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Domains of Development
Timing of Inuence (cri cal-acquire certain adap ve behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately s mula ng
environment/sensi ve period-certain capaci es to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to
environmental inuences)
Age-graded norma ve inuencesNorma ve Histroy-Graded inuence
Non-norma ve inuences
Mechanis c Model (passive)(con nuous) : people are machines reac ng to the environment
Organismic Model: (ac ve)(Stages): Children set their own development in mo on
Five perspec ves
Psychoanaly c
o Unconscious forces mo vate behavior/achieve pleasure & avoid pain
o Id-The largest por on of the mind, the source of basic biological needs and desires
o ego-emerges in early infancy to redirect the id's impulses so that they are discharged in acceptable
o superego-develops through parents who insist that children conform to the values of society
o Have basic understanding of Freuds psychosexual development. You dont need to know specics of
each stage.
o Erikson: Basic trust vs mistrust - Birth to 1 year To develop a sense that the world is safe, a "good
place" To realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions.
o autonomy vs shame and doubt-1 to 3 years To realize that one is an independent person who can
make decisions.
o Classic condi oning-repeated pairing with a s mulus that normally elicits a response, comes to elicit a
similar or even iden cal response
o operant condi oning-behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety o reinforcers or
decreases through punishment
o Social learning-Emphasizes modeling/ imita on or observable learning as a powerful source of
o Albert Bandura: observa onal learning/modeling (video: bobo dolls)
Cogni ve- thinking
o Piaget: States that children ac vely construct their understanding of the world and go through four
stages of cogni ve development.
Organiza on: schemes-an organized pa ern of thought and behavior
Adapta on: Assimila on - Forcing new experiences into exis ng schemas&
accommoda on-Adap ng one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new
informa on.
Equilibra on
o Vygotskys-Focoused on the ways that adults convey to children the beliefs, customs and skills of their
culture. Believed that because a fundamental aim of all socie es is to children to acquired essen al
cultural values and skills, every aspect of a child development must be considered against this
o Bioecological theory (just need to know that this theory ts with contextual, dont need details of
each level of the theory just how our development can be inuenced by various levels)
Evolu onary/sociobiological

o Darwin: survival of the est/natural selec on

Dierent twins1.dizygo c twinWhen a mother's body releases two ova within a short me and both are fer lized, the result is
2.When a mother's body releases one ova that splits in two, the result is monozygo c twins.
Dominant-Tommy has dark hair, his wife Mary has dark hair, and their newborn daughter has dark hair. This shows
& recessive inheritance Heterozygous
Recessive inheritance rr
Dominant inheritance RR, Rr

Stages of prenatal development

Fetal-At about eight week's gesta on, the rst bone cells appear in forma on;
Maternal & paternal factors

Social Trends
Humanizing childbirth
Types of birthing methods
Apgar scale & Brazelton Assessment
Birth Complica ons
Newborns senses
Early Reexes (locomotor & postural)
Visual cli video

Behaviorist approach-Basic mechanics of learning. How behavior changes in response to experience
Abecedarian Project
Piage an-Changes/Stages in quality of cogni ve func oning. How mind structures ac vi es an adapts.
Sensorimotor- Birth to 2 years Characteris cs:Infant knowledge of the world is base on senses and motor
skills; by the end of the period, uses mental representa on.
o 6substages
Object permanence
Imita on styles
Informa on Processing
Categoriza on
Reading Styles

Temperament-(The how of behavior, but not the what) biological predisposi on of reac vity. Highly heritable and

Easy-Generally happy, respond well to change.

Slow to warm up-Generally mild reac ons. Hesitant to change and new experiences.
Dicult-More irritable and harder to please. Irregular biological rhythms and intense in expressing emo on.

A achment (strange situa on) technique used to study infant a achment (mother leaves and comes back)

Eriksons (know virtue achieved and understand the

consequences of failure) hope and will

Trust vs Mistrust- Newborns/infants develop sense of reliability of people and objects

Autonomy -Shi from external control to self control. Emerges from trust and self-awareness (terrible twos)vs
shame-Help toddler recognize need for limits

Abuse-Physical, neglect, sexual, emo onal maltreatment.