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MEC 1391 : Statics

Chapter 4
Hanan Mokhtar

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 : Force System


Resultants
4.1 4.7 & 4.9

Chapter 4

Chapter Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.

Moment of a Force Scalar Formation


Cross Product
Moment of Force Vector Formulation
Principle of Moments
Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis
Moment of a Couple
Simplification of a Force and Couple System
Reduction of a Simple Distributed Loading

Chapter 4

4.1 Moment of a Force Scalar Formation

Moment of a force about a point or axis a measure of


the tendency of the force to cause a body to rotate about
the point or axis
Torque tendency of rotation caused by Fx or simple
moment (Mo) z

Chapter 4

4.1 Moment of a Force Scalar Formation


Magnitude

For magnitude of MO,


MO = Fd (Nm)
where d = perpendicular distance
from O to its line of action of force
Direction

Direction using right hand rule

Chapter 4

4.1 Moment of a Force Scalar Formation


Resultant Moment

Resultant moment, MRo = moments of all the forces


MRo = Fd

Chapter 4

4.7/8 13

th

edition

- Determine the moment of each of the three forces about point A.


- Determine the moment of each of the three forces about point B.

Chapter 4

4.15/16

The Achilles tendon force of Ft = 650N is


mobilized when the man tries to stand on
his toes. As this is done, each of his feet
is subjected to a reactive force of Nt =
400N. Determine the resultant moment
of and about the ankle joint A.
The Achilles tendon force Ft is mobilized
when the man tries to stand on his toes.
As this is done, each of his feet is
subjected to a reactive force of Nt =
400N. If the resultant moment produced
by forces Ft and Nt about the ankle joint
A is required to be zero, determine the
magnitude of Ft .

Chapter 4

4.2 Cross Product


Cross product of two vectors A and B yields C, which is
written as
C=AXB
Magnitude
Magnitude of C is the product of
the magnitudes of A and B
For angle , 0 180

C = AB sin
Chapter 4

4.2 Cross Product


Direction
Vector C has a direction that is perpendicular to the
plane containing A and B such that C is specified by
the right hand rule
Expressing vector C when
magnitude and direction are known
C = A X B = (AB sin)uC

Chapter 4

10

4.2 Cross Product


Laws of Operations
1. Commutative law is not valid
AXBBXA
Rather,
AXB=-BXA
Cross product A X B yields a
vector opposite in direction to C
B X A = -C
Chapter 4

11

4.2 Cross Product


Laws of Operations
2. Multiplication by a Scalar
a( A X B ) = (aA) X B = A X (aB) = ( A X B )a
3. Distributive Law
AX(B+D)=(AXB)+(AXD)
Proper order of the cross product must be maintained
since they are not commutative

Chapter 4

12

4.2 Cross Product


Cartesian Vector Formulation
Use C = AB sin on pair of Cartesian unit vectors
A more compact determinant in the form as

i

AXB Ax
Bx

j
Ay
By

k
Az
Bz

Chapter 4

13

4.3 Moment of Force - Vector Formulation

Moment of force F about point O can be expressed using cross


product
MO = r X F

Magnitude

For magnitude of cross product,


MO = rF sin

Treat r as a sliding vector. Since d = r sin,


MO = rF sin = F (rsin) = Fd

Chapter 4

14

4.3 Moment of Force - Vector Formulation


Direction
Direction and sense of MO are determined by righthand rule
*Note:
- curl of the fingers indicates the sense of rotation
- Maintain proper order of r and F since cross product
is not commutative

Chapter 4

15

4.3 Moment of Force - Vector Formulation


Principle of Transmissibility
For force F applied at any point A, moment created
about O is MO = rA x F
F has the properties of a sliding vector, thus
MO = r1 X F = r2 X F = r3 X F

Chapter 4

16

4.3 Moment of Force - Vector Formulation


Cartesian Vector Formulation
For force expressed in Cartesian form,

M O r XF rx
Fx

j
ry
Fy

k
rz
Fz

With the determinant expended,


MO = (ryFz rzFy)i
(rxFz - rzFx)j + (rxFy yFx)k

Chapter 4

17

4.3 Moment of Force - Vector Formulation


Resultant Moment of a System of Forces
Resultant moment of forces about point O can be
determined by vector addition
MRo = (r x F)

Chapter 4

18

4.4 Principles of Moments

Also known as Varignons Theorem


Moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum
of the moments of the forces components about the
point
Since F = F1 + F2,
MO = r X F
= r X (F1 + F2)
= r X F1 + r X F2

Chapter 4

19

4.31 13

th

edition

The force F = 600i + 300j - 600k N acts at the end of the beam.
Determine the moment of the force about point O and A.

Chapter 4

20

4.32/33/34

Determine the moment produced


by force FB about point O. Express
the result as a Cartesian vector.
Determine the moment produced
by force FC about point O.
Express the result as a Cartesian
vector.
Determine the resultant moment
produced by forces FB and FC
about point O. Express the result
as a Cartesian vector.

