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A STUDY OF ENGLISH TEACHERS CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

IN SMP N 2 KEC. HARAU KAB.50 KOTA

Journal

Submitted as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirement for Strata one (S1) Degree

GIOVANNI OKTAVINANDA
2011.1105974

Advisors:
Prof. Dr. M. Zaim M.Hum
Dr. Zul Amri M.Ed

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ART
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI PADANG
2016

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

ISSN: 2302-3198

English Teachers Classroom ManagementGiovanni Oktavinanda, M. Zaim, Zul Amri

A STUDY OF ENGLISH TEACHERS CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT


IN SMPN 2 KEC.HARAU KAB.50 KOTA
Giovanni Oktavinanda1, M. Zaim2, Zul Amri3
English Education Department Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni
Universitas Negeri Padang
email: giovannioktavinanda@ymail.com
Abstrak
Penelitian ini menganalisis keterampilan pengelolaan kelas guru mata
pelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota. Manajemen
kelas meliputi keterampilan dalam menerapkan classroom rules dan
procedures pada saat memulai dan mengakhiri pelajaran, dalam kegiatan
pembelajaran yang diarahkan oleh guru, masa transisi dan interupsi, serta
respon guru terhadap anak yang bermasalah di dalam kelas. Penelitian ini
bersifat deskriptif dengan subjek penelitian guru tetap yang megajar bahasa
Inggris. Untuk melihat perlakuan guru, penulis menggunakan observation
sheet. Sedangkan interview diberikan kepada guru untuk memverifikasi hasil
dari observasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa guru bahasa Inggris
telah menerapkan classroom rules dan procedures pada saat mengawali dan
menutup pembelajaran, namun terbatas pada aspek menegur anak yang
tidak hadir atau ketinggalan pelajaran pada hari sebelumnya. Pada indikator
kegiatan pembelajaran yang diarahkan oleh guru, cara untuk meminta
bantuan didalam kelas belum tergambarkan dengan jelas. Selanjutnya, pada
waktu transisi dan interupsi, hanya sedikit instruksi yang diberikan kepada
siswa saat keluar dan masuk kelas. Sedangkan respon guru terhadap siswa
yang bermasalah didalam kelas cenderung dalam bentuk nonverbal
response, dan hanya sedikit yang menggunakan verbal response.
Kata Kunci: classroom management, classroom rules, classroom procedures
Abstract
The research analyzed English teachers classroom management in SMPN 2
Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota. Classroom management includes the
1

Student of English Language Teaching Program of FBS UNP graduated on March 2016

Advisor, Lecturer in Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Padang

Co-Advisor, Lecturer in Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Padang

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

establishment of rules and procedures in the beginning and ending the day,
teacher-led activities, transitions and interruptions, and teachers responses
to students with behavior problems. These research uses descriptive research
with the subject of the research were the permanent teachers who teach
English. Observation sheet was used to see the teachers treatment. Whereas
interview was addressed to the teachers in order to verify the result of
observation. The result shows that English teachers have established rules
and procedures in the beginning and ending the day, but they missed to
address the students who missed the work/absence in the previous day.
During teacher-led activities, the way of obtaining help in the classroom did
not clearly seen. Next, the teachers were lack of instruction for the students
in leaving and returning the room in transitions and interruptions time.
Then, teachers responses to students with behaviour problems were mostly
in the form of nonverbal responses, and only few of them used verbal
responses.
Key words: classroom management, classroom rules, classroom procedures
A. Introduction
In teaching and learning process, classroom management is important
for some reasons. First, managing the classroom is about to manage the
classroom time effectively. The effective use of classroom time is an
important aspect in helping the students achieves the learning goals. Second,
classroom management is able to maintain a positive classroom atmosphere.
Positive atmosphere can make the classroom becomes a more pleasant place to
be, more effective and motivating place to learn for the students. Third,
classroom management is about to successfully engage the students.
Classroom management is important for ensuring the students comprehension
in learning the material rather than learn it for short-term memory for tests.
Then, classroom management is able to optimize students learning
achievement. Learning achievement is the performance of a student that
represents various intricacies of students learning such as expectations,
interactions, motivation, and behavior.
Moreover, classroom management will not run well without rules and
procedures. Rules and procedures are the guidelines for students conduct in
the classroom. They are considerable factors needed for a smooth classroom
activity. Rules contain general expectations or standards related to students
behaviour in the classroom. Meanwhile, procedures establish the routines that
will be done every day in classroom activities.
However, if classrooms are lack of rules and procedures, they
generally become problem. The classrooms will be chaos and the activities do
not run as expected. Moreover, the efficiency of rules and procedures in the
classroom are also influenced by students characteristics and behaviours.
Data from the interview with the teachers, observation, and
environment showed that there were unexpected behaviours performed by
students in SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab.50 Kota. It was found that some of the
students disposed to be apathetic during teaching and learning process in the

