coincides with the j axis. This pole

configuration

gives the Chebychev its ripply magnitude response. As the frequency rises

and

we

move

by each pole in turn, the closest pole is slightly dominant as we pass it.

This

in

turn

causes

the magnitude ripple. The closer the poles are to the j axis, the more

passband

ripple

the

filter

will

exhibit.

The poles of the Butterworth low-pass filter lie on a circle centered about

the

origin.

This pole placement gave the filter its smooth and uneventful magnitude

plot.

1.5

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

1

Real

Increasing

Increasing

1

Imaginary

Chebychev

fc

0.5

LPFPoleZero

,3dB

FIGURE

pole/zero

five-pole

I

McClaning-7200021 book

258

C

H

0.5

Axis

Frequency

j

1.5

Axis

Plot

5-34

plot

ISBN

A

of

low-pass

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

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June

16,

R

2011

5

The

a

Chebychev

filter.

8:45 258

Filters

FIGURE

relationship

Chebychev

placement

passband

5-35

Increasing

Increasing

Increasing

Chebychev

1

Real

1

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

Imaginary

fc

The

between

pole

and

ripple.

Frequency

j

Ripple

Plot

0.5

Axis

LPFPoleZero

0

1

0.5

Axis

,3dB

FIGURE

phase

delay

typical

Chebychev.

fc

10

400

200

0

10

15

20

Chebychev

log(Frequency)

fc

10

log(Frequency)

Peak

Butterworth

Ultimate

Group

Angle

5-36

and

responses

of

fc

10fc

LPFPhase

and

Group

Delay

10fc

fc

of

The

group

a

five-pole

higher

than

Delay

Phase

(sec)

(deg)

VOUTVIN

Figure 5-35 shows the pole placement for several Chebychev filters with varying

amounts of passband ripple. The poles of the filters with the largest passband

ripple

are

closest

to

the

j

axis.

Figure 5-36 shows the phase and group delay responses of a typical

Chebychev

lowpass

filter.

Overall, these graphs are similar to the phase and group delay plots of the

Butterworth

filter:

There is some measurable phase shift at f c,3 dB/10, long before we see

any

significant

attenuation.

The phase slope is at its steepest in the neighborhood of the 3 dB cutoff

frequency

fc,

3 dB. Since the group delay is the derivative of the phase plot, the group

delay

has

a

peak

around

fc,3

dB.

McClaning-7200021 book

5.6

Classes

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

259

of

Low-Pass

Filters

259

Like the Butterworth, when the frequency increases to well beyond f c,3

dB, the Chebychev filter will eventually reach the ultimate phase given by

equation

(5.18).

Unlike the Butterworth, the phase and group delay responses of the

Chebychev

exhibit

ripples due to the pole spacing. The phase ripples cause the group delay

of

a

Chebychev

filter to have peaks and valleys. Also, the main group delay peak (in the

neighborhood

of

f

c,3

dB)

is

higher

than

in

the

Butterworth

case.

Like the Butterworth, the Chebychev filter will eventually reach its

ultimate

phase

at

very high frequencies (i.e., large j). At 10 fc,3 dB, we still havent reached

the

final

phase given by equation (5.18). Like the Butterworth, well still be about

4

per

pole

away

from

the

ultimate

phase

at

10

f c,3

dB.

5.6.3

Filters

for

the

Time

Domain

When we compared a Butterworth filter with a Chebychev filter, we

performed

trade-offs

in the frequency domainpassband amplitude ripple versus initial roll-off,

for

example.

We have not discussed how these filters behave when they must process

transient

events.

The human race has designed many different time-domain filters including

Gaussian,

Bessel, and equi-ripple group delay filters. We will discuss Bessel filters as

an

example,

but our discussion will apply to the other types as well.

Bessel filters are filters for the time domain. Their magnitude responses

are

poor,

but their phase and group delay characteristics are very good. This means

a

Bessel

filter

handles transient phenomena very well. They exhibit little or no ringing or

overshoot,

and

their

rise

time

is

near

optimal.

5.6.3.1

Bessel

Filters

The Bessel filter is designed to have a maximally flat group delay

response.

The

group

delay response of a Bessel filter looks similar to the magnitude response

of

a

Butterworth

filter. It stays flat throughout the filters passband and then drops off

slowly

beyond

the

filters cutoff frequency. Figure 5-37 shows the group delay response of a

Bessel

filter.

The magnitude response of a Bessel filter is gentle and rounded. Figure 5-

38

shows

the magnitude responses of both the Bessel and Butterworth filters for

comparison.

The

Bessel

fc

/10

Angle

Ultimate

fc

log(Frequency)

0

200

400

10fc

fc

/10

Group

Flat

fc

log(Frequency)

5

10fc

LPFPhase

and

of

VOUT

Group

Delay

VIN

(deg)

Phase

Delay

Group

FIGURE

phase

delay

typical

Bessel

filter.

McClaning-7200021 book

260

C

H

FIGURE

Comparison

magnitude

responses

typical

and

filter.

(sec)

Delay

5-37

and

responses

ISBN

A

The

group

a

five-pole

low-pass

of

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

16,

R

2011

5

8:45

260

Filters

5-38

the

of

of

a

Butterworth

low-pass

Bessel

90

fc

,3dB/10

Parallel

fc,3dB

dB

10fc,3dB

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Bessel/Butterworth

Bessel

Butterworth

V

LPF

VIN

OUT

log(Frequency)

FIGURE

pole/zero

five-pole

Magnitude

(dB)

5-39

plot

of

The

a

Bessel

low-pass

filter.

Bessel

fc

LPFPole/Zero

Plot

,3dB

2.5

2

1.5

Imaginary

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

2

Real

Increasing

Increasing

1

Axis

0

Axis

Frequency

j

2

Butterworth filter exhibits less attenuation throughout the passband and more

attenuation

in

the stopband than the Bessel filter. Like the Butterworth, we use the 3 dB cutof

frequency,

fc,

3

dB,

to

specify

the

filter.

The Bessel filter is another all-pole filter. Figure 5-39 shows the pole

constellation

for

a

five-pole

Bessel

filter.

Although the magnitude response is poor, the phase and group delay

performance

of

the Bessel filter is much better than that of the Butterworth or Chebychev

filters.

The

phase

response is linear throughout the passband, and the group delay stays flat

until

beyond

fc

and then drops off gently to zero. This characteristic makes Bessel filters

ideal

for

handling

pulses

because

they

exhibit

quick

rise

and

fall

times.

5.6.3.2

Other

Filters

for

the

Time

Domain

The Bessel filter is one of many filters designed for its time-domain

response.

Others

include

the

following:

McClaning-7200021 book

5.6

Classes

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

261

of

Low-Pass

Filters

261

Gaussian magnitude response filters: Both the magnitude response and

impulse response of this filter resemble the familiar Gaussian bell curve of

statistics

so

there

isnt

any ringing or overshoot for transient inputs. However, the magnitude

response

doesnt

roll

off

as

quickly

as

even

a

simple

Butterworth

filter.

Equal-ripple group delay filters: These filters are designed to have a flat

group

delay

response. In other words, the group delay is nearly constant except for a

tightly controlled amount of ripple. The group delay response of this filter

looks

a

little

like

the

magnitude

response

of

a

Chebychev

filter.

An equal-ripple group delay filter exhibits some of the time domain

properties

of

a Gaussian or Bessel filter (i.e., good pulse handling capabilities), but the

magnitude

response is similar to the Butterworth filter. In short, this filter is a

compromise

between

time-domain

and

frequency-domain

characteristics.

Transitional filters: Transitional filters are compromises between flat

group

delay

and

a rectangular magnitude response. For example, we might design a lowpass

filter

with a Gaussian passband response. Then, when the attenuation of the

filter

reaches,

say, 12 dB, we design the filter to have a Chebychev-type roll-off

response.

This

is

a

Gaussian-Chebychev

filter.

Another type of transitional filter is the ThompsonButterworth filter. This

filter

has

a Thompson- (or Bessel)- type passband response coupled with a

Butterworth

stopband

roll-off. As you might expect, the performance of these filters lies

somewhere

between

the

two

filters

used

to

generate

the

transitional

filter.

5.6.4

Elliptic

Filters2

The Butterworth, Chebychev I, and Gaussian filters we have studied are

all-pole

filters

because their transfer functions contain only poles. All-pole filters have a

very high theoretical attenuation at high frequencies; however, their

transition

from

passband

to

stopband

is not always as steep as we would like. At times, we are willing to sacrifice

attenuation

at

very high frequencies for a quicker transition from the passband to the

stopband.

Elliptic

filters contain both poles and zeroes in their transfer functions. The zeroes

help

the

filter

achieve a sharp transition into the stopband at the expense of reduced

stopband attenuatio

An elliptic filter is usually more complicated and requires more components

than

an

equivalent

all-pole

design.

Figure 5-40 is the magnitude response of a typical elliptic filter. The passband

can

contain ripples like the Chebychev (which again brings up the question of

fc,3

dB

vs.

fc,ER),

or it can be flat like the Butterworth filter. The transfer function zeroes are

responsible

for the two points of high attenuation in the stopband. By properly placing

the

poles

and

zeroes, we can design in almost any amount of initial roll-off we like.

Figure 5-40 also shows a Butterworth filter response. Both are five-pole

filters

with

the

same

f

c,3 dB,

but the elliptical filter contains four zeroes in the stopband. The

elliptic

filter has a much smaller transition band than the Butterworth. However,

the

Butterworths

2Weve

lumped all filters with transfer function zeroes into the elliptic category. Some

authors

refer

to

filters exhibiting passband ripples as Chebychev I, filters with stopband ripples as

Chebychev

II,

and

filters with both passband and stopband ripples as elliptic filters. Elliptic filters are often

referred

to

as

Cauer

filters.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN : 978-1-891121-80-7 June 16, 2011 8:45 262

262

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

5

Filters

FIGURE

5-40

Comparison

of

the

magnitude

response

of

a

typical

Butterworth

low-pass

filter

and

a

typical

elliptic

low-pass

filter.

90

fc

,3dB/10

log(Frequency)

Zeroes

Not

10fc,3dB

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

EllipticalButterworth

Bessel

Butterworth

V

OUT

fc,3dB

Parallel

LPF

VIN

Magnitude

(dB)

stopband rejection is better at high frequencies. The elliptic filter is better when

we

need

attenuation

very

close

to

the

passband.

The ultimate roll-of of an elliptic filter is given by equation (5.14). We used the

same

equation for the Butterworth, Chebychev, and Bessel filters, but now we have a

nonzero

number of transfer function zeroes. The elliptic filter we have been using as an

example

has five poles and four zeroes, so its ultimate roll-of will be only 6 dB/octave. The

other

five-pole

filters

produced

a

30

dB/octave

ultimate

roll-of.

Figure 5-41 is the pole/zero plot of our example filter. This is a five-pole, four-zero

characteristics,

whereas

the zero positions determine where the points of maximum attenuation occur. We

normally

position the zeroes on or very near to the j axis. This causes the zero to

become

dominant

whenever j is nearby and makes the dominant zero responsible for the

high

attenuation

at

that

frequency.

FIGURE

pole/zero

five-pole,

elliptic

filter.

5-41

plot

Real

Imaginary

1.5

1.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

0

Elliptic

0

0.5

0.5

1

1

1.5

Zeroes

Zeroes

Increasing

Increasing

Chebychev-like

polo

fc

,3dB

Axis

Axis

LPFPolo/Zero

Plot

1.5

Frequency

j

constellation

McClaning-7200021

book

5.6

Classes

400

200

0

Elliptic

fc

/10

log(Frequency)

10fc

fc

/10

0

10

20

30

40

Very

Sudden

transfer

The

a

four-zero

low-pass

of

ISBN

of

LPFPhase

978-1-891121-80-7

June

Low-Pass

and

16,

2011

Filters

Group

8:45

263

263

Delay

fc

peaky

jumps

group

due

function

delay

to

zeroes

fc

log(Frequency)

Group

Angle

10fc

FIGURE

phase

delay

five-pole,

elliptic

filter.

Delay

(sec)

(deg)

VOUTVIN

of

5-42

and

responses

of

The

group

a

four-zero

low-pass

Figure 5-42 shows the phase and group delay plots of our example elliptic

filter.

As

you might expect of a filter designed solely for its magnitude response,

the

phase

and

group

delay

plots

are

pretty

unsightly.

