Anda di halaman 1dari 9

Lecture Objectives

Pre-History and Ancient


Civilizations
KIN 375 -History and
Philosophy of Physical
Education and Sport

World Atlas

Discuss the causes for the evolution of


the major civilizations of the ancient
world and the development of their
education as well as physical education
systems
Discuss Egypt, China, India, and the
Hebrews and their contribution to, and
lasting effects on current day
philosophies and practices

Africa

http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/
world/polit/politf.htm

Europe

Middle East

Asia 2001

http://www.wilderdom.com/evolution/HumanEvolutionPictures.htm
http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/as.htm

PrePre-History
For tens of thousand of years Homo sapiens
lived in caves:
Homo
- sapiens- means "wise man
Homo
- habilis- means "handy man" or man
with ability 2 million years ago used stone
tools
Homo
- erectus
- means "the man who walks
erect"
Hunters
food gatherers, and
nomads

The Formation of Civilizations


Rivers provided a stable supply of water and
facilitated discovery of
Farming
specialized production of goods &
exchange of goods

cessation of a nomadic existence &


control of the environment
social structure and
organization and the evolution of a complex
civilization

PrePre-History
About ten thousand years ago humans
started living in settlements along great
rivers:
Yang Tze
Ganges
Euphrates & Tigris and
Nile

PrePre-History and Physical


Activity
Observations of
African Bushmen,
American Indians, and
Australian Aborigines
suggest that physical
activities and games
are an important part
of education
(achieved through
imitation of adult
activities)

Tonga Dancers
africaelephants.com/

The Origins of Play


What conditions led to the evolution
of play and games?
Numerous functions have been
attributed to play but nearly all fall into
three general categories: play as
physical training, play as social
training, and play as cognitive training

THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF PLAY

Play as a utilitarian
behavior
play emerged
from and was
linked to survival
skills such as
hunting, fishing,
and boxing.

(Bekoff & Byers, 1981).


http://www.wilderdom.com/evolution/HumanEvolutionPictures.htm

THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF PLAY

Play as an instinctive
behavior
humans have a natural
need for play
play behaviors are also
readily observed in the
animal kingdom
What people learn is
immaterial to whether or
not people play.

THEORIES ABOUT THE ORIGINS OF PLAY

Play as a ritualistic behavior


games explain forces in the world that are
not understood. By participating in the ritual
one explains the meaning of a certain kind
of event.
http://www.ballgame.org/

http://www.researchmagazine.uga.edu/summer2002/kittens.htm

Cultural Components of
Civilizations
As is the case today, ancient societies
valued
Athletic ability
Physical fitness
Competition
Play

These similarities serve evolutionary


purpose

Sport and Adaptation


Survival dependent on individual and
team hunting skills
Best hunter honored and is engaged
in activities that highlight his talents
Desire to survive, compete for honor,
and win is part of culture and
expressed through games and sports

E.g. survival of the fittest


Source: Mechikoff (2010)

Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Sport and Warfare

Timeline of Civilizations of
the Ancient World

Warfare was very common in ancient times


Armies promoted physical training
programs and warriors
Military combat training included
endurance running, wrestling, and
swimming
Led to emergence of Combat Sports:
martial arts, boxing, wrestling, spear throwing
(javelin), and archery
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)
Source: http://www.harappa.com/indus2/timeline.html

Sumer 4000 BCE


One of the ancient world's first known
civilization
Located in Mesopotamia, a region
lying in present-day Iraq
cradle of civilization

Sumerian civilization flourished more


than 5,000 years ago
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Sumerian Society
Created laws called Hammurabi's
Code 1800 BCE
If a man takes a woman to wife, but has
no intercourse with her, this woman is no
wife to him.
If a son strikes his father, his hands shall
be hewn off.
If a man knocks out the teeth of his equal,
his teeth shall be knocked out.
Source: Source: http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.HTM

Sumerian Society
Developed cuneiform
writing
Replaced oral
tradition as first
written system of
communication
Cuneiform - From Latin cuneus, meaning "wedge-shaped."