ISSN: 2302-3198

English Teachers Classroom ManagementGiovanni Oktavinanda, M. Zaim, Zul Amri

classroom. Then, according to the data from environment, it was understood


that the students behaviour in the classroom were resulted from the low
awareness of the importance of education that was not only had by the
students but also their parents. Moreover, another aspect noticed by the
researcher while conducting the research in SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota
was the condition of the environment around the school that sometimes slower
the students to go to school. The landmarks around this school are the lowland
with fields, swamps, rivers, and hills. Whenever the heavy rain falls at night, it
was hard for the students to go to school because almost all of the ways were
highly flooded.
The kind of problems which are stated above was assumed to affect
teaching and learning process and the teachers classroom management in
SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota. Therefore, the research questions will be:
1) How are English teachers classroom rules and procedures in the beginning
and ending the day in SMPN 2 Kec.Harau Kab. 50 Kota? 2) How are English
teachers classroom rules and procedures during teachers-led activities in
SMPN 2 Kec.Harau Kab. 50 Kota? 3) How are English teachers classroom
rules and procedures during transitions and interruptions in SMPN 2
Kec.Harau Kab. 50 Kota? and 4) How are English teachers responses of
students with behavior problems in SMPN 2 Kec.Harau Kab. 50 Kota?.
It is expected that the findings of this research can give contributions.
The result of this research would enrich the theories of classroom management
in general especially classroom rules and procedures as a way for English
teachers to minimize the distractions and instructional time and optimize
teaching and learning process. Besides, this research would hoped to help the
English teachers by giving the description about their teaching process and
also could be an evaluation tools for them and also English teaching in SMPN
2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 kota. Then, it could be parameter for other English
teachers or the teachers to be to establish rules and procedures in the
classroom.
B. Research Methods
This research was designed as a descriptive research. As stated by
Boudah (2011: 10), descriptive research is a type of research through which
the researcher tries to understand and report what already exist, and the
characteristics of a current or past situation. It was done in form of
observational research.
This research was conducted at SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota.
The subject of this research was the permanent English teachers of SMPN 2
Kec. Harau Kab.50 Kota. There were 5 (five) teachers teaching from grade 7
to grade 9. For the respondent of the research, 3 (three) of the teachers were
selected (Teacher 1, Teacher 2 and Teacher 3) but the responsible classes
were limited to 2 (two) classes for each teacher.
In order to find out the results, the research instrument used in this
research was observation sheet that was used to lead the researcher in order to
gain the information related to English teachers classroom rules and