The phase response shows sudden 180 jumps at the frequencies of the

zeroes,

f

Z1

and f Z2. Since the zeroes are dominant when j is in the neighborhood of f

Z1

and

f

Z2,

they cause a rapid phase change as well as a significant magnitude

change.

The sudden jumps in the phase response at f Z1 and f Z2 produce sudden

jumps

in

the

group delay response at the same frequencies. However, since these

group

delay

spikes

occur at the frequencies of maximum attenuation, they are rarely

problematic.

Depending on the computer program we use to design our filters, we can

specify

the

magnitude response of an elliptic filter in any one of several ways:

Specify minimum stopband attenuation: We can specify that the filter

always

provides

at least Amin of rejection throughout the stopband. In Figure 5-40, we chose

Amin

to

be 30 dB. The filter algorithm then positions the zeroes appropriately to

produce

a

stopband

attenuation

always

greater

than

A min =

30

dB.

Specify initial roll-off: First, we specify the filters cutoff frequency, and

then

we

specify

a frequency fattn, above the filters cutoff frequency, where we want to

achieve

at

least

Aattn dB of rejection. The filter algorithm position the stopband zeroes to

achieve

the

attenuation

we

desire

at

the

frequency

we

specified.

Specify the frequencies of the zeroes: It is sometimes convenient to

specify the frequencies of the zeroes directly. For example, we may want

to

place

the

filter

zeroes

at

the

image frequency of a receiver. Other possibilities include using the

transfer

function

zeroes to improve the intermediate frequency (IF) rejection or local

oscillator

(LO)

radiation

performance

of

the

same

receiver.

Complicated: In the very worst cases, we may have to prune the filter

response

in

a

complicated way. The problem may place different rejection requirements

on

certain

frequency bands. Advanced computer programs allow us to directly place

the

filter

poles and zeroes to achieve almost any arbitrary response.

McClaning-7200021 book

264

C

H

5.7

ISBN

A

LOW-PASS

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

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FILTER

June

16,

R

2011

5

8:45

264

Filters

COMPARISON

Figure 5-43, Figure 5-46, Figure 5-44, and Figure 5-45 show the magnitude,

pole/zero,

phase,

and

group

delay

plots

of

the

following

filters:

Butterworth

LPF

Chebychev

I

LPF

with

1

dB

of

passband

ripple

Bessel

LPF

Elliptic LPF with 1 dB of passband ripple and 30 dB of stopband

attenuation

All the filters shown in Figure 5-43 have the same f c,3 dB. On this scale, its

difficult

to make out any significant differences in the passband responses of these

filters.

In

the

stopband, we can see that the Butterworth, Chebychev, and Bessel filters

all

have

the

same ultimate roll-off (30 dB/octave). We can also see that although the

elliptic

filter

has

a smaller ultimate roll-off (6 dB/octave), it provides the most attenuation

immediately

above the filters passband. As advertised, the elliptic filter trades

attenuation

at

very

high

frequencies (well above fc,3 dB) for attenuation immediately after fc,3 dB.

Ignoring the elliptic filter for a moment, we can see the Butterworth does

perform

in

a middle-of-the-road fashion. Its not quite as good as the Chebychev but

better

than

the

Bessel.

Figure 5-44 shows the phase response of all four filters. At f c,3 dB/10, the

filters

exhibit

between 15 and 27 of phase shift. The Bessel filter is the smoothest,

followed

by

the

Butterworth and then the 1 dB Chebychev. The most abrupt phase plot is

the

1.0

dB

ripple

elliptic

filter.

The elliptic filters phase response is interesting. The phase response of

the

filter

shows

a sudden 180 jump as the frequency passes through the frequencies of

the

two

zeroes.

This is because the zeroes are very close to the j axis, and they behave

as

dominant

zeroes when the input frequency is close to either of the zero frequencies.

Figure 5-45 shows the passband group delay of our four candidate filters.

The

Bessel

filter has the best group delay response (flatter is better). This filter stays

flat

well

into

the

FIGURE

Comparison

various

filter

5-43

of

low-pass

magnitude

responses.

LPF

fc

,3dB/10

Butterworth

1-dB

Bessel

1-dB

10

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

fc

Magnitude

Comparison

Chebychev

I

Elliptic/30dB

10fc,3dB

,3dB

V

OUTVIN

(dB)

log(Frequency)

McClaning-7200021

book

ISBN

5.7

Low-Pass

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0

fc

,3dB/10

LPF

Angle

10fc,3dB

Butterworth

1-dB

Bessel

1-dB

log(Frequency)

of

978-1-891121-80-7

Filter

Phase

June

VOUTVIN

Chebychev

2011

8:45

265

265

fc,3dB

Comparison

(deg)

Elliptic/30

FIGURE

Comparison

phase

four

16,

Comparison

dB

5-44

of

of

filters.

responses

low-pass

fc

,3dB/10

5

10

15

fc

,3dB

LPF

Group

10fc,3dB

Butterworth

1

Bessel

Group

dB

Delay

Delay

Chebychev

Comparison

(sec)

1

log(Frequency)

dB

Elliptic/30

FIGURE

Comparison

passband

delay

low-pass

dB

5-45

of

group

four

filters.

of

filters stopband. The Butterworth filters group delay is the next flattest,

followed

by

the

1.0 dB Chebychev filter and then the 1.0 dB ripple elliptic filter.

Except for the Bessel filter, the group delay tends to get lumpier as we

approach

the filters cutoff frequency. In addition, the group delay usually peaks

somewhere

in

the

neighborhood

of

the

3

dB

cutoff

frequency.

The 1.0 dB ripple Chebychev filter exhibits group delay ripple. The lowripple

elliptic

filter, the Butterworth filter, and the Bessel filter rise only once to hit their

single

peak

around

f

c,3

dB.

Figure 5-46 shows the pole/zero plots of the four filters on the same scale.

In

both

the

Butterworth and Bessel filters, a single pole never becomes dominant, so

the

magnitude

responses of these filters are smooth and quiet. The poles of both the

Chebychev

and

elliptic filters are closer to the j axis than in the Butterworth or Bessel

case.

Single

poles

do become slightly dominant, and the result is passband ripple.

McClaning-7200021 book

266

C

H

FIGURE

Comparison

pole/zero

constellations

low-pass

2

2

0

Butterworth

2

1

2

0

Chebychev

2

1

2

2

0

Bessel

2

1

2

0

1

2

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

16,

R

2011

5

8:45

266

Filters

5-46

of

of

four

filters.

1

0

db

Elliptical

30

dB

FIGURE

Comparison

passband

magnitude

responses

low-pass

Butterworth

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

Bessel

1

fc

,3dB/10

LPF

V

OUTVIN

10fc,3dB

log(Frequency)

5-47

of

of

dB

four

filters.

Chebychev

dB

Elliptic/30

dB

fc,3dB

Comparison

Magnitude

(dB)

The zeroes in the elliptic filter cause the magnitude response of the filter to

transition

into its stopband very quickly. The price is increased group delay and a decreased

amount

of

attenuation

at

high

frequencies.

Figure 5-47 shows a close-up view of the passband responses of our four filters.

The plot shows clearly that the filters all have the same 3 dB cutof frequency, f c,3

dB.

The Butterworth filter performs in a middle-of-the-road fashion. It stays

reasonably

flat

throughout most of the passband. The Bessel filter exhibits measurable

attenuation

even

at

very

low

frequencies

(below

say

f c,3

dB/5).

Figure 5-48 shows the stopband performance of our four filters from f c,3 dB

to

100

fc,3

dB.

The horizontal scale is logarithmic frequency, whereas the vertical scale is

attenuation

in dB. Almost certainly beyond the ultimate attenuation of any gardenvariety

filter

is

100

dB;

70

to

80

dB

is

a

good

rule

of

thumb.

The Butterworth, Chebychev, and Bessel filters are five-pole, no-zero

filters,

and

they all exhibit an ultimate roll-off of 30 dB/octave. The five-pole, four-zero

elliptic

filter

provides 6 dB/octave of ultimate roll-off. These results are consistent with

equation

(5.14).

McClaning-7200021 book

5.8

Filter

Butterworth

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Input/Output

June

16,

2011

Impedances

8:45

267

267

LPF

100

80

60

40

40

0

fc

,3dB/10

1

Bessel

1

V

OUTVIN

log(Frequency)

Magnitude

10fc,3dB

dB

100fc,3dB

I

Chebychev

dB

Elliptic/30

dB

(dB)

FIGURE

Comparison

stopband

responses

low-pass

5.8

Comparison

5-48

of

magnitude

four

filters.

of

FILTER

INPUT/OUTPUT

IMPEDANCES

topologies.

For

example, Figure 5-49 shows two possible realization of a 0.5 dB ripple

Chebychev

filter

with a 3 dB cutoff frequency of 100 MHz. Both filters are designed for a 50

system

(i.e., RS = RL = 50 ). We assume that the filters are ideal and the filter

components

are

lossless.

Figure 5-50, Figure 5-51, and Figure 5-52 show the magnitude, phase, and

transient

responses of these two filters. The two filter topologies perform identical

functions.

5.8.1

Filter

Element

Impedances

Lets examine the impedances of the filter components above and below

cutoff.

Figure 5-53 shows the series-L filter and the reactance of each element

when the frequency is well into the passband ( f c,3 dB/100 = 1 MHz) and

when

the

frequency

is

well

into the stopband (100 fc,3 dB = 10 GHz). Figure 5-54 shows the element

impedances

of

the

shunt-C

filter.

At 1 MHz, the series elements exhibit low impedances, while the parallel

elements

show high impedances. As the frequency decreases, the series elements

will

short

circuit,

103.6

57.5

143.8

41.5

143.8

nH

pF

FIGURE

practical

of

five-pole

low-pass

McClaning-7200021

nH

pF

103.6

85.7

pF

57.5

214.2

41.5

5-49

the

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

nH

pF

nH

pF

nH

Two

realizations

same

Chebychev

filter.

2011 8:45 268

268

FIGURE

Magnitude

of

Figure

the

Shunt-C/Series-L

Series

107

0

20

40

60

Shunt

Gain

Frequency

107

0

20

40

60

two

filters

(dB)

5-50

response

of

5-49.

C

(dB)

(Hz)

109

Gain

108

5-51

of

of

5-49.

response

two

Filters

Responses

L

109

108

filters

Shunt-C/Series-L

Series

Phase

500

107

400

300

200

100

Shunt

Phase

500

107

Frequency

109

400

300

200

100

Shunt-C/Series-L

Step

Series-L

0

108

Step

Shunt-C

Magnitude

FIGURE

Phase

the

Figure

FIGURE

Transient

of

Figure

Phase

Responses

L

(degrees)

108

109

C

(degrees)

108

(Hz)

the

two

Filter

filters

Step

5-52

response

of

5-49.

Response

Response

4

Response

0

Time

McClaning-7200021

book

5.8

Filter

@10

@1

Z

ZC

ZL

ZL

Z

2

(s)

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

Input/Output

16,

2011

Impedances

MHz

j13000

j9000

j3800

ZL

j0.90

Element

impedances

series-L

and

cutoff

269

269

j0.38

ZL

8:45

GHz

j3800

ZC

j0.38

j9000

4

108

ZL

j1.30

FIGURE

j0.90

ZL

of

filter

above

the

5-53

the

below

filters

frequency.

j2800

ZL

j0.65

@10

@1

j2800

Z

MHz

ZC

GHz

j1800

ZL

j0.65

ZL

ZL

Z

j6500

j6500

j0.28

Z

=

j0.28

Z

=

j0.28

FIGURE

Element

impedances

shunt-C

and

cutoff

5-54

of

filter

above

the

the

below

filters

frequency.

while the shunt elements will open circuit. At low frequencies (well below

fc,3

dB),

the

source and load resistor are connected directly together. We have a

perfect

impedance

match between the source and load, and we will achieve maximum power

transfer.

The series elements become high impedance at 10 GHz (i.e., they open

circuit).

The

shunt elements are low impedances, and they short circuit. At this

frequency,

the

series

elements in our filter stop the signal from propagating because they are

high

impedance.

Any signal that does make it through the high-series impedance enters a

node

connected

to ground through a low-impedance component. This process of highseries

impedance,

low-shunt impedance repeats as the signal continues to move from the

source

to

the

load.

