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INTRODUCTION

Hydraulic machines are machinery and tools that use liquid fluid power to do
simple work. Heavy equipment is a common example. In this type of machine, hydraulic
fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic
cylinders and becomes pressurised according to the resistance present.

Figure: 1.1- figure showing hdryaulic pressure with respect to piston.


A hydraulic arm works by using high fluid pressure, created by a pump, to force a piston in
a cylinder to move. As a valve is opened one way, the fluid is allowed to enter the cylinder
and force the piston to move.
figure: 1.2 - hydraulic arm crank
An example of a typical hydraulic system would be a three-way valve operated by a
lever. In the central position, the valve is closed. In the forward position, the valve is
open, allowing the fluid to flow and push against the bottom of the piston and forcing it
to extend. In the rear position, the valve opens to allow the fluid to flow in the opposite
direction, making the piston contract. Oil is generally used because of its lubricating and
anticorrosive features, but water could be used as an alternative(we used water in our
experiment due to it's easy availability and cheap cost).

HYDRAULIC MACHINARY'S HISTORY


Joseph Bramah patented the hydraulic press in 1795.[1] While working at Bramah's shop, Henry
Maudslay suggested a cup leather packing. Because it produced superior results, the hydraulic press
eventually displaced the steam hammer from metal forging.
To supply small scale power that was impractical for individual steam engines, central station
hydraulic systems were developed. Hydraulic power was used to operate cranes and other machinery
in British ports and elsewhere in Europe. The largest hydraulic system was in London. Hydraulic
power was used extensively in Bessemer steel production. Hydraulic power was also used for
elevators, to operate canal locks and rotating sections of bridges.[1][3] Some of these systems

remained in use well into the twentieth century.


Harry Franklin Vickers was called the "Father of Industrial Hydraulics" by ASME.
figur1.3 :- olden days of hydraulic engineering

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
Hydraulic engineering is the application of fluid mechanics principles to problems dealing with the
collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water.[1] Before
beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The
hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the
water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition.[1] "The hydraulic
engineer actually develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such
as spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related structures for
irrigation projects, and cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants

."

HYDRAULIC FLUID
figure1.4 :- hyd
raulic fluid(oil)
Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering defines hydrostatics as the study of fluids at rest.[1] In a
fluid at rest, there exists a force, known as pressure, that acts upon the fluid's surroundings. This
pressure, measured in N/m2, is not constant throughout the body of fluid. Pressure, p, in a given body
of fluid, increases with an increase in depth. Where the upward force on a body acts on the base and
can be found by equation:
{\displaystyle p=\rho gy} p=\rho gy
where,
= density of water
g = specific gravity
y = depth of the body of liquid
Rearranging this equation gives you the pressure head p/g = y. Four basic devices for pressure
measurement are a piezometer, manometer, differential manometer, Bourdon gauge, as well as an
inclined manometer.[1]
As Prasuhn states:

On undisturbed submerged bodies, pressure acts along all surfaces of a body in a liquid, causing
equal perpendicular forces in the body to act against the pressure of the liquid. This reaction is
known as equilibrium. More advanced applications of pressure are that on plane surfaces, curved
surfaces, dams, and quadrant gates, just to name a few.[1]

BEHAVIOR OF FLUID ;REAL AND IDEAL


The main difference between an ideal fluid and a real fluid is that for ideal flow p1 = p2 and for real
flow p1 > p2. Ideal fluid is incompressible and has no viscosity. Real fluid has viscosity. Ideal fluid is
only an imaginary fluid as all fluids that exist have some viscosity.
Viscous flow[edit]
A viscous fluid will deform continuously under a shear force, whereas an ideal fluid doesn't deform.
Laminar flow and turbulence[edit]
The various effects of disturbance on a viscous flow are stable, transition and unstable.
Bernoulli's equation[edit]
For an ideal fluid, Bernoulli's equation holds along streamlines.
p/g + u/2g = p1/g + u1/2g = p2/g + u2/2g
Boundary layer[edit]
Assuming a flow is bounded on one side only, and that a rectilinear flow passing over a stationary flat
plate which lies parallel to the flow, the flow just upstream of the plate has a uniform velocity. As the
flow comes into contact with the plate, the layer of fluid actually 'adheres' to a solid surface.FLUIDS
-

CONSRUCION & WORKING :1. MATERIALS a.table


b.plywood
c.syringes
d.plastic tubes
e.metal wire.
f.nails.

g.nuts & bolts.


h.liquid(water).
i.tube connecter.
j.pencil.
k.rubber.
l.drill machine

figure :- 1.5 required materials

2.CONSTRUCTION :first of all we put a plywood on the table. then take a light
weight rod then cut it in our desired shape. Then after
assembling it in our desired shape we fixed it on The table.
Then put he syringes on the required joints so that we can
move their joints by exerting required amount of force on the
fluid(water) by means of pressure.Then finaly we put the
sringes with the connecting .
Now it's ready to move by appling pressure on the syringes.
After all these efforts we made this "hydraulic arm project
with water as a fluid".
figure1.6 :- final project
3.WORKING PROCEDURE:Hydraulics is used in many applications we see or use every
day. The brakes in an automobile or the lift on the bucket of a
tractor are two very common applications.RR We can
experiment with simple hydraulics using plastic syringes for
cylinders and small plastic tubing for the hydraulic hose. One
definition I read for hydraulics was, the movement of
pressurized liquids through confined spaces.
Like working with gears, pulleys, or levers; a mechanical
advantage can be realized by using different size cylinders on
the end of the hydraulic connections. By trading distance
moved with the amount of force the advantage is realized.

USES OF HYDRAULIC ARM:Hydraulics is our lifeblood. We know all there is to


know about them but we mostly encounter them in
heavy machinery through the calibration, repair and
installation of rail for example. We also use hydraulics
in bolting with hydraulic torque wrenches for
example.
But surely its not just used for lifting trains and
tightening bolts? We racked our brains in the office to
come up with ideas for where hydraulics are used in
everyday life. Heres our list, can you come up with
any others?
Gasoline pumps. They make use of hydraulics to draw
the fuel from their storage tank to the vehicle.
Cars. A hydraulic brake circuit operates a cars brakes
on all four wheels
a.) hydraulic machine helping in lifting car.
b.) :- hydraulic lift by gas.
figure1.7 :- figure showing hydraulic machines uses in real life

CONCLUSION:I conclude the measurement, data and observaion in my analysis is correct and predict
that my margin of error is within tolerant limits.