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

procedures. It consisted of twenty-nine items, sixteen sub-indicators and


distributed over the four domains, which was adapted from the theories of
Marzano et al (2003), Burden and Byrd (2010) and Jones and Jones (2010).
The first domain concerns with the beginning and ending the day consisting
of 8 (eight) items. The second domain is related to teacher-led activities,
consisting of 10 (ten) items. The third domain is related to transitions and
interruptions, consisting of 5 (five) items. In addition, the fourth domain deals
with responding to the students with behaviour problems, consisting of 5
(five) items.
Besides, Interview guideline was used to get detailed data related to
the result of observation sheet. The interview was addressed to the teachers in
order to ask about certain items, which are directly related to the result of
observation sheet that were considered necessary and doubtful. As Stainback
and Stainback (1988) mention that interviewing provides the researcher a
means to gain a deeper understanding of how the participant interpret a
situation that cannot be gained through the observation alone.
The data collected through direct observation involved the observation
of English teachers behaviour as it occurs. During the observation, the
researcher joined English classrooms and acted as a non-participant observer
as the researcher did not interact with or affect the object of the observation.
Three English teachers were observed when they were teaching in two
different classes for two meetings. For the interview, the researcher used
recording to support and strengthen the data. Through the interview, the
researcher knew the detailed information regard some phenomenon that did
not appear during the observation.
In analyzing the data from observation, this research described and
analyzed the result of observation related to observation sheet. First, the
observation sheets were analyzed. Then the data were identified, and coded in
order to easier them to be understood. Then, the descriptions were drawn
based on the data. Furthermore, the data from the interview were transcribed
from the recording into written form. Then, they were interpreted to support
the data of observation sheet that have been gained previously. Finally, the
conclusions were drawn from the data of observation and interview in order
to answer the research questions.
C. Findings and Discussions
The findings of this research are the result of the observation on
English teachers classroom rules and procedures and the result of interview
addressed to the teachers.
1. Rules and procedures in the beginning and ending the day
The observations were conducted for six times at class VIII1, VIII2,
VIII3, VII1, VII2, and VII6 at SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota. They were at
November 23th, 2015, November 24th, 2015, November 26th, 2015, November
30th, 2015, and December 1st, 2015. Each meeting was observed in about 90
minutes length. During the observation, the aspect of classrooms rules and
procedures in the beginning and ending the day were developed into 5 sub-

ISSN: 2302-3198

English Teachers Classroom ManagementGiovanni Oktavinanda, M. Zaim, Zul Amri

indicators. They are taking attendance at the beginning of the period (items 12), addressing students who missed the work/absence in the previous day
(item 3), addressing students who come late (item 4), clear expectations for
homework (items 5-6), and ending the period (items 7-8). Below are the
findings.
Table 1: Rules and Procedures in the beginning and ending the day applied
by English teachers in SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota
Meetings
No
1
2
3

5
6
7
8

Rules and procedures in the


beginning and ending the day

Teacher 1

Teacher 2

Teacher 3

Total

Greet the students as soon as arrived


at the class
Take the students attendance
Instruct those who missed the work or
absent in the previous day to complete
the missed works

6
1

Address the students who come late


and deal with consequences for tardy
students (depends on the tally and the
students reason for being late)
Summarize the points of the lesson
Ask for students understanding and
hand over homework
Instruct the students to be ready and
clean up learning materials
Dismisses the students
Total

4
6

The rules and procedures established by the teachers in the beginning


and ending the day are the concrete evidence that the teachers are aware and
have the responsibility toward their classroom. As Marzano et al (2005: 15)
note that rules and procedures that are established in the beginning and
ending the period of the day is one way to get most instructional time and
reinforce a sense of structure and consistency, and communicate that the
classroom is a place for learning.
The teachers had completely established rules and procedures in
taking the students attendance. This action is in accordance with McLeod et
al., (2003: 35) who mention that taking attendance is the primary
responsibility of the teachers and should be done soon as the students engage
in the opening activity like greetings. The teachers in this research also
fostered positive relationship with the student as a manner of providing them
with a warm environment by greeting them first soon as the students arrived
in the classroom.
Then, rules and procedures in addressing the students who missed the
work or absent in the previous day did not appear during the observation
because none of the students were absent in the previous day. In addition,
from the interview, it was known that the teachers addressed the students who
missed the work or absent in the previous day. Substantively, it is good for

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

the teachers to be were aware and care of the students who missed their work
or absent in the previous day since when the students missed their work, they
are on the red line. It means, they are risky to lose their chance to comprehend
the learning materials, and it will affect their school grade if they do not
completely learn the whole lesson.
Similarly, the rules and procedures in addressing the students who
come late were also did not appear in the observation but it was explained
from interview that the teachers addressed the students who come late. As
stated in Chapter 1, some of the students did not get full support from their
parents to study and join the school. As a result, these students will come late
to school and loss their learning time. These late comers will disturb the
teachers in the classroom and the whole class as they break the learning
atmosphere and catch everyones attentions.
Besides, the teachers in this research also established rules and
procedures at the end of the day. The teachers have summarized the lesson at
the end of the class in order to make sure what are the points and the parts of
the lesson that need to be comprehended by the students.
2. Rules and procedures in Teacher-led activities
The observation that was done to find out rules and procedures in
teacher-led activities consist of 5 sub-indicators. They are student attention
during presentations (items 9-10), student remains on their seat (seatwork)
(items 11-12), student participation (items 13-14), obtaining help (items 1516), and behavior when work has been finished (items 17-18). Below are the
findings.
Table 2: Rules and Procedures in Teacher-led activities applied by English teachers in
SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota
Meetings
No
9
10