This is the fundamental mechanism of filtering, which occurs in all lossless

filters,

including low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, and band-stop filters. In the

passband,

the

series

elements short circuit, while the shunt elements open circuit. The source

and

load

resistors

both see 50 when they look into the filter. Everything is matched, and,

since

the

filter

is

lossless, we experience maximum power transfer from the source to the

load

resistor.

In a filters stopband, the series elements open circuit, while the shunt

elements

short

circuit. The source and load both see a high impedance when they look

into

the

filter

(due to the first element being a series element). Since the filter is

severely

mismatched

on both the input and output ports, we dont get maximum power transfer.

The

degree

of

mismatch determines the amount of power that passes through the filter,

so

it

determines

the

stopband

rejection

the

filter

provides.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

270

C

H

A

FIGURE

input

the

two

Figure

Series-L/Shunt-C

Input,

0

Frequency

Series-L

Shunt-C

P

T

E

R

5-55

impedances

filters

Input

Output

0.5

(Hz)

8:45

270

Filters

The

of

of

5-49.

Impedance

()

Impedance

2011

5

1.5

2

108

5.8.2

Series

Element

First,

Shunt

Element

First

When we asked the computer for a 100 MHz, 0.5 dB ripple Chebychev lowpass

filter

for a 50 system, the computer gave us the two candidates, shown in

Figure

5-49.

The

first filter has a shunt element closest to the source, so this realization will

present

a

low

impedance in the stopband. The second filter has a series element closest

to

the

source,

so

it will present a high impedance to the source in the stopband.

Figure 5-55 shows the input impedance of the two filters plotted over

frequency.

The

series-L filter shows a high impedance in its stopband, while the shunt-C

filter

presents

a

low impedance. These mismatches reject power from the source and keep

power

from

the

load.

To

sum

up:

A filter performs its filtering action by frequency-selective matching. We

desire maximum power transfer through the filter in its passband, so the

filter

opens

up

and

connects

the load resistor to the source resistor. The filter is well matched on both

its

input

and

output

ports.

In the stopband, a filter presents a severe mismatch to both the source

and

the

load

resistors. The filter ports are no longer matched, so the filter does not

accept

power

from the source and will not efficiently deliver power to the load.

This is a fundamental filtering mechanism. It is present in low-pass, highpass,

bandpass,

and

band-stop

filters.

The input and output impedances of a filter normally show resistive and

reactive components and change with frequency. We express these

impedances

as

voltage

standing

wave ratio (VSWR), return loss, resistance and reactance, or magnitude

and

phase

angle.

The most commonly used filter designs are based on reflective rather

than

absorptive

theory. A filter built of lossless components contains no resistive

components

that

can

dissipate power, so the filter must suppress stopband energy by reflecting

power.

At

the

3 dB passband edge, half of the incident power is reflected; the return loss

has

already

reduced to 3 dB, and the VSWR is 5.8:1. This effect is important when an

out-of-band

signal (like a harmonic) is reflected back into a nonlinear device (such as a

mixer).

McClaning-7200021 book

5.8

Filter

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Input/Output

June

16,

2011

Impedances

8:45

271

271

EXAMPLE

Diplexers

Figure 5-56 is a circuit called a diplexer. Its made up of a low-pass filter in parallel

with

a

high-pass

filter. It directs signals higher than the cutoff frequency to one port while directing

signals

lower

than

the

cutoff

frequency

to

the

other

port.

R

s

Antenna

R

L

,HPF

Low

High

Amplifier

low-pass

Pass

Pass

FIGURE

5-56

and

diplexer

a

Filter

Filter

consisting

high-pass

of

both

a

filter.

Both the high-pass and low-pass filters have the same cutoff frequency, f C. Below

fC,

the

high-pass filter presents a high impedance to the source, and the low-pass filter is

effectively

the

only

device in the circuit. All the energy below f C is directed to the amplifier.

The low-pass filter becomes a high impedance above f C so that section of the

circuit

is

effectively

removed. The signals above fC pass through the high-pass filter and find

themselves

dissipated

in

RL,HPF.

Due to the high-pass/low-pass arrangement of the filters, the antenna sees a

matched

load

across

its

entire

frequency

range.

EXAMPLE

Elliptic

Filter

Figure

5-57

shows

the

circuit

diagram

for

an

elliptic

filter:

a.

Is

this

a

high-pass

filter

or

a

low-pass

filter?

b. In the filters stopband, does this filter present a high- or low-impedance load to

the

source

resistor

RS?

c. In the filters stopband, does the load resistor see a high or low impedance

when

it

looks

into

the

filter?

R

L

R

s

42.3

17.1

31.2

48

44.1

140

106

pF

pF

pF

pF

pF

nH

nH

90.3

diagram.

McClaning-7200021 book

272

C

H

nH

FIGURE

ISBN

A

5-57

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

Elliptic

June

16,

R

filter

2011

5

circuit

8:45

272

Filters

Solution

Remembering that the impedance of a capacitor approaches zero at high

frequencies

and

the

impedance of an inductor approaches infinity at high frequencies:

a. The three shunt capacitors and the series inductor next to R L tell us that this is

a

low-pass

filter.

b. The shunt capacitor on the filters source end tells us the filter will present a

low

impedance

to

the

source

in

the

stopband.

c. The series inductor on the filters load end tells us the filter will present a high

impedance

to

the

load

in

the

stopband.

EXAMPLE

Elliptic

Figure

5-58

shows

a.

Is

this

a

b. In the filters stopband,

source

c. In the filters stopband,

load

Filter

II

the

circuit

diagram

for

an

elliptic

filter:

low-pass

filter

or

a

high-pass

filter?

does this filter present a high or low impedance to the

resistor

RS ?

does this filter present a high or low impedance to the

resistor

R L?

R

L

R

s

73.6

nH

34.3

pF

55.3

49.6

32.7

124

diagram.

pF

nH

57.4

nH

nH

pF

50.0

nH

FIGURE

5-58

Elliptic

filter

circuit

Solution

Remembering that the impedance of a capacitor approaches zero at high

frequencies

and

the

impedance of an inductor approaches infinity at high frequencies:

a. The three shunt inductors and the series capacitor next to R L indicate that this

is

a

high-pass

filter.

b. Since the stopband of a high-pass filter is at low frequencies, we have to

examine

the

behavior

of

the

filter for low frequencies. The element closest to the source is a shunt inductor, so

this

filter

looks

like

a

low

impedance

in

the

stopband.

c. At the load end of the first, the first element is a series capacitor. At low

frequencies,

a

capacitor

looks like a high impedance, so the filter presents a high impedance to the load in

the

stopband.

EXAMPLE

Band-Pass

Filter

Figure 5-59 shows a Butterworth band-pass filter. A band-pass filter has two

stopbands:

one

below

the

center frequency of the filter; and one above the center frequency of the filter:

a. Does the filter present a high or low impedance to the outside world in the

filters

lower

stopband?

b. Does the filter present a high or low impedance to the outside world in the

filters

upper

stopband?

McClaning-7200021 book

5.9

Transient

114.3

pF

50

50

43.5

50

77.7

114.3

FIGURE

band-pass

pF

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

Response

77.7

pF

June

16,

of

3.6

pF

5-59

filter

2011

Filters

8:45

273

273

3.6

nH

nH

pF

nH

pF

pF

Butterworth

diagram.

circuit

Solution

a. Since the input and output ports are both connected to series capacitors, the

filter

presents

a

high

impedance

in

its

lower

stopband.

b. This filter shows a low impedance to the outside world in its upper stopband

thanks

to

the

shunt

capacitors

on

its

input

and

output

ports.

No matter how complex the filter or how its realized (e.g., transmission line

inductors

and

cavity

resonators), we can often deduce the out-of-band characteristics by examining

the

elements

closest

to

the

source

and

load.

5.9

TRANSIENT

RESPONSE

OF

FILTERS

conditions.

Steady-state

implies that nothing in the filter, the load, or the source has changed for a

long

time

and

that all transients have had a chance to decay to insignificant levels.

Figure 5-60 shows two transient situations. The left side of the figure

shows

that

the

signal source, VS, has been turned off for a long time. The transients in the

filter

have

settled out. Suddenly, we turn the signal source on and look at the voltage

across

RL .

The right side of Figure 5-60 shows a more typical situation. A signal has

been

processed by the filter for a long time. The old signals frequency is f 1, its

amplitude

is

A1, and its phase is 1. We suddenly change to a new input signal. The

frequency

of

the

new input signal is f2, the new amplitude is A2, and the new phase is 2.

R

s

DUT

R

Vs

Vs

0

0

V

time

V

)

(sec

RL

Signal#1

@f1,

Signal#2

@f2,

Vs

time

FIGURE

types

events

filters.

McClaning-7200021 book

274

C

H

A1,

A2,

(sec

5-60

Two

transient

involving

of

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

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June

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2011

5

8:45

274

Filters

In both cases, we want to know how the filter reacts to signal changes:

What does the output waveform look like? Does it rise slowly, without

ringing,

or

does

it

ring

for

a

long

time?

How fast can we expect the filter to react to input changes? How long

before

the

output

is

a

reasonable

representation

of

the

filters

input?

What transient responses can we expect out of the different filter types

(e.g., Butterworth, Chebychev)? How do they differ? Whats the best filter

to

use

in

a

particular

transient

situation?

5.9.1

Transient

Response

of

Low-Pass

Filters

Figure 5-61 shows the output characteristics of our four low-pass filters: a

Butterworth;

a

1.0 dB ripple Chebychev I; a 0.1 dB ripple elliptic filter with 55 dB of

stopband

attenuation;

and a Bessel filter. All filters have a 100 MHz 3 dB cutoff frequency.

The Bessel filter is the quickest to rise. It approaches its final value

quickly,

with

very little ringing. However, the Bessel filter has relatively poor magnitude

responseit

doesnt filter very well. The Bessel filter is a filter chosen for its timeR

domain

properties.

The Butterworth reaches its final value after the Bessel, followed closely

by

the

0.1

dB passband ripple elliptic filter. The 1.0 dB ripple Chebychev is last.

These

three

filters

exhibit

significant

ringing.

5.9.1.1

Rules

of

Thumb

All other filter characteristics being equal, the more ripple a filter

exhibits

in

its

passband,

the longer the filter will take to respond to a change in its input. In Figure

5-61,

the

Bessel settles out first, followed by the Butterworth (with no passband

ripple).

Then

the 0.5 dB ripple elliptic filter settles followed by the 1.0 dB ripple

Chebychev.

The sharper the transition band, the longer a filter will take to settle out

after

its

input

changes.

A filter built with dominant poles and zeroes will ring longer than one

containing

fewer

dominant

poles

and

zeros.

FIGURE

Comparison

transient

of

filters.

100

Time

Step

0.2

0

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

0

4

Butterworth

1dB

0.1dB

Bessel

McClaning-7200021

5.10

5-61

the

responses

low-pass

of

four

MHz

LPF

Step

Response

(s)

Response

3

108

Chebychev

dB

Elliptic/55

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

275

Band-Pass

Filters

275

Williams (1981), Zverev (1967), and Blinchikoff and Zverev (1976) provide

extensive

graphs describing the transient responses of various filters. These books

are

an

excellent

source of information on filtering of all types and are highly recommended.

5.10

BAND-PASS

FILTERS

Band-pass filters are the most common type of filter used in receivers. As

such,

they

require

special

attention.

5.10.1

Band-Pass

Filter

Terminology

Figure 5-62 and Figure 5-63 illustrate various frequency and bandwidth

definitions

associated

with

band-pass

filters.

We

define

the

following

terms:

ILdB: Insertion loss in dB. This is the minimum amount of attenuation

present

in

the

pass band. The minimum value for IL dB usually lies in the neighborhood of

the

filters

center

frequency.

fU,3 dB, fL,3 dB: Upper and lower 3 dB passband frequencies of the filter.

They

are

the

frequencies where the filter provides 3 dB of attenuation below the

insertion

loss

of

the

filter.

IL

dB

3

B

dB

3dB

XdB

Attn

XdB

fc

or

fL,XdB

fc,geo

fc,arith

fU,XdB

fU,3dB

fL,3dB

FIGURE

Frequency

bandwidth

definitions

generic

filter.

5-62

and

for

a

band-pass

3

B

dB

3dB

B

ER

6dB

6

fc

or

IL

dB

fc,geo

fL,ER

dB

FIGURE

More

bandwidth

definitions

generic

filter.

