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THE DFI MIDDLE EAST

CONFERENCE 2012
Performance Based Approach for a Deep
Excavation in Poor Subsoil Conditions
- A Case Study
*

H. TURAN DURGUNOLU, PhD., P.E., G.E., F. ASCE


Emeritus Professor, Bogazici University / Istanbul / Turkey
Chairman, Zetas Zemin Teknolojisi A.S. / Istanbul / Turkey
email: durgunoglut@zetas.com.tr Tel: 90-216-4844170

AKNOWLEDGEMENT
This case study has been realized with the contributions of;
Mr. Fatih Kulac, PE, CEO of Zetas,
Mr. Selim Ikiz, PE, General Manager of Zetas,
Mr Onder Akcakal and Berkay Kocak, PE, Engineering Group of
Zetas,
Mr Ali Gunay, GE, Project Manager of Zetas
Special thanks are due to Project development group SURYAPI for their
kind cooperation. Special thanks are due to;
Mr. Altan Elmas, General Manager of Suryapi
Mr. O. Ramiz Soylu, Deputy General Manager of Suryapi
Mr. Ismail Turkeli, Project Manager of Suryapi

KAGITHANE DISTRICT :
A New Investment Area of ISTANBUL

(www.kagithane.bel.tr)

Kagithane known as Sadabad in the Past

(www.kagithane.bel.tr)

Kagithane known as Sadabad in the Past

(www.kagithane.bel.tr)

Kagithane River Rehabilitation Project;


Sea water will be delivered with Tunnel
Project to the Kagithane Creek
Tunnel Project

Existing River
Halic
Bosphorus

BIG INVESTMENTS
AND CHALLANGING PROJECTS ALONG
KAGITHANE CREEK

Shopping Mall Project


Office Projects
Residence Projects
All are being constructed simultaneously on
unfavorable soil conditions.

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
Total Construction
Area: 70.000 m
Plot Area: 10.200 m

4 Basements + 4 Floors
Perimeter 462 m

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
PLAN VIEW OF THE PLOT

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
SECTION OF THE BUILDING

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
SOIL PROFILE

Section 1 Clay

Section 2 Clay + Bedrock

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI

SOIL PROPERTIES
Layer
Clayey Alluvium
Sandstone
Improved Soil (with Jet
Grouting)

(kN/m)

()

c (kN/m)

18
23

26
38

10
40

25
150

20

30

40

90

E50ref (Mpa)

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
GOLDEN HORN (HALIC) CLAY
ATTERBERG LIMITS
Bore Hole

Depth

LL

PL

PI

USCS

S1

6.00-6.50

40

21.8

18.2

CL

S1

19.50-20.00

47.7

23.4

24.3

CL

S2

7.50-8.00

40.3

21.5

18.8

CL

S2

18.00-18.50

46

22.7

23.3

CL

S2

22.50-22.95

56.6

24.7

31.9

CH

S3

4.50-4.95

27

20.4

6.6

CL-ML

S3

15.00-15.50

31.7

20.1

11.6

CL

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
PRELIMINARY (TENDER) DESIGN BY
GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTING GROUP
Depth of Shoring 17m
80 cm Bored Piles
2 Rows 60 cm Jet
Grout Columns
7 Rows of Prestressed
Anchorages

KAGITHANE SHOPPING MALL PROJECT


SURYAPI
PRELIMINARY (TENDER) DESIGN BY
GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTING GROUP

PRELIMINARY (TENDER) DESIGN BY


GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTING GROUP

MODELLING WITH PLAXIS

Excessive Displacement with Preliminary


Design