Rules and procedures in teacher-led activities


Cue everyone to stop talking and pays
attention because the lesson is about to begin
Instruct the students to open the worksheet

Teacher 1

Teacher 2

Teacher 3

Total

1
-

2
-

11

Give clear explanation before the students


begin their work

12

Work through the first part of the assignment

13

Invite the students to ask for questions about


the lesson
Give feedback for students responses or
questions
Ask the students to raise their hand when
they need help from the teacher
Approach the students or signal them to
come to the teacher
Tell the students to stay at seat and check
their work when it is finished
Assign the students another work to do in
order to minimize the noise
Total

10

14
15
16
17
18

ISSN: 2302-3198

English Teachers Classroom ManagementGiovanni Oktavinanda, M. Zaim, Zul Amri

Based on the observation, the teachers established procedures in


gaining students attention during the teachers presentation. They used
certain ways to have the students attention, for example used cues for stop
talking and pay attention, and instructed the students to open the worksheet
first. This is important since less attention performed by the students will
make the activities run in vain as the object of the learning process do not
fully involved. Then, In case where the student began to work on their seat
(seatwork), the teachers gave clear explanation and modelled the way to do
the work.
Besides, the teachers performed rules and procedures in promoting the
students participation by inviting them to ask questions related to the lesson.
It is because in certain classes, the students will not voluntarily hands up to
ask questions. Then, the teachers gave feedback for the response or question.
This action is worthy since the teachers appropriate response toward the
students will stimulate their positive behaviour in order to keep them
participating in the next activity.
Then, another action was performed by the students when they raised
their hand for their sake. These students seemed to have known the
procedures for obtaining help without being informed by the teachers all the
time. Evertson and Emmer (2009: 29) state that at the time when the students
are working in their seat and need the teachers help, the teacher can ask them
to raise their hand first. Responding to the students, the teachers indicated
variation of response, such as came to the students and signalled them to
come to the teachers.
In addition, the teachers also established the rules and procedures
related to the students who have finished their work. The teachers instructed
the students to stay at seats and check their work or assigned the students
another work to do. This is a good decision as this direct directions given by
the teachers is able to minimize the possible noises come from the students
and can effectively direct the students to continue their learning. As Evertson
and Emmer (2009: 30) say that either by having students complete an
additional enrichment assignment or by allowing these students to use the
remaining time for free reading or work at a center.
3. Rules and procedures in Transitions and Interruptions
The observation that was done to find out rules and procedures in
transitions and interruptions consist of 3 sub-indicators. They are give clear
instructions about what to do and to prepare for the next activity (items 1920), leaving and returning the room (items 21-22), and split break time period
(item 23). Below are the findings.

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

Table 3: Rules and Procedures in transitions and interruptions applied by English teachers
in SMPN 2 Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota
Meetings
Rules and procedures in transitions and
interruptions

No
19
20
21
22
23

Tell the students to be prepared for the next


activity
Inform the students about what is going to be
done or learnt in the next activity
Tell the students to request for permission if
they want to leave the room
Tell the students to enter the room quietly
and have a seat
Indicate the break time and time to stop the
lesson
Total

Teacher 1

Teacher 2

Teacher 3

Total

Based on the observation and interview, the teachers gave clear


instruction for the students about what should they do and prepare for the next
activity. By doing this action, the students will be focused on the direction and
leave the chance to make noise. Besides, rules and procedures were also
established by the teachers when the students need to leave and return to the
room. The teachers instructed them to ask for their permission first and then
return the room quietly and have a seat. This action is necessary to keep the
order in the classroom. In addition, the teachers indicated the break time and
stopped the lesson.