McClaning-7200021 book

276

C

H

fc,arith

fU,ER

5-63

and

frequency

for

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

a

band-pass

June

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2011

5

8:45

276

Filters

fU,ER, fL,ER: Upper and lower equal-ripple passband frequencies of a

Chebychev

band-pass filter. They are equivalent to the equal-ripple cutoff frequency of

a Chebychev low-pass filter. Note that the upper and lower equal-ripple

frequencies

are

defined

relative

to

the

filters

insertion

loss.

5.10.1.1

Band-Pass

Filter

Center

Frequencies

fc, fc,geo: Filters geometric center frequency. When we encounter f c in an

equation

regarding filters, the quantity will be the geometric center frequency of

the

filterwe

R

will occasionally label it fc,geo when its necessary. The geometric center

frequency

of

a

band-pass filter is not equal to the filters arithmetic center frequency.

The geometric center frequency of a band-pass filter follows the geometric

relationship

fU

fc,

geo

=

fc,

geo

fL

(5.29)

which

simplifies

to

fc

=

fc,geo

=

fU

fL

(5.30)

The upper and lower frequencies f U and fL specified in equations (5.29) and

(5.30)

could

be either the 3 dB frequencies or the equal-ripple frequencies.

fc,

arith: Filters arithmetic center frequency. Well always label the arithmetic

center

frequency as fc,arith, never just fc. The arithmetic center frequency is not a

very

useful

quantity, and engineers often use the arithmetic center frequency when

they

should

use

the geometric center frequency. Most calculations require the geometric

center

frequency.

The

arithmetic

center

frequency

is

fc,

arith

=

fU

+

fL

2

(5.31)

The fU and fL values in equation (5.31) can be either the 3 dB values or the

equal

ripple

values.

Note

that

fc,

arith

>

fc,geo

(5.32)

5.10.1.2

Band-Pass

Filter

Bandwidths

B3dB: This is the 3 dB bandwidth of the filter. We find the two frequencies

where

the

filters

attenuation is 3 dB below the filters minimum insertion loss. These two

frequencies

are

fL,3

dB

and

fU,3

dB,

and

the

3

dB

bandwidth

is

B3dB

=

fU,3

dB

fL,3

dB

(5.33)

B6dB: This is the 6 dB bandwidth of the filter. We find the two frequencies

where

the

filters

attenuation is 6 dB below the filters minimum insertion loss. The 6 dB

bandwidth

is

B6dB

=

fU,6dB

fL,6dB

(5.34)

BE R: This is the equal-ripple bandwidth of a Chebychev filter. The equalripple

bandwidth

of

the

filter

is

BE

R

=

fU,ER

fL,ER

(5.35)

where fL,ER and fU,ER are the equal-ripple cutoff frequencies.

McClaning-7200021

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

277

Band-Pass

Filters

277

Figure 5-63 shows the most general case. At any particular bandwidth

defined

by

points of equal attenuation (x dB in the case of Figure 5-63), we can write

fU,XdB

fc,

5.10

geo

=

fc,

geo

fL,XdB

or

fc

We

BXdB

(5.36)

=

fc,geo

=

=

can

fU,XdB

fU,XdB

also

fL,XdB

fL,XdB

(5.37)

write

(5.38)

EXAMPLE

Band-Pass

Filters

bandwidth

and

a

2

dB

insertion

loss,

find:

a.

fL,3

dB

and

fU,3

dB

b.

f

c,arith

Solution

See

Figure

5-64.

3

B

dB

3dB

75

fc

510

IL

MHz

MHz

fc,arith

2

fU,3dB

dB

fL,3dB

FIGURE

5-64

Band-pass

filter

example.

a. Substituting fc = 510 MHz and B3dB = 75 MHz into equations (5.30) and (5.31)

produces

f

2

L,3

dB

+

75

fL,3

dB

510

=

0

fL,3

dB

=

473.9

MHz

(5.39)

Substituting fL,3 dB = 473.9 MHz into equation (5.33) produces f U,3 dB = 548.9 MHz.

Using

equation

(5.30)

as

a

sanity

check

reveals

(473.9)

(548.9)

=

510

MHz

(5.40)

b.

Using

equation

(5.31),

we

know

fc,

arith

=

fL

,3

dB

+

fU,3

dB

2

=

(473.9

+

548.9)

2

=

511

MHz

(5.41)

McClaning-7200021 book

278

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A

978-1-891121-80-7

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2011

5

8:45

278

Filters

EXAMPLE

Band-Pass

Filters

The following band-pass filters all have a geometric center frequency of 700 MHz

but

different

3

dB

bandwidths.

Find

the

difference

between

f

c,geo

and

fc,arith

for

the

following

band-pass

filters:

a. fL,3 dB = 682.7 MHz, fU,3 dB = 717.7 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 5% of its

center

frequency)

b. fL,3 dB = 665.9 MHz, fU,3 dB = 735.9 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 10% of its

center

frequency)

c. fL,3 dB = 633.5 MHz, fU,3 dB = 773.5 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 20% of its

center

frequency)

d. fL,3 dB = 432.6 MHz, fU,3 dB = 1133 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 100% of its

center

frequency)

Solution

Using

equation

(5.31),

we

can

show

a.

f

c,arith = 700.2 MHz. The difference between f c and fc,arith is 0.2 MHz = 0.029%.

b.

f

c,arith = 700.9 MHz. The difference between f c and fc,arith is 0.9 MHz = 0.13%.

c.

f

c,arith = 703.5 MHz. The difference between f c and fc,arith is 3.5 MHz = 0.50%.

d.

f

c,arith = 782.8 MHz. The difference between f c and fc,arith is 82.8 MHz = 11.8%.

Conclusions

For narrow bandwidth band-pass filters (i.e., those filters whose bandwidths are

less

than

20%

of

the

filters center frequency), we can say that fc,geo = fc,arith with less than 0.5% error.

For filters with 100% bandwidth or less, fc,geo = fc,arith with less than 12% error.

5.10.1.3

Shape

Factor

The shape factor of a band-pass filter is a measure of how fast the filter

transitions

from

its

passband

to

its

stopband.

Figure 5-65 shows the magnitude response of a band-pass filter. We

measure or calculate the bandwidth of the filter at two attenuation values:

Attn1,dB

and

Attn2,dB

(taking

the filters insertion loss into account). The shape factor is

Attn1,dB

Attn2,dB

Shape

Factor

=

B

B2

1

(5.42)

FIGURE

Band-pass

attenuation

illustrating

bandwidths

shape

calculation.

5-65

filter

plot

for

factor

3

Frequency

|H(j)|

(dB)

Attn

dB

dB

IL

dB

3dB

B

x

McClaning-7200021

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

279

Band-Pass

Filters

279

For example, a typical shape factor specification is as follows:

The

60

dB/3

dB

shape

factor

of

the

filter

is

3.3.

The attenuation values are an integral part of the shape factor

specification. Simply specifying the shape factor as 4.4 without giving the

attenuation

values

is

meaningless.

For

all

realizable

filters

Shape

Factor

>

1

(5.43)

Two common shape factors are the 60 dB/3 dB shape factor and the 60

dB/6

dB

shape

factor.

5.10

EXAMPLE

Shape

Factor

of

Band-Pass

Filter

this

filter

to

pass

the

88 to 108 MHz commercial FM broadcast band. Its a seven-pole, 0.5 dB ripple

filter

with

an

equal-ripple bandwidth of 20 MHz. The model we used includes the effects of

component

Q

(or

internal

filter

losses).

Shape

Frequency

Gain

60

Filter

40

6

80

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

Factor

90

100

120

Band-pass

60

60

40

dB/3

dB/6

dB/6

130

filter

example.

factor

dB

dB

dB

shape

shape

shape

factor

factor

factor

6

dB

bandwidth

40 dB bandwidth is 31.6 MHz, and the 60 dB bandwidth is

MHz.

McClaning-7200021 book

280

C

H

dB

1.6

110

5-66

Find

a.

the

b.

the

c.

the

Solution

Measuring from Figure

the

is about 21.5 MHz, the

43.6

dB

Loss:

dB

dB

FIGURE

shape

a.

60

3

b.

60

6

c.

40

dB

Insertion

Example

(MHz)

(dB)

Bandwidth

dB

Bandwidth

Bandwidth

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

60

dB/3

dB

Shape

60

Factor

dB/6

Shape

40

Factor

dB/6

16,

shape

2011

5

factor

43

20..6

4

shape

2.1

factor

43

21..6

5

shape

2.0

factor

dB

dB

June

8:45

280

Filters

is

dB

(5.44)

is

dB

(5.45)

is

dB

6

dB

Shape

Factor

=

31

21..6

5

=

1.5

(5.46)

We use shape factor to describe filters that weve actually built. As such, shape

factor

considers

real-world effects such as insertion loss and component tolerance.

5.11

NOISE

BANDWIDTH

noise

power

a

filter will pass based on its passband shape. A radio receivers ultimate

sensitivity

or

noise

floor is a strong function of the noise bandwidth of the receivers final IF

filter.

Although

low-pass, high-pass, and band-stop filters also possess noise bandwidths,

the

concept

is

most

useful

when

we

discuss

band-pass

filters.

The major assumption well make in this section is that we are dealing

with

spectrally

flat

noise.

Figure 5-67 shows a signal source and its associated source resistor. The

two components generate a signal and noise, respectively. Figure 5-67 also

shows

the

spectra

present

at the input and output of the filter. The filter allows the signal and some

amount

of

noise

power to pass to the load resistor. By design, we build the band-pass filter

wide

enough

to pass the entire signal. The question we then must ask is, How much

noise

power

passes through the filter? Since the noise power will compete with the

signal

power

in

the demodulator, we would like to minimize the filtered noise.

Weve assumed the noise spectrum is flat with frequency, so the amount

of

noise

present at the load resistor will be identical to the shape of the filter.

Figure

5-68

shows

the spectral shape of the noise dissipated in R L for various types of bandpass

filters.

FIGURE

effects

band-pass

signal

5-67

of

filter

and

The

a

on

noise.

Vs

R

s

@Ts

V

in

+

Vout

+

R

L

BPF

Freq

V

in

Signal

Noise

fc

Freq

V

out

Signal

Filtered

fc

Noise

McClaning-7200021

5.11

book

ISBN

Noise

978-1-891121-80-7

June

Bandwidth

16,

2011

8:45

281

281

P

noise,RL

Butterworth

BPF

Chebychev

BPF

Elliptic

BPF

Frequency

P

noise,RL

P

noise,RL

FIGURE

noise

present

resistor

copy

filters

shape.

filters

different

noise

5-68

at

is

of

The

spectrum

load

direct

final

passband

Different

let

of

through.

the

a

the

will

amounts

R

RL

Vs

Vs

1

pk

IL

Frequency

|S21|

1

IL

Ideal

B

|H(j)|

|S21|

|H(j)|

Filter

Real

Frequency

R

Rs

H

Filter

@Ts

@Ts

pk

FIGURE

Illustration

noise

filter.

let

amount

power

load

of

bandwidth

The

exactly

of

two

the

of

through

to

5-69

the

a

filters

same

noise

the

resistor.

For the sake of analysis, we want to replace the arbitrary band-pass filters

in

Figure

568 with a filter that has the same insertion loss but that exhibits a

perfectly

rectangular

passband (see Figure 5-69). If this rectangular filter has the same noise

bandwidth,

Bn,

as

the first filter, then the load resistor will dissipate the same amount of

noise

energy.

The noise bandwidth of any arbitrary filter equals the bandwidth of an

ideal

rectangular

band-pass filter having the same insertion loss. The ideal rectangular filter

will

allow

the

same amount of noise power to pass as the original filter allowed. The two

load

resistors

of Figure 5-69 will dissipate the same amount of noise power.

The problem we face is: Given an arbitrary filter shape, find the noise

bandwidth

Bn.