Source: http://www.historyguide.org/ancient/cuneiform.html

Hammurabi
Hammurabis Code
Code (1800 BCE)
If any one brings an accusation of any crime
before the elders, and does not prove what
he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital
offense charged, be put to death.
If any one steals the property of a temple or
of the court, he shall be put to death, and also
the one who receives the stolen thing from
him shall be put to death.
Source: Source: http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.HTM

Hammurabi
Hammurabis Code
Code (1800 BCE)
If a man rents his field for tillage for a
fixed rental and receives the rent of his
field but bad weather come and
destroys the harvest, the injury falls
upon the tiller of the soil.
If any one breaks a hole into a house
(breaks in to steal), he shall be put to
death before that hole and be buried.

Sumerian Literary Tradition


The Epic of Gilgamesh
The oldest known written
poem dating back to 27502500 BCE ancient Sumer
(Mesopotamia). The
adventures of the historical
King of Uruk are portrayed
in cunieform script on 11
clay tablets.

Source: Source: http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/CODE.HTM

Gilgamesh
Image source: http://www.dromo.info/gilgamesh.htm

Sumerian Theology
Shamash - the god of the Sun, seated on
his throne - on the tablet of Sippar.

Sumerian Changing
Theology
Rulers (kings) broke free from
subservience to gods
Became representatives of the gods
Finally synonymous with gods

Only gods and kings had right to express


individuality
Ordinary people were expendable
View of the body:

Note that the


Hebrew
word shemesh
means sun.

Sumerians did not place much value on the


body
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Source: http://mythfolklore.net/3043mythfolklore/reading/
gilgamesh/images/shamash.htm

Sumerian Art
The human body was rarely used as
a subject by Sumerian artists.
Nakedness expressed humiliation
and subjection (Olivova, 1984)

Sumeria and Sport


Lion hunting a popular sport: warriors and
aristocrats displayed courage, athletic ability
Sumerian society demonstrates the
connection that religion had with sport in pre
modern cultures.
Most famous Sumerian king was Gilgamesh,
who ruled during 27th 25th century BCE.
Honored as being excellent hunter and warrior

Source: Adapted from


Mechikoff (2010)

London: British Museum

Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Sumeria and Sport


Highly developed economic and political
system
Trade, travel, entertainment, and
warfare were the main activities
Warriors developed their athletic ability
and the necessary physical fitness for
warfare

Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Developed a formalized
style of painting and
sculpture
Were very spiritual and
believed in life after
death

The gold coffin of King Tutankhamen.


Art Archive(Egyptian Museum, Cairo)

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Egyptian civilization was admired by ancient
Greeks and Romans
Science of medicine emerged in Egypt
Magic used to cure diseases
Doctors and surgeons known all over the
ancient world

Culture and the significance of sport and


play are revealed by tomb paintings

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Remarkable astronomists
(12 month calendar)
Amazing Architects,
engineers and navigators
Invented the numerical
system, and a
phonetic/pictorial alphabet
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/timeline.shtml

Early Civilizations: Egypt


Participated in war dancing,
gymnastic games, swimming
and especially wrestling
Children had toys, such as,
dolls, tops, hoops, jumping
jacks, skin or leather balls,
marbles, and dice.
Ball games included mostly
Cleopatra VII (51 30 BC)
tossing and juggling
Source: Touregypt.net

Egypt: Early Dynastic


Period (3000 1500 BCE)
"Meni" (or Menes in
Greek) believed to
have united the two
kingdoms of Upper
and Lower Egypt
(around 3200 BCE).
Map of lower & upper Egypt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Egypt

Egypt: Early Dynastic Period (3000


1500 BCE)

Sport in
Egypt
Sports were a
means by which
famous Egyptian
monarchs
represented
themselves to
their people.