3. Responding to students with behaviour problems


The observation that was done to find out teachers responses to
students with behavior problems consist of 3 sub-indicators. They are
nonverbal responses (items 24, 25, 26), verbal responses (items 27, 28), and
moderate responses (item 29). Below are the findings.
Table 4: English Teachers responses to students with behaviour problems in SMPN 2
Kec. Harau Kab. 50 Kota
Meetings
No

Responding to students with behavior problems

Teacher 1

Teacher 2

Teacher 3

Total

24

Use eye contact, finger, or shake his/her head to


indicate that the students are doing inappropriate
behavior

25

Use proximity by moving closer to the students

26

Touch the students to get them back on task

27
28

Call on the students who are doing inappropriate


behavior
Send
I-message to the disruptive students

2
0

29

Give consequence for the students who keep


misbehaving

Total

ISSN: 2302-3198

English Teachers Classroom ManagementGiovanni Oktavinanda, M. Zaim, Zul Amri

Based on the observation, it is found that most of the teachers used


nonverbal response as their first response to the students with behaviour
problems. These teachers decision were precise and wise since nonverbal
response such as disapproving stare (the teacher look), making eye contact,
and using hand signals (Cooper et al., 2011: 236) were appropriate to signal
the students. Nonverbal response will not take much time and disturb the
learning atmosphere.
Furthermore, verbal response is the next step to respond to the
students with behavior problem when nonverbal responses fail to redirect the
students to appropriate task. From the research findings, few of the teachers
used verbal response dealing with the students with behavior problems. The
teachers called on the students who for example, keep talking during the
lesson, to mention that they should stop the behavior. This action indicates
that the misbehave students have disturbed the class and the learning process.
Therefore, this second alarm given by the teachers should be the strong warn
to the misbehave students.
Besides, moderate responses are the responses in the form of punitive
ways to deal with misbehavior in order to decrease the possibility of
misbehavior to reoccur (Burden and Byrd, 2010: 268). From the research
findings, none of moderate responses used by the teachers since there was any
need to use it. It was because that the students were no longer misbehaved or
continued their inappropriate behavior after the teachers called their name.
This situation inferred that the students were precisely good students. They
understand the teachers signal and quickly changed their behavior.
D. Conclusions and Suggestions
1. Conclusions
Based on the findings and discussion, the conclusions can be made as
follows. First, the English teachers have established almost all the aspects in
the beginning and ending the day in the observation sheet, but they missed to
address the students who missed the work/absence in the previous day.
Second, they established rules and procedures in teacher-led activities, but
they did not clearly established the way of obtaining help in the classroom.
Third, they established rules and procedures in transitions and interruptions,
but they lacked of instruction for the students in leaving and returning the
room. The last, most of the teachers used nonverbal response to redirect the
students to appropriate behavior, few of them used verbal response, and none
moderate responses used.
2. Suggestions
Based on the conclusion above, some suggestions are proposed. It is
suggested to for the teachers to be more aware of the students and
classrooms conditions since the teachers behavior will affect the
classrooms atmosphere. Second, it is also suggested for the teachers to fully
establish rules and procedures in their classroom so that the learning process
will be more effective. Since well-ordered classroom is one way to enhance
the quality of a classroom.

Journal of English Language Teaching Vol 4. No.2 Serie A. March 2016

Other suggestions are addressed for the next researchers who want to
conduct research dealing with classroom management. Since this research is limited
on the analysis of teachers classroom rules and procedures, it is suggested to
another researcher to continue and develop further research related the others
classroom management aspects. Moreover, the time to do the research have to be
planned well

Note: This article is written based on the Giovanni Oktavinandas thesis under
the supervision of Prof. Dr. M. Zaim, M.Hum 1st advisor and Dr. Zul
Amri, M.Ed 2nd advisor.
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Cooper, James M et l. 2011. Classroom Teaching Skills (9th ed). Wadsworth,
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Carolyn M. and Edmund T. Emmer. 2009. CLASSROOM


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works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, Association for Supervision and
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ISSN: 2302-3198