5.11.1

Noise

Bandwidth

Calculation

Given a filter with an arbitrary passband shape, wed like to find the filters

noise

bandwidth

Bn

. We present both filters of Figure 5-69 with noise whose one-sided power

spectral

density is . For the arbitrarily shaped filter, the noise presented to the

load

resistor

is

N

arbitrary

=

|H

=

j)|

j)|

|H

(5.47)

McClaning-7200021 book

282

C

H

(

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

16,

2011

5

8:45

282

Filters

For the rectangular filter, the quantity |H( j)| is a perfect rectangle, and

the

noise

power

in

the

load

resistor

is

N

rectangular

=

fc+Bn/2

fcBn/2

H

pk

=

(5.48)

Equating

(5.47)

Bn

rad

sec

=

B(n

Hz)

H

f

Bn

Hpk

with

equation

H1

pk

(5.48)

0

|H(

produces

j)|

1

pk

|H(

j)|

f

(5.49)

Equation (5.49) is valid if the filters transfer function is presented to you

as

a

power

ratio

(i.e., |S21|2 or 20log|S21|). Most network analyzers present the data to you

in

this

format.

If your data represent a voltage ratio or a voltage transfer function (i.e., |

S21|),

then

the

noise

bandwidth

is

Bn

rad

Bn

(Hz)

H

sec

H1

pk

|H(

j)|2

pk

|H(

j)|2

f

(5.50)

Often, the hardest part of evaluating the integral is deciding which type of

data

you

have

and

then

verifying

you

have

the

correct

units.

EXAMPLE

Noise

Bandwidth

Calculation

Figure 5-70 shows the linear voltage transfer function of a 10.7 MHz IF band-pass

filter

with

a

3

dB

bandwidth of around 350 kHz. Find the noise bandwidth by graphical integration.

10.7

Amplitude

Frequency

10.1

MHz

10.3

IF

10.5

FIGURE

5-70

filter.

Find

the

filter

using

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

5.11

Noise

10.7

Filter

10.9

(MHz)

11.3

11.1

10.7

MHz

crystal

bandwidth

of

this

graphical

integration.

978-1-891121-80-7 June 16, 2011 8:45 283

noise

Bandwidth

283

Solution

Since we have a voltage transfer function plot, we use equation (5.50). Well

perform

the

integration

by

finding the height of each 50 kHz column and squaring the height. Then well

multiply

the

height2

by

the

width (in hertz) of each column. Finally, well add up all these numbers to produce

the

noise

bandwidth.

Figure

5-71

shows

some

of

the

definitions

well

use.

a

b

H

avg

W

Hz

FIGURE

in

5-71

Definitions

this

We

Hav

for

graphical

integration

problem.

can

write

=

b

a

2

and

Table

TABLE

a

5-1

WH

shows

5-1

the

tabulation

Noise

=

of

the

50

noise

bandwidth

b

kHz

bandwidth of

calculation

the

(5.51)

filter.

example

H

H2

0.0033

0.0008

0.0023

0.0062

0.0107

0.0155

0.0176

0.0022

0.1357

0.9716

0.9779

0.9958

0.9716

0.9967

0.9770

0.9716

0.1472

0.0009

0.0173

0.0162

0.0119

0.0076

0.0038

0.0007

avg

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Sum

The

noise

bandwidth

McClaning-7200021 book

284

C

H

FIGURE

Noise

various

filters.

Noise

Bandwidth

ButterworthIntegrated

ButterworthEquation

0.1

0.5

Bessel

Noise

2

0.9

0.95

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

3

Number

of

5

6

7

0.0021

0.0016

0.0043

0.0085

0.0131

0.0166

0.0099

0.069

0.5537

0.9748

0.9869

0.9837

0.9842

0.9869

0.9743

0.5594

0.0741

0.0091

0.0168

0.0141

0.0098

0.0057

0.0023

0.0013

avg

0.0008

0.0023

0.0062

0.0107

0.0155

0.0176

0.0022

0.1357

0.9716

0.9779

0.9958

0.9716

0.9967

0.9770

0.9716

0.1472

0.0009

0.0173

0.0162

0.0119

0.0076

0.0038

0.0007

0.0018

ISBN

A

of

this

filter

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

is

June

about

16,

WHz

0.2205

0.128

0.9245

3.6125

8.5805

13.778

4.9005

238.05

15329.1845

47511.752

48698.5805

48383.2845

48432.482

48698.5805

47463.0245

15646.418

274.5405

4.1405

14.112

9.9405

4.802

1.6245

0.2645

0.0845

320743.01

320

2011

5

Bandpass

Chebychev

Chebychev

Bandwidth3-dB

284

Filters

Filters

dB

dB

Poles

kHz.

5-72

of

band-pass

bandwidth

of

8:45

in

9

Bandwidth

Low-Pass

10

11

4

Prototype

12

5.11.2

Noise

Bandwidth

of

Various

Band-Pass

Filters

Figure 5-72 shows the noise bandwidth of various band-pass filters.

We

can

derive

a

rule

of

thumb

from

this

chart:

We often approximate the noise bandwidth of any arbitrary band-pass

filter

by

the

filters 3 dB bandwidth. In truth, the noise bandwidth is usually somewhere

between

the

filters

3

dB

and

6

dB

points.

5.12

BUTTERWORTH

FILTERS

IN

DETAIL

Butterworth filters are simple and common filters. Its worth taking the

time

to

describe

their

characteristics

in

detail

for

the

following

reasons:

The Butterworth equations are straightforward and intuitive. This is a

great

benefit

when things arent working quite right and you want to know what to do to

make

them better. We can quickly answer questions like, How many more poles

do

I

need? or Whats the attenuation at this frequency? Simple and intuitive

equations

are a great help when it comes to telling you what you need to do to make

things

better.

Although the numbers we get will not be exactly accurate, they will

usually

be

accurate

enough. If you need more accuracy, you can always resort to computer

simulation.

Without going to the trouble of building your filter (or simulating it on a

computer),

its nearly impossible to judge what affect realization factors (e.g.,

component

losses

or realization approximations) will have on the filter. Even if you used

exact

equations,

they

probably

wouldnt

accurately

reflect

reality.

Filter synthesis algorithms may tell the designer hell need unrealizable

components.

In response to this problem, a wise filter designer will change the filter

topology

with

various circuit transforms to produce a more realizable design. When you

do

this,

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

5.12

Butterworth

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

285

Filters

in

Detail

285

however, you lose the mathematical purity of the filter. Although the

passband

hasnt

changed much in appearance, the stopband can change dramatically.

For example, the transformed filter might have better rejection at low

frequencies

than the original design but poorer rejection at higher frequencies.

Since the filters performance has changed, and since there really isnt any

convenient or precise way to mathematically describe the new filter it

makes

sense

to

use

the

Butterworth

equations.

If you really need exact numbers, model the filter on a computer, or,

better

yet,

build

the

filter

and

measure

the

performance.

5.12.1

Butterworth

Low-Pass

Filters

5.12.1.1

Pole

Positions

The poles of a Butterworth filter lie on a circle centered about the origin.

This pole configuration causes no one pole to be dominant, so the

magnitude

response

of

a

Butterworth

filter

is

maximally

flat

or

monotonic.

The positions of the poles for a Butterworth low-pass filter with a 3 dB

cutoff

frequency

of

fC

are

where

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

k

=

1,

2,

.

.

.

,

N

The circle containing the Butterworth poles intersects the j axis at the

radian

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

c,3

dB

=

2

fc,3

dB.

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

Pole

Positions

Find the pole positions for a five-pole Butterworth low-pass filter with a 50 MHz 3

dB

cutoff

frequency.

Solution

Using fc,3 dB = 50 MHz, N = 5, and k = 1 . . . 5, equation (5.52) produces

p1

=

97.08

106

+

j298.8

106

p2

=

254.2

106

+

j184.7

106

p3

=

314.2

106

+

j0.000

p4

=

254.2

106

j184.7

106

p5

=

97.08

106

j298.8

106

McClaning-7200021 book

286

C

H

4

4

3

2

1

4

2

2fc

2fc

2fc

0

Poles

108

108

2

Real

Imag

ISBN

A

of

FIGURE

5-73

LPF.

The

circle

filters

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

The

pole/zero

intersects

the

radian

16,

2011

5

8:45

286

Filters

50

MHz

plot

of

xand

cutoff

a

y-axes

LPF

50

MHz

at

the

frequency.

Figure 5-73 shows a plot of these poles. Note that the circle containing the filter

poles

intersects

the j axis at c,3 dB = 314.2 106 radian/second = 2(50 106) hertz.

5.12.1.2

Magnitude

Response

Figure 5-74 shows the magnitude response of a Butterworth filter. The

response

proceeds

without ripples, and the attenuation increases steadily as the operating

frequency

increases

beyond

the

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

f c,3

dB.

The attenuation for a lossless low-pass Butterworth filter is

AttndB

=

10

log

1

+

fc,f3

dB

x

2N

(5.53)

where

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

fc,

3

dB

=

the

filters

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

fx

=

the

frequency

of

interest

FIGURE

5-74

The

magnitude

characteristics

Butterworth

low-pass

of

a

filter.

3

fc

dB

,3dB

Maximally

monotonic

log

|H(j)|

(dB)

flat,

passband

(Frequency)

Asymptotic

McClaning-7200021

book

ISBN

5.12

Butterworth

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

287

Filters

in

Detail

287

Equation (5.53) describes the attenuation characteristic for a lossless

Butterworth

low-pass

filter. The lossless approximation is usually good enough for the real world

when

were

working with low-pass filters. However, we usually have to consider

insertion

loss

when

were

dealing

with

band-pass

filters.

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

LPF

Attenuation

MHz.

Find

the

attenuation

at

650

MHz.

Solution

We

know

N

=

the

number

of

filter

poles

=

6

fc,

3

dB

=

the

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

=

120

MHz

f

=

the

frequency

of

interest

=

650

MHz

Substituting

these

values

into

equation

(5.53),

we

find

AttndB = 10 log1 +

fc,f3 dB x 2N = 10 log 1 + 650 1202(6)

=

88

dB

(5.54)

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

LPF

Attenuation

Weve found a Butterworth low-pass filter in the lab. Weve measured f c,3 dB to be

6.6

MHz.

Weve

also measured an attenuation of 30 dB at about 20.9 MHz. How many poles are in

the

filter?

Solution

We know that the filters attenuation at 20.9 MHz is 30 dB, so

fc,

3

dB

=

the

filters

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

=

6.6

MHz

fx

=

the

evaluation

frequency

=

20.9

MHz

AttndB

=

30

dB

at

20.9

MHz

Substituting these values into equation (5.53) and solving for N, we find

AttndB

=

10

log

1

+

fc,f3

dB

x

2N

30

dB

=

10

log

1

+

20

6..6

92N

999

=

(3.167)2N

N

=

3

Poles

(5.55)

McClaning-7200021 book

288

C

H

FIGURE

magnitude

characteristics

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

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5-75

of

June

16,

2011

5

8:45

288

Filters

The

a

Butterworth

band-pass

emphasis

bandwidths

various

filter

with

on

at

attenuations.

Butterworth

BPF

Frequency

IL

dB

3

B

dB

XdB

|H(j)|

(dB)

B

dB

3dB

5.12.2

Butterworth

Band-Pass

Filters

5.12.2.1

Magnitude

Response

As defined in Figure 5-75, the absolute attenuation for a lossy Butterworth

band-pass

filter

is

AttnAbs,dB = 10 log 1 +

BB 3dB x 2N + ILdB (5.56)

where

AttnAbs,dB = the absolute amount of attenuation the filter provides at B x

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

B3dB

=

the

3

dB

bandwidth

of

the

filter

Bx

=

the

bandwidth

of

interest

ILdB = the insertion loss of the filter in dB. The insertion loss is the

minimum

amount

of

signal

loss

the

filter

will

provide.

Often, though, were interested in the relative attenuation. The relative

attenuation

is

the difference between the absolute attenuation and the insertion loss or

AttnRel,dB

=

AttnAbs,dB

ILdB

AttnRel,dB

=

10

log

1

+

BB

3dB

x

2N

(5.57)

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

BPF

Attenuation

Given a seven-pole band-pass filter with a center frequency of 1.2 GHz, a 3 dB

bandwidth

of

340

MHz, and an insertion loss of 3.4 dB, find the absolute and relative attenuation at

a

bandwidth

of

a.

500

MHz

b.

780

MHz

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

5.12

Butterworth

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

289

Filters

in

Detail

289

Solution

Using equations (5.56) and (5.57) with N = 7, B3dB = 340 MHz, ILdB = 3.4 dB, and

a.

BX

=

500

MHz.