Menes: unifier of upper & lower kingdoms


http://www.britannica.com/

Sport in Egypt

J. E. Quibell et al., Egyptian Research Account 1896 The Tomb of Ptahhetep, Plate 33

Early Civilizations: China


Around the 8th century B.C.,
Chinas central government was
replaced by warring factions.
Education was neglected and old
traditions abandoned.
Confucius (551-479 B.C.)
embarked on a mission to restore
the original principles of Chinese
morals.
Image source:
www.csun.edu/~hbchm009/confucius.html

http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/timelines/topics/games.htm

Early Civilizations: China


Chinas known history predates
Christianity by 2,500 years. One the
earliest centers of civilization based on
a strong family structure and ancestral
worship.
Chinese education during the Chou
dynasty (1028-249 B.C.) incorporated
physical, mental, moral, and aesthetic
teaching.
Duan Fang altar set
Source: www.wisc.edu/arth/

Early Civilizations: China


As was the case in other early
cultures, Chinese sports reflected
military needs: archery, boxing
(precursor to Japanese ju
- jitsu),
charioteering, horsemanship,
wrestling, , and recreational,
i.e., cockfighting, fishing, flying
kites, football, hunting, polo,
swimming
Board games (using military
tactics, i.e., the games of chess,
which has earlier origins in Egypt)

www.geocities.com/
wchch/crt00/index.html

Early Civilizations: India


One of the main three
early river civilizations,
India emerged along the
Indus River (2,500
- 1,500
B.C.)
Hinduism was based on
Dharma (pietyreligious
virtue) and the caste social
system.
Buddhism started as a
reform movement against
the excesses of the caste
system.

http://home.earthlink.net/
~srama/

Mesoamerica

Early Civilizations: India


Physical education was most prominent in the
Kshatriyas or military caste in this otherwise
passive and peaceful culture.
Physical training and dance revolved around
religious practices and ceremonies.
A strong emphasis on personal hygiene was
tied into physical exercise and spiritual
purification.
Charaka and Susruta (ancient medicine)
recommended exercise.

Mesoamerica

Geographical region
northern Mexico southward to Belize,
Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador

Ball games were popular in


antiquity, just as they are today
Ulama: ball game beginning in
1800 B.C., continued by Mayans &
Aztecs
Religious, cultural, competitive
elements.
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)
http://www.lib.uci.edu/about/publications/exhibits/meso/images/3.jpg

Mesoamerica
Ulama: ball courts discovered dating
from 1500 B.C.
Tchlactli: magnificent ballcourts

Games had strong religious overtones


Human sacrifice: a common component
(losing and/or winning teams might be
sacrificed, to give gods the best)

Served ritualistic purposes


Fertility, harvest, appease the gods
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

Mesoamerica
Ball court characteristics
Oblong shape, similar to letter I
Thick, high ornamental walls
Stone ring (tlachtemalacatl) in middle of
side wall served as goal

Ball court at Chichen Itza is the largest


discovered; reliefs show players and
ritual sacrifice
Source: Adapted from Mechikoff (2010)

The Maya
The Maya, who flourished between
about A.D. 250 and 900, perfected the
most complex writing system in the
hemisphere, mastered mathematics and
astrological calendars of astonishing
accuracy, and built massive pyramids all
over Central America, from Yucatan to
modern Honduras.

Pokatok
(El Juego de Pelota)
Pelota)
The Ancient Royal Ballgame of Life and
Death
http://www.americasculturalcenter.org/poka
tok.pdf
The Mesoamerican Ballgame
http://www.ballgame.org

Source: http://www.indians.org/welker/maya.htm

Test Your Comprehension


What was the main role of physical
education in ancient cultures?
In what context were games, physical
training, and dance practiced in ancient
societies?
What games and sports of ancient origin
are still popular today?
In what ways do ancient sports differ
from modern sports?

Questions, Comments
Discussion
For additional information visit the KIN
375 web site at:
http://instructional1.calstatela.edu/dfrankl
/CURR/kin375/kin375_infc.html

Cultural Diffusion of
Games and Sports
The cultural diffusion that is
the trend of the modern era
is responsible for increasing
uniformity in games people
play. The universality of
games is also influenced by
the increasing influence of
the corporate world.