Chapter 4

21

4.5 Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis

For moment of a force about a point, the moment and its axis is
always perpendicular to the plane
A scalar or vector analysis is used to find the component of the
moment along a specified axis that passes through the point

Chapter 4

22

4.5 Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis


Scalar Analysis
According to the right-hand rule, My is directed along
the positive y axis
For any axis, the moment is
M a Fd a

Force will not contribute a moment


if force line of action is parallel or
passes through the axis
Chapter 4

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4.5 Moment of a Force about a Specified Axis


Vector Analysis

For magnitude of MA,


MA = MOcos = MOua
where ua = unit vector

In determinant form,

uax

M a uax (r XF ) rx
Fx

uay
ry
Fy

uaz
rz
Fz

Chapter 4

24

4.47
Determine the magnitude of the moment of each of the three forces about
the axis AB. Solve the problem (a) using a Cartesian vector approach and
(b) using a scalar approach.

Chapter 4

25

4.48/49
Determine the moment
produced by force F
about the diagonal AF
and OD of the rectangular
block. Express the result
as a Cartesian vector.

Chapter 4

26

4.62/4.63

Determine the magnitude of


the moments of the force F
about the x, y, and z axes.
Solve the problem (a) using
a Cartesian vector approach
and (b) using a scalar
approach.
Determine the moment of
the force F about an axis
extending between A and C.
Express the result as a
Cartesian vector.
Chapter 4

27

4.6 Moment of a Couple

Couple

two parallel forces

same magnitude but opposite direction

separated by perpendicular distance d


Resultant force = 0
Tendency to rotate in specified direction
Couple moment = sum of moments of both couple
forces about any arbitrary point

Chapter 4

28

4.6 Moment of a Couple


Scalar Formulation
Magnitude of couple moment
M = Fd
Direction and sense are determined by right hand rule
M acts perpendicular to plane containing the forces

Chapter 4

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4.6 Moment of a Couple


Vector Formulation

For couple moment,


M=rXF
If moments are taken about point A, moment of F is
zero about this point
r is crossed with the force to which it is directed

Chapter 4

30

4.6 Moment of a Couple


Equivalent Couples
2 couples are equivalent if they produce the same
moment
Forces of equal couples lie on the same plane or plane
parallel to one another

Chapter 4

31

4.6 Moment of a Couple


Resultant Couple Moment
Couple moments are free vectors and may be applied
to any point P and added vectorially
For resultant moment of two couples at point P,
MR = M1 + M2
For more than 2 moments,
MR = (r X F)

Chapter 4

32

4.68
The ends of the triangular plate are subjected to three couples.
Determine the plate dimension d so that the resultant couple is
clockwise.

Chapter 4

33

4.83

13th Edition

Express the moment of the


couple acting on the pipe
assembly in Cartesian vector
form. Solve the problem (a)
using Eq. 413, and (b)
summing the moment of
each force about point O.
Take F = 25k N.

4.89
Determine the resultant
couple moment of the
two couples that act on
the pipe assembly. The
distance from A to B is
d = 400mm. Express
the result as a
Cartesian vector.

Chapter 4

35

4.7 Simplification of a Force and


Couple System

An equivalent system is when the external effects are the same as


those caused by the original force and couple moment system
External effects of a system is the translating and rotating motion
of the body
Or refers to the reactive forces at the supports if the body is held
fixed

Chapter 4

36

4.7 Simplification of a Force and


Couple System

Equivalent resultant force acting at point O and a


resultant couple moment is expressed as
FR F

M R O M O M

If force system lies in the xy plane


and couple moments are
perpendicular to this plane,

FR x Fx
FR y Fy
M R O M O M
Chapter 4

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4.7 Simplification of a Force and


Couple System
Procedure for Analysis
1.
Establish the coordinate axes with the origin located
at point O and the axes having a selected orientation
2.
Force Summation
3.
Moment Summation

Chapter 4

38

4.97/98
Replace the force and couple system by an equivalent force
and couple moment at point O and P.

Chapter 4

39

4.102/103

Replace the three forces acting on the beam by a single


resultant force. Specify where the force acts measured from
end A and B.

Chapter 4

40

4.109
Replace the force
system by an
equivalent force and
couple moment at point
A.

Chapter 4

41

4.120/121

Replace the loading on the frame


by a single resultant force.
Specify where its line of action
intersects member AB, measured
from A.
Replace the loading on the frame
by a single resultant force.
Specify where its line of action
intersects member CD, measured
from end C.

Chapter 4

42

4.9 Reduction of a Simple Distributed


Loading

Large surface area of a body may be subjected to distributed


loadings
Loadings on the surface is defined as pressure
Pressure is measured in Pascal (Pa): 1 Pa = 1N/m2

Uniform Loading Along a Single Axis

Most common type of distributed


loading is uniform along a
single axis

4.9 Reduction of a Simple Distributed


Loading
Magnitude of Resultant Force
Magnitude of dF is determined from
differential area dA under the loading
curve.
For length L,

FR w x dx dA A
L

Magnitude of the resultant force is equal


to the total area A under the loading
diagram.

4.9 Reduction of a Simple Distributed


Loading
Location of Resultant Force

MR = MO
dF produces a moment of xdF = x w(x) dx about O
For the entire plate,

x FR xw( x)dx

M Ro M O

Solving for

xw( x)dx xdA


L

w( x)dx
L

dA
A

4.138
The loading on the bookshelf is distributed as shown. Determine the
magnitude of the equivalent resultant location, measured from point O.

30N/m

50N/m

1m
1.5m

0.5m

4.139
Replace the distributed loading with an equivalent resultant force, and
specify its location on the beam measured from point O.

4.142
Replace the loading by an equivalent force and couple moment acting on
point O.

End of Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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