The

absolute

attenuation

is

AttnRel,dB

=

10

log1

+

500

3402(7)

+

3.4

=

26.9

dB

(5.58)

Well

use

equation

(5.57)

to

find

the

relative

attenuation:

AttnRel,dB

=

26.9

3.4

=

23.5

dB

(5.59)

b.

BX

=

780

MHz.

The

absolute

attenuation

is

AttnAbs,dB

=

10

log1

+

780

3402(7)

+

3.4

=

53.9

dB

(5.60)

Well

use

AttnRel,dB

=

(5.61)

EXAMPLE

Shape

equation

=

Factor

Given a six-pole

a.

Find

b.

Find

Solution

Since this is a

attenuation.

Substituting N =

equation

and

solving

AttnRel,dB

=

6

dB

=

AttnRel,dB

=

40

dB

=

AttnRel,dB

=

60

dB

=

(5.62)

(5.57)

of

to

find

53.9

50.5

the

Butterworth

relative

attenuation:

3.4

dB

Band-Pass

filter

the

60

dB/6

dB

shape

factor

the

40

dB/6

dB

shape

factor

relative measurement, well use the equation for relative

6, B3dB = 275 MHz, and AttndB = 6 dB, 40 dB and 60 dB into

(5.57)

for

B6dB,

B40dB

and

B60dB

produces

10

log1

+

BB

3dB

x

2N

10

log1

+

B

275

6dB

2(6)

B6dB

=

301

MHz

10

log

1

+

BB

3dB

x

2N

10

log

1

+

B

275

40dB

2(6)

B6dB

=

592

MHz

10

log

1

+

BB

3dB

x

2N

10

log

1

+

B

275

60dB

2(6)

B6dB

=

870

MHz

McClaning-7200021 book

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a.

The

60

dB/6

dB

shape

factor

is

B60dB

B6dB

=

870

301

=

2.89

(5.63)

b.

The

40

dB/6

dB

shape

factor

is

B40dB

B6dB

=

592

301

=

1.97

(5.64)

Equations (5.56) and (5.57) are accurate but only marginally useful. Normally, we

know

the

filters

geometric center frequency ( fc or fc,geo) and the filters 3 dB bandwidth B 3dB, and

we

would

like

to

calculate the filters attenuation at some frequency f X. Combining equations

(5.38),

(5.56)

and

(5.57),

we can show that the absolute attenuation of a Butterworth band-pass filter at

any

frequency

f

X

is

AttnAbs,dB

=

10

log

1

+

fx

f

2

c,geo

fx

B3dB

2N

+

The

AttnRel,dB

fx

f

ILdB

relative

(5.65)

is

log

attenuation

10

c,geo

fx

B3dB

2N

(5.66)

where

AttnAbs,dB = the absolute amount of attenuation the filter provides at f x

AttnRel,dB = the relative amount of attenuation the filter provides at f x

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

B3dB

=

the

3

dB

bandwidth

of

the

filter

fc,

geo

=

the

band-pass

filters

center

frequency

fx

=

the

frequency

of

interest

ILdB = the insertion loss of the filter in dB. The insertion loss is the minimum

amount

of

signal

loss

the

filter

will

provide.

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

Filter

Equations

Derive

equation

(5.65).

Solution

Looking at equations (5.56) and (5.65), we need to express Bx in terms of fc,geo,

fL,Xd

B,and

fU,XdB

(see

Figure

5-76).

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

5.12

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978-1-891121-80-7

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in

June

16,

2011

Detail

8:45

291

291

B

X

fL

fc,geo

,X-dB

|H(j)|

(dB)

Frequency

FIGURE

5-76

Bandwidth

fU,X-dB

and

frequencies

Butterworth

in

a

filter.

Note that two frequencies, fU,XdB and fL,XdB, apply to the bandwidth B x and

Bx

=

fU,XdB

fL,XdB

(5.67)

Lets examine the upper frequency, f U,XdB. Using equation (5.30) and the previous

equation,

we

find

fL,XdB

=

f

2

c,geo

fU,XdB

and

Bx

=

f

(5.68)

fU,XdB

c,geo

fU,XdB

Combining

equation

(5.69)

with

equation

(5.56)

(5.69)

produces

AttnAbs,dB

fU,XdB

f

10

log

+

c,geo

fU,XdB

B3dB

2N

+

ILdB

(5.70)

Following a similar derivation and expressing equation (5.69) in terms of f L,XdB

produces

AttnAbs,dB

=

10

log

1

+

f

2

c,geo

fL,XdB

fL,XdB

B3dB

2N

+

ILdB

(5.71)

Replacing fL,XdB and fU,XdB by f X and taking the absolute value of the appropriate

expression

produces

AttnAbs,dB

=

10

log

1

+

fx

f

2

c,geo

fx

B3dB

2N

McClaning-7200021 book

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EXAMPLE

Lossy

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A

ILdB

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5

(5.72)

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Filters

Filter

Find the total attenuation a signal at 1.75 GHz will experience after passing

through

a

three-pole

Butterworth band-pass filter. The insertion loss of the filter is 4 dB at the center

frequency,

the

center

frequency is 2.7 GHz, and the filters 3 dB bandwidth is 1.1 GHz.

Solution

Weve

drawn

out

the

problem

in

Figure

5-77.

B

3dB

4

IL

dB

1.1

GHz

dB

3

fc

dB

GHz

2.7

fx

1.75

1

|H(j)|

(dB)

B

GHz

dB

Frequency

FIGURE

frequencies

example.

5-77

for

Bandwidth

Butterworth

and

filter

Using equation (5.65) with N = 3, fc,geo = 2.7 GHz, and ILdB = 4 dB, we can write

AttnAbs,dB

=

10

log

1

+

fx

f

2

c,geo

fx

B3dB

2N

+

=

1.75

1.75

1.1

2N

+

=

=

(5.73)

ILdB

log

10

20.5

5.12.2.2

The noise

Bn

=

sin[

bandwidth

(2N)

4

4

dB

24.5

of

5.12

Butterworth

2.72

Noise

a Butterworth

band-pass

B3dB

>

B3dB

978-1-891121-80-7

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in

June

Bandwidth

filter is:

[(2N)]

(5.74)

16,

2011

Detail

8:45

293

293

where

Bn

= the noise bandwidth of the Butterworth band-pass filter

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

B3dB

=

the

3

dB

bandwidth

of

the

filter

The noise bandwidth of a Butterworth band-pass filter is always slightly

larger

than

the

filters

3

dB

bandwidth.

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

Using

TABLE

various

Noise

equation

5-2

(5.74),

Butterworth

Noise

we

Bandwidth

built

Table

bandwidths

band-pass

FLT-2.

of

filters

#

1

(1-Pole

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

of

Poles

Bn/B3dB

1.57

Filter)

1.11

1.05

1.03

1.02

1.01

1.008

1.006

1.005

1.004

RC

5.12.3

Butterworth

High-Pass

Filters

5.12.3.1

Magnitude

Response

Figure 5-78 shows the magnitude response for a Butterworth high-pass

filter.

3

fc

dB

,3dB

Maximally

monotonic

log

Asymptotic

|H(j)|

(dB)

flat,

passband

(Frequency)

FIGURE

magnitude

characteristics

Butterworth

high-pass

McClaning-7200021 book

294

C

H

The

AttndB

=

where

N

=

fc,

10

the

5-78

The

of

ISBN

A

log

number

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

equation

+

fc,f3

of

poles

a

June

16,

R

dB

in

2011

5

8:45

filter.

294

2N

Filters

is

(5.75)

the

filter

dB

=

the

filters

3

dB

cutoff

frequency

fx

=

the

frequency

of

interest

Equation (5.75) is very similar to equation (5.53), which describes the

attenuation

characteristics

of

a

Butterworth

low-pass

filter.

3

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

High-Pass

Filter

MHz,

find

the

attenuation

at:

a.

the

CB

band

(27

MHz)

b.

the

FM

radio

station

at

88.3

MHz

Solution

Applying

equation

(5.75)

with

fc =

110

MHz,

N

=

3,

and

a.

f

x

=

27

MHz

produces

AttndB

=

10

log1

+

110

27

2(3)

=

36.6

dB

(5.76)

b.

f

x

=

88.3

MHz

produces

AttndB

=

10

log1

+

88

110

.32(3)

=

6.8

dB

(5.77)

5.12.4

Butterworth

Band-Stop

Filters

5.12.4.1

Magnitude

Response

The attenuation of a Butterworth band-stop or band-reject filter is

AttndB

=

10

log

1

+

BB

3dB

x

2N

(5.78)

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN

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Detail

8:45

295

295

3dB

Attn

dB

Frequency

fc

fx

|H(j)|

(dB)

B

X

dB

FIGURE

magnitude

characteristics

Butterworth

band-stop

showing

bandwidths

frequencies.

or

AttndB

5-79

The

of

a

filter

various

and

10

log

B3dB

fx

f

c,geo

fx

2N

(5.79)

where

AttndB = the absolute amount of attenuation the filter provides at f x

N

=

the

number

of

poles

in

the

filter

B3dB

=

the

3

dB

bandwidth

of

the

filter

fc,

geo

=

the

band-pass

filters

center

frequency

fx

=

the

frequency

of

interest

Note the similarity to equations (5.57) and (5.66) for the Butterworth

band-pass

filter

(see

Figure

5-79).

EXAMPLE

Butterworth

Notch

Filter

broadcast

band.

If

youre going to use an eight-pole Butterworth filter, what is the 3 dB bandwidth of

the

filter?

Solution

The FM broadcast band covers 88 to 108 MHz. We need at least 10 dB of rejection

at

both

88

and

108

MHz,

so

the

10

dB

bandwidth

is

B10dB

=

108

88

=

20

MHz

(5.80)

We

want

to

find

B3dB.

Using

equation

(5.78),

we

find

10

dB

=

10

log

1

+

B20

3dB

2(8)

B3dB

=

22.9

MHz

(5.81)

We usually arent concerned about insertion loss in low-pass, high-pass, or notch

filters.

If

you

are

concerned, add the insertion loss to any of the attenuation equations.

McClaning-7200021 book

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Filters

ITEMS

5.13.1

Isolators

High-performance filters (e.g., those with very critical group delay

responses

like

those

used in QPSK demodulators) are often equipped with isolators on both the

input

and

output ports. The isolators always terminate the filter with the proper

impedance.

The

proper termination across the filters passbands and stopbands assures

that

the

critical

performance of the filter wont be spoiled by outside forces.

5.13.2

Nonlinearities

A filter acts as a linear device for low levels of input signal power, but a

filter

can

exhibit

nonlinear behavior when the input signals are strong. The threshold can be

as

low

as

the

unit

watt

range,

depending

on

the

filter.

5.13.3

Power

Handling

A filter can pass only so much power. Power handling in a filter is closely

related

to

the

factors determining the filters nonlinearities. The following items can limit

the

amount

of

power

a

filter

will

pass:

The filters insertion loss may cause it to dissipate signal power and heat

up.

For

example, a filter with a 1 dB insertion loss absorbing 100 watts from a

source

will

dissipate

about

20

watts

internally.

At high current levels, the magnetic materials used in HF and low VHF

filters

can

saturate. This means that, at high power levels, the inductors behave like

resistors

and

the

insertion

loss

goes

up.

Many filters, particularly narrow band-pass filters, have very highimpedance

internal

nodes. At even moderate power levels, peak voltages high enough to

cause

capacitor

breakdown or corona may occur. Again, this leads to higher insertion loss

and

degraded

filter

performance.

Crystal filters can exhibit unexpected nonlinearities. At low power levels,

the

filter

may

perform beautifully, but for even moderate power changes the filter can

exhibit

wildly

different

behavior.

In general, if a filter must pass more than 1 watt of power, you should tell

the

filter

designer

to

consider

the

filters

power

handling

capability.

5.13.4

Vibration

Sensitivity

If the components that make up a filter change when subjected to

vibration, the filters performance will change as well. Thus, a filter

performance

depends

on

the

filters

mechanical

stability.

Vibration-induced sidebands may appear on a signal passing through a

filter

when

the

filter is subject to acceleration forces due to vibration. Quartz crystal

resonators,

being

piezoelectric devices, convert mechanical to electrical energy. Therefore,

the

resonant

frequency of a crystal is modulated at the frequency of vibration.

McClaning-7200021

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Matched

Filters

297

The source of vibration can be an internal equipment fan, a transformer,

or

a

speaker.

