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Thermal Integrity Profiling:

The Method and a Case Study


Camilo Alvarez, GRL Engineers, Inc.
Khamis Haramy, Federal Highway Administration
Gray Mullins, FGE and the University of South Florida
Brent Robinson and Gina Beim, Pile Dynamics, Inc.

Foundation & Geotechnical


Engineering

Why Test Integrity?

Thermal Integrity Profiling


Temperature from concrete curing is

directly related to concrete quality


Heat from concrete curing evaluates

concrete both inside and outside cage


(100% testing entire section)
Obtain temperature vs. depth vs. quadrant
Infra-red probe via CSL tubes
Thermal wires on cage cast in shaft

Shaft Heat Signature

70

60

50

40

30

S46
S37
S28

20

31

28

25

S10

22

19

16

13

10

S19

Temperature

80

S1

Data Interpretation
Cage alignment
110

120

Degrees F
130

140

Data Interpretation
Cage Alignment

150

0
5
10
15

Depth (ft.)

20

A1
A2

25
30
35
40
45
50

AVG

Data Interpretation
Local Defect near C2

Data Interpretation
Local Defect

Degrees F
90

110

130

150

10

15

Depth (ft.)

20

C1
C2

25

30

35

40

45

50

Average

C2

C1

Test Procedure using probes


To
Depth
Encoder

Transfer water from first tube into container


Warm temperature probe
Lower probe into tube data collected
from top to bottom 1/sec. rate

CSL
Tubes

Remove probe
Transfer water from second tube into first
Repeat scan in second tube
Continue for all remaining tubes

H2O Container

Thermal Integrity Profiler (TIP) - probe testing

Thermal Wire Data Collection


TAP

TAP

TIP
Computer

Future: Wireless
transmission from
TAP to computer,
and offsite

Thermal
wires
10

Thermal wires
eliminate need for
access tubes

Analysis: Direct Observation (Field)


Verify shaft length - Identify top and bottom
Confirm cage alignment
Locate changes in shaft diameter

Locate immediate areas of concern

Scatter Creek
Shaft A
70

Temperature (deg F)
80

90

100

110

120

Field Observations:
Scatter Creek, Florida

10

T1

No cage eccentricity

(all tubes ~same temp)

15

Depth (ft)

T2
20

T3
T4

25
Avg
30

Clean top and toe

signature (approximate
1 diameter temperature
roll-off top and bottom)

35

Good Shaft
40

Level 2: Added Field Records


Confirm direct observations
and preliminary information
Find relationship between concrete volume
and measured temperature
Predict as-built shaft radius, shape, and cover

Correlate soil strata to thermal conductivity and

observe influence on less prominent temperature


fluctuations

No Correction for
Over-pour Concrete

Temperature (deg F)

Method Shaft
70

90

110

130

150

0
Average
10
Grnd Surf

Depth (ft)

20

TOS

30

WT

40

BOC

50

TOLime
TOR

60

BOS
70
Effective
Diam.

80

Theoretical
Diam.

90
100
0

Shaft Diam (ft)

10

No Correction for
Tremie filling /
volume

Shape of avg.
profile mimics
diameter from
concrete yield
Average temp. is
determined for a
given truck yield
(diam.)

How to determine radius?


Correlate temp. with concrete volume
Measure the temperature gradient
Thermal Wire option

Short parallel separate wire of known offset


Attach to cross brace
Simplifies the interpretation

Model the mix to get the gradient

Temperature to Radius Conversion


60

Radius (in)

50
40
R = 0.8113T - 51.265
30

0.81 Inch / degree F


(high slag content)

20
10
0
114

Can vary from 0.15 to 1.00 Inch / degree F


(depends on mix design)

116

118

120

122

Temperature (F)

124

126

128

Case Study US FHWA

Shaft Details
Halstead Medows Bridge
Tubes (3) and T-wires (4 +2 Grad)

38 inch diameter casing (0-20)

002

36 inch diameter (20-49)


30 inch rebar diameter

Tube 2
001

Tube 3

49 ft long
~18% more concrete required

CSL and Thermal Testing


Poured 9/19/2011

003

000
Tube 1

Abutment 2

Pier 2
SW-SM

SM

SM

Abutment 2

Pier 2

Basic Temperature Display


Abutment 2 Pile C
0
50

70

90

110

130

-5

-10

-15

Refusal

Depth (ft)

-20
000

001

-25

003
004

Average

-30

-35

-40

-45

-50

Temperature (F)

Corrected Shaft Radius Display


Abutment 2 Pile C

3D Representation
Abutment 2 Pile C
Sequoia Abutment 2 Pile C
Shaft Radius (ft)
-2

-1

-3

-5

-5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

Depth (ft)

Depth (ft)

-3

Sequoia Abutment 2 Pile C


Shaft Radius (ft)

30

35

35

40

40

45

45

50

50

55

55

60

60

-2

-1

CSL Results Abutment 2 Pile C

Abutment 2

Pier 2

Corrected Shaft Radius Display


Pier 2 Pile C
0
10

15

20

25

30

-10

-20

Depth (ft)

009 radius

010 radius
011 radius

-30

012 radius

Cage
18 inches
average
-40

-50

-60

Shaft Radius (in)

3D Representation
Pier 2 Pile C
Sequoia Pier 2 Pile C
Shaft Radius (ft)
-2

-1

-3

-5

-5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

35

Depth (ft)

Depth (ft)

-3

Sequoia Pier 2 Pile C


Shaft Radius (ft)

30

35

40

40

45

45

50

50

55

55

60

60

65

65

-2

-1

CSL Results Pier 2 Pile C

Abutment 2 and Pier 2


Sequoia Pier 2 Pile C
Shaft Radius (ft)

Sequoia Abutment 2 Pile C


Shaft Radius (ft)
-2

-1

-3

-5

10

10

15

15

20

20

25

25

30

35

Depth (ft)

Depth (ft)

-3
-5

30

35

40

40

45

45

50

50

55

55

60

60

65

-2

-1

Summary
Significant improvements in NDT technology over the

last 20 years.
CSL, PIT and Gamma Gamma continue to provide
useful information
Thermal Integrity Profiling promising for determining
Integrity of 100% of shaft
Cage location and alignment
Concrete cover

Overall profile of the shaft