Many manufacturers of precision signal generators shock-mount their

crystal

filters

to

avoid

this

problem.

War

Story

One satellite modem manufacturer noticed bursts of bit errors occurring

only

at

certain

times of the week. After much research, the company correlated the

appearance

of

the

bit

error bursts with the routine maintenance performed on some other,

unrelated

equipment.

It turned out that the bit error bursts occurred when the maintenance

people

slammed

the

doors to the racks containing the satellite modems. Again, shock mounting

the

critical

filters

solved

the

problem.

5.14

MATCHED

FILTERS

particular

waveform

is

present in a noisy environment. If we know the statistics of the noise and

the

characteristics

of the particular signal, then we can build a filter that will optimize the

output signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) when the signal of interest is present. A

matched

filter

performs

this

function by coherently adding up each Fourier component in the signal.

We are not interested in preserving the wave shape of the input signal.

Instead,

we

are going to arrange to add up all the signal energy present in the symbol

waveform

at

one particular moment so the output of a matched filter will be a narrow

spike

when

the

desired

signal

is

present.

In digital communications systems, we transmit one of N different

waveforms

to

correctly,

we

can

build N matched filters; one for each waveform (symbol). We design the

m-th

filter

to

detect the m-th waveform while rejecting the other N-1 waveforms.

5.14.1

The

Equation

When the input noise is white (i.e., spectrally flat), the equation that

describes

the

response

of

a

matched

filter

is

H 0(

f

)

=

S (

f

)e

j2Tf

(5.82)

where

H 0(

f

)

is

the

transfer

function

of

the

matched

filter

S( f ) is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transform of the known

input

signal

s(t)

of

duration

T

sec

T

is

the

duration

of

the

input

signal

s(t)

Our analysis will be heavily based on Fourier and phasor analysis. Once we

cast

the

problem in the proper domain, the solution and the form of this equation

will

be

obvious.

5.14.2

An

Example

Lets look at an example. Well build a matched filter for a 100 sec pulse

present

in

a

300 sec window. Figure 5-80 and Figure 5-81 show the pulse in the time

and

frequency

domains,

respectively.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN :

298

C

H

A

FIGURE

waveform

we

will

matched

waveform

of

a

present

in

sec

are

building

respond

entire

the

100

duration

200

duration.

0

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

0.05

Time

Time

(Length

0.15

FIGURE

frequency-domain

version

of

frequency-

Domain

100

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

5-80

for

June

build

100

sec

a

window.

a

to

filter

sec

and

sec

of

of

Figure

2011

5

filter.

a

Window

sec,

0.2

16,

R

5-81

300

0.25

the

5-80.

8:45

298

Filters

The

which

a

This

consists

pulse

300

We

to

this

signalboth

one

the

zero

0.1

(msec)

Pulse

sec)

0.3

The

signal

The

and

time-domain

versions

signal

expressions

same

frequency

component

possesses

magnitude

phase

Both

100

Frequency

(Length

0

10

20

30

Amplitude

Phase

50

100

200

100

0

100

200

50

Frequency

50

of

the

different

the

Each

are

of

signal.

both

and

a

a

component.

important.

are

50

Domain

100

of

sec,

Window

a

300

0

Pulse

sec)

(degrees)

100

0

(kHz)

100

The discrete frequencies shown in Figure 5-81 are distinct cosine waves with

deterministic amplitudes, frequencies and phases. These cosine waves exactly

represent

the

signal of interest. Since the phase and amplitude relationships among the cosine

signals

of Figure 5-81 are fixed, we can increase the SNR if we can rotate the phases of

all

the

components to line up at one particular instant in time. This process increases

the

signal

strength for a short time period but does not afect additive white Gaussian noise

(AWGN).

This coherent addition concept is clearer when we examine at the phasor

representation

of the signal. To keep things manageable, well describe only at the middle five

Fourier

components of Figure 5-81. Table 5-3 shows the amplitude, phase, and rotation

rates

of

these

components.

Figure 5-82 shows the data from Table 5-3 and from Figure 5-81 in phasor

format.

The magnitude of the composite signal is the vector sum of all the phasors

present

in the signal. Figure 5-82 shows the phasor diagram at one particular instant in

time.

The

vector addition of components (1) through (5) determines the amplitude of the

signal

at

that

McClaning-7200021

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5.14

Matched

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299

TABLE 5-3 The rotation frequency, amplitude, and phase of the middle five frequency

components

of

Figure

5-81.

Number

Rotation

Frequency1

(Hz)

Amplitude2

Phase

(Degrees)2

1

6666

13.270

112.50

2

3333

26.483

56.25

3

0

16.000

180.00

4

3333

26.483

56.25

5

6666

13.270

112.50

The rate at which the phasor rotates about the origin (positive frequency is CCW).

The amplitudes and phases of the cosine wave that makes up the component.

24

24

20

20

1612

8

4

0

(6666

Hz)

(6666

Hz)

(3333

Hz)

(3333

Hz)

(5)

(3)

(1)

(4)

(2)

Real

Phasor

Diagram,

100

sec

Pulse

Imag

4

8

12

16

20

24

16

12

8

4

8

4

0

12

16

20

24

1

2

FIGURE 5-82 The phasor diagram for the middle five frequency components of Figure 581.

Component (1) is 13.27 112.50, and it rotates CW about the origin at 6,666 Hz.

Component (2) is 26.48 56.25, and it rotates CW about the origin at 3333 Hz. Component

(3)

is 16.00 180.00, and it is stationary (i.e., it does not rotate). Co

nent

(4)

is

26.48

56.25,

and it rotates CCW about the origin at 3,333 Hz. Component (5) is 13 .27

112.5,

and

it

rotates

CCW

about

the

origin

at

6,666

Hz.

instant. We seek to rotate each component of Figure 5-82 so that they are

collinear

along

the

real axis. This rotation will maximize the output signal strength at one

instant.

Figure

5-83

shows the effect. We accomplish this rotation via the S ( f ) portion

equation

(5.82).

Figure 5-83 shows the increase in detected signal energy after rotating

each

Fourier

component of Figure 5-81 and allow them to add together coherently. Each

phasor

in

Figure 5-83 still rotates about the origin at its original rate. The collinear

addition

will

happen

only

for

a

brief

instant

then

collapse.

5.14.3

The

Conjugate

The term that performs the rotation in equation (5.82) is the conjugate

term

S (

f

)

(5.83)

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN :

300

C

H

A

FIGURE

When

we

phase

component

Figure

5-82,

achieve

(in

phase)

all

of

components.

addition

the

while

the

0

20

15

10

5

5

10

15

20

40

Real

(1)

Phasor

(2)

Imag

60

FIGURE

complex

of

in

Figure

amplitude

component

unchanged

Figure

phase

negated.

S(f

signal

5-80

5-81.

Complex

(Length

0

10

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

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June

16,

2011

5

8:45

300

Filters

5-83

the

each

in

can

colinear

of

Fourier

This

increases

energy

increasing

energy.

rotate

of

you

the

addition

the

signal

not

noise

20

Diagram,

(3)

100

PulseComponents

(4)

sec

80

100

5-84

the

Figure

signal

5-80

5-81.

of

5-81,

but

has

This

when

Conjegate

100

is

)

S(f

from

and

of

sec,

Colinear

(5)

Window

is

a

300

The

conjugate

shown

and

The

each

is

from

the

been

the

the

Figure

Figure

Pulse

sec)

20

30

0

100

200

100

200

Phase

100

100

Frequency

50

(degrees)

0

50

50

Amplitude

100

0

(kHz)

100

50

which is the conjugate of the Fourier transform of the known input signal. Figure

5-84

shows

the

magnitude

and

phase

of

S (

f

).

The phase of S( f ) rotates each phasor component of each component in

Figure

5-82

so that every Fourier component present in the signal S( f ) is collinear

with

the

x-axis.

The result is that all of the spectral components of the signal to line up on

the

x-axis,

and

we achieve the theoretical maximum SNR at the filters output.

5.14.4

The

Magnitude

of

S(f)

The top of Figure 5-84 shows the magnitude response of S ( f ). The

magnitude

of

S (

f

)

is identical to the magnitude of S( f ) because taking the conjugate of a

complex

function

does not change the functions amplitude response. Note the areas of high

attenuation

at

multiples of 10 kHz (e.g., at +/ 10 kHz, +/ 20 kHz, +/ 30 kHz). The

signal

for

which were building a matched filter (Figure 5-80 and Figure 5-81)

contains

no

energy

at

McClaning-7200021

5.14

book

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

8:45

301

Matched

Filters

301

multiples of 10 kHz (e.g., at +/ 10 kHz, +/ 20 kHz, +/ 30 kHz), so it

would

add

unnecessary noise to our follow-on processes if we allowed energy to pass

through

the

matched filter at those frequencies. Passing energy in frequency ranges

where

the

signal

contains no energy would not help the detection process by adding signal

energy

and

would hinder the detection by allowing noise through unnecessarily.

5.14.5

ej2f

T

The

last

part

of

the

matched

filter

equation

(5.82)

is

e

j2

f

T

(5.84)

which represents a frequency-dependent phase shift. The S ( f ) term of

equation

(5.82)

aligns the phases of the Fourier components of the signal to which we

match.

This

term

serves to reverse the phase rotation caused by a simple time delay. In

effect,

this

term

delays each Fourier component in the signal to allow the entire signal to

contribute

to

the

matched filter output. This term is that it ensures causality. It allows the

matched

filter

to

fill with each Fourier component before the final phase alignment.

5.14.6

A

Practical

Matched

Filter

We now design a matched filter to detect the signal shown in Figure 5-80.

Figure

5-81

shows the frequency-domain representation of this sampled signal. The

signal

is

sampled,

in the time domain, at 160 kHz, making the complete time window 48

samples

long.

This combination produces a frequency resolution of 3.33 kHz. Applying

equation

(5.82)

produces the matched filter components shown in Figure 5-85.

We normally use a digital signal processing (DSP) finite impulse response

(FIR

)filter

to realize the matched filter. The coefficients of the FIR filter are given by

the

inverse

fast

Fourier transform (FFT) of the frequency-domain data shown in Figure 585.

Figure

5-86

shows

the

time-domain

filter

taps.

The FIR filter taps represent the impulse response of the FIR filter. The

impulse

response of a matched filter is a time-reversed version of signal to which

the

filter

is

Matched

(Length

0

10

20

30

0

100

200

100

200

Real

Phase

1

1

Frequency

0.5

105

105

FIGURE

frequency-domain

representation

the

designed

the

Figure

equation

describes,

amplitude

of

the

signal

matching.

Filter

100

Frequency

sec,

Window

Domain

300

0

0.5

0.5

0.5

5-85

Part

(degrees)

1

0

(Hz)

1

The

matched

to

pulse

5-80.

the

amplitude

to

ResponsePulse

sec)

filter

of

which

of

filter

detect

of

As

(5.82)

the

response

matches

the

were

The

phase

significantly

from

the

interest.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN :

302

C

H

A

FIGURE

FIR

filter

matched

generated

the

(IFFT)

frequency-domain

signal

Figure

the

is

so

than

component,

ignore

component

assume

that

is

FIR

(Length

1

0

0

Real

1

1

0

Time

0.2

0

0.5

Imaginary

1

0.5

taps

=

response

signal

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

5-86

taps

0.05

16,

R

2011

5

much

the

the

real

Matched

=

Window

0.15

302

Filters

of

Since

component

larger

imaginary

we

imaginary

and

filter

only.

the

the

8:45

The

the

filter,

taking

FFT

the

for

5-85.

real

sec,

0.1

June

by

inverse

of

for

100

is

altered

of

0.2

300

0.25

FilterPulse

sec)

0.3

Part

0.05

0.1

0.15

(ms)

0.3

0.25

Part

matched. This relationship is clearly apparent by comparing Figure 5-80 and the

real

part

of

Figure

5-86.

5.14.7

The

Matched

Filter

in

Action

Finally, let us apply the matched filter (the FIR taps of Figure 5-86.) to the

matched

signal

shown

in

Figure

5-80.

Figure

5-87

shows

the

output.

Figure 5-87 shows the output of the filter matched when we apply the

signal

of

Figure 5-80. We designed the filter to coherently combine all of the Fourier

components

in

Matched

(Length

20

10

0

0

Time

1.5

10

100

Filter

sec,

0.5

Window

300

OutputPulse

sec)

1

(ms)

2

20

30

Amplitude

40

50

FIGURE 5-87 The output of the FIR filter that is matched to the signal of Figure 5-80. The

filter output does not resemble the input signal but was designed to produce a maximum

SNR at one instant in time (1.05 msec, in this example). Note: Zeroes were added to the

beginning and end of the time-domain signal of Figure 5-80 to improve clarity.

McClaning-7200021 book ISBN : 978-1-891121-80-7 June 16, 2011 8:45 303

5.16

Problems

303

the signal together at one instant in time, which produces the peak at 1.05

ms.

In

spectrally

flat, Gaussian noise, the peak at 1.05 ms will exhibit the highest SNR that

is

theoretically

possible.

The demodulator must decide when exactly to sample the output of the

matched

filter.

If the demodulator samples too early or too late, it will be sampling at an

instant

when

all the Fourier components of the signal have not been coherently

combined,

and

we

will

achieve

nonoptimal

results.

5.15

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Company,

1981.

Blinchikoff, Herman J., and Zverev, Anatol I., Filtering in the Time and Frequency

Domains,

John

Wiley

and

Sons,

1976.

Couch II, Leon W., Digital and Analog Communications Systems, 4th ed.,

Macmillan

Publishing

Company,

1993.

Ferrand, Michael, Practical Microwave Filter Design, Applied Microwave

Magazine,

p.

120,

May

1989.

Freeman, Roger L., Reference Manual for Telecommunications Engineering, John

Wiley

and

Sons,

Wiley-Interscience,

1985.

Gardner, Floyd M., Phaselock Techniques, 2d ed., John Wiley and Sons, 1979.

Orchard, H.J., The Phase and Envelope Delay of Butterworth and Tchebycheff

Filters,

IRE

Trans.

Circuit

Theory,

Vol.

CT-7,

pp.

180181,

June

1960.

Porter, Jack, Noise Bandwidth of Chebyshev Filters, RF Design Magazine, p. 19,

n.d.

White, Donald R.J., A Handbook on Electrical Filters, Don White Consultants, Inc.,

1980.

Ziemer, R.E., and Tranter, W.E., Principles of CommunicationsSystems,

Modulation

and

Noise,

4th

ed.,

John

Wiley

and

Sons,

Inc.,

1995.

Zverev, A.I., Handbook of Filter Synthesis, John Wiley and Sons, 1967.

5.16

PROBLEMS

signals

by:

a.

shunting

them

to

ground.

b.

absorbing

them

internally.

c.

shunting

them

into

a

dummy

load

resistor.

d.

frequency-selective

mismatching.

2. Multiple Choice: Filter Amplitude Response Which statement is false?

a.

Butterworth

filters

exhibit

a

monotonic

amplitude

response.

b. Chebychev filters trade passband ripple for a quicker transition from the filters

passband

into

its

stopband.

c.

Chebychev

filters

contain

stopband

zeroes.

d. Gaussian filters are used primarily for their group delay and transient

responses.

e. Stopband zeroes can produce high attenuation of unwanted signals.

McClaning-7200021 book

304

C

H

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

16,

2011

5

8:45

304

Filters

microwave

filters

is

selective

matching:

The filter presents an input and output match in the passband

The filter mismatches the input and output in its stopband.

In general, we dont like mismatched components in systems. Mismatches cause

many

subtle problems in mixers and oscillators, so we try to avoid them if possible.

How would you build a filter that presents a broadband match over its passband

and

its

stopband? Hint: Look up two different but related RF components: a ferrite

circulator

and

a

ferrite

isolator.

4. Signal Power through Filters For the system shown in Figure 5-88, what are the

output power levels of the signals at 830, 920, and 1,010 MHz? The component

characteristics

are

BPF1:

910

MHz

CF,

30

MHz

BW,

2

dB

IL

BPF2:

930

MHz

CF,

20

MHz

BW,

5

dB

IL

All

filters

are

five-pole

Butterworth

filters

Amplifier:

Gain

=

15

dB

5. Filters in Cascade Given the system shown in Figure 5-89, find the gain of the

system

at

the

following

frequencies:

a. The aeronautical/navigation band at 4.24.4 GHz. This is the frequency range

that

the

system

was

designed

to

pass

with

minimum

attenuation.

b.

An

interfering

signal

at

3,140

MHz

c.

The

5.465.47

GHz

radio-navigation

band

d.

The

3.33.5

GHz

amateur

radio

band

When the problem gives a frequency range, find the gain at the band edges (i.e.,

for

part

a),

find

the

gain

at

4.2

and

4.4

GHz).

Both filters are Butterworth and exhibit an ultimate attenuation of 85 dB. The

center

frequency of the BPF is the filters geometric center frequency.

6. Amplitude Response for a Chebychev LPF Find the equation that describes the

amplitude

response

of

a

Chebychev

LPF

and

a

Chebychev

BPF.

FIGURE

Attenuation

signals

various

5-88

of

through

filters.

BPF1

830

35

30

1010

BPF2

dBm

25

830

920

920

dBm

dBm

1010

FIGURE

radio

filters.

5-89

receiver

7-Pole

Cutof

5-Pole

Center

BW

IL

Gain

Frequency

radio

filters.

LPF

GHz

4.5

Frequency

GHz

MHz

dB

dB

4.3

400

5

McClaning-7200021

5.16

5-Pole

Cutof

3-Pole

Center

BW

IL

Gain

A

with

book

ISBN

22

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

Problems

Frequency

LPF

MHz

MHz

MHz

dB

60

10

4

12

dB

receiver

305

305

100

Frequency

8:45

FIGURE

5-90

A

with

7. Filter Attenuation Given the system shown as Figure 5-90, find the signal

strength

present

at

the systems output for the following input conditions, assuming both filters

exhibit

an

ultimate

attenuation

of

65

dB:

a.

60

MHz

at

40

dBm

b.

175

MHz

at

25

dBm

8. Butterworth BPF Shape factor Given a three-pole Butterworth band-pass filter

with

a

200

kHz,

3

dB

bandwidth:

a.

Find

the

30

dB/3

dB

shape

factor?

b.

Find

the

45

dB/6

dB

shape

factor?

9. Ultimate Roll-Off for a Butterworth BPF Derive the ultimate roll-off rate for a

Butterworth

BPF.

10.

NF,

MDS

Given

the

system

shown

as

Figure

5-91:

a. Find the noise figure at the center frequency of the RF BPF.

b.

Find

the

noise

figure

at

1,100

MHz.

c. Find the minimum detectable signal (MDS) at the center frequency of the RF

BPF.

d. How many poles do we need in the RF BPF to bring the signal at 1,100 MHz

down

to

the

systems MDS? Use the MDS you calculated for the center frequency of the RF

BPF.

Let

the

noise

bandwidth

be

30

MHz.

11.

Noise

BW,

MDS

For

the

cascade

of

Figure

5-92:

a.

Whats

the

noise

band

width

of

this

cascade?

5-Pole

CF

BW

IL

Gain

NF

950

50

2

12

5

FIGURE

Simple

system.

fc

:

B

MHz

MHz

dB

dB

dB

5-91

receiving

2442

MHz

N:

85

(dB)

(dB)

2442

:

10

MHz

1.5

:

ISBN

A

7-Pole

CF

LO

MHz

2

5-92

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

cascade

5-Pole

f3

dB

MHz

4

2442

FIGURE

simple

McClaning-7200021 book

306

C

H

FIGURE

Simple

a

MHz

N

fc

:

B

N

MHz

8

N

8

8

G

F

2

2

15

6

15

15

18

4

fc

:

B

June

16,

R

2011

5

A

cascade.

8:45 306

Filters

5-93

with

mixer.

LPF

100

145

205

MHz

LPF

MHz

MHz

c.

Find

the

gain

of

a

signal

at

2,465

MHz.

12. LO, IF, and Image Rejection of an LPF Given the system shown in Figure 5-93,

find

the

attenuation provided by the front-end low-pass filter at the following frequencies:

a.

the

LO

frequency

of

205

MHz

b.

the

IF

of

145

MHz

c.

the

image

frequency

of

350

MHz.

13. Transfer Function Ultimate Roll-Off Rate Given the number of poles and zeroes

for

the

following low-pass filters described, predict the ultimate roll-off of each filter:

a.

6

poles,

5

zeroes

b.

7

poles,

6

zeroes

c.

7

poles,

2

zeroes

d.

3

poles,

1

zero

14. Elliptic Filter Impedances I Figure 5-94 shows the circuit diagram for an elliptic

filter:

a.

Is

this

a

high-pass

filter

or

a

low-pass

filter?

b. In the filters stopband, does this filter present a high- or low-impedance load to

the

source

resistor

R

s?

c. In the filters stopband, does the load resistor see a high or low impedance

when

it

looks

into

the

filter?

15. Elliptic Filter Impedances II Figure FLTPS-95 shows the circuit diagram for an

elliptic

filter:

a.

Is

this

a

low-pass

filter

or

a

high-pass

filter?

b. In the filters stopband, does this filter present a high or low impedance to the

source

resistor

Rs

?

c. In the filters stopband, does this filter present a high- or low-impedance to the

load

resistor

R L?

FIGURE

Filter

5-94

schematic.

42.3

17.1

44.1

50

50

0.5

40

fc

pF

106

nH

90.3

nH

dB

Min

dB

6

48.0

McClaning-7200021

5.16

73.6

34.3

50

31

0.25

35

fc

124

book

140

Ripple

Attn

Stopband

,ER

80

ISBN

978-1-891121-80-7

June

16,

2011

pF

nH

49.6

pF

57.4

307

nH

nH

nH

50

37.2

nH

Ripple

Attn

Stopband

MHz

Poles

pF

307

dB

Min

dB

55.3

108

MHz

nH

FIGURE

Filter

FIGURE

Filter

8:45

Problems

,ER

50

114.3

50

pF

pF

pF

nH

31.2

5-95

schematic.

77.7

pF

50

pF

nH

3.6

43.5

pF

pF

50

3.6

nH

50

pF

nH

77.7

114.3

pF

pF

5-96

schematic.

filter.

A

band-pass filter as two stopbands: one below the center frequency of the filter

and

one

above

the

center

frequency

of

the

filter:

a. Does the filter present a high or low impedance to the outside world in the

filters

lower

stopband?

b. Does the filter present a high or low impedance to the outside world in the

filters

upper

stopband?

17. Bandwidths of Band-Pass Filters The following band-pass filters all have a

geometric

center

frequency of 700 MHz but different 3 dB bandwidths. Find the difference between

fc,geo

and

fc,

for

the

following

band-pass

filters

in

Mhz

and

percent:

a. fL,3 dB = 682.7 MHz, fU,3 dB = 717.7 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 5% of its

center

frequency)

b. fL,3 dB = 665.9 MHz, fU,3 dB = 735.9 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 10% of its

center

frequency)

c. fL,3 dB = 633.5 MHz, fU,3 dB = 773.5 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 20% of its

center

frequency)

d. fL,3 dB = 432.6 MHz, fU,3 dB = 1133 MHz (this filters 3 dB bandwidth is 100% of its

center

frequency)

18.

Butterworth

LPF

Magnitude

Response

a. Were given a six-pole Butterworth low-pass filter with 3 dB of attenuation at

120

MHz.

Find

the

attenuation

at

650

MHz.

b. Weve found a Butterworth low-pass filter in the lab. Weve measured f c,3 dB to

be

6.6

MHz.

Weve also measured an attenuation of 30 dB at about 20.9 MHz. How many poles

are

in

the

filter?

arith

McClaning-7200021 book

308

C

H

ISBN

A

978-1-891121-80-7

P

T

E

June

16,

2011

5

8:45

308

Filters

19. Butterworth BPF Shape Factor Given a six-pole Butterworth band-pass filter

with

a

275

MHz

3

dB

bandwidth:

a.

Find

the

60

dB/6

dB

shape

factor.

b.

Find

the

40

dB/6

dB

shape

factor.

20. Lossy Butterworth BPF Find the total attenuation a signal at 1.75 GHz will

experience

after

passing through a three-pole Butterworth band-pass filter. The insertion loss of the

filter

is

4

dB at the center frequency, the geometric center frequency is 2.7 GHz, and the

filters

3

dB

bandwidth is 1.1 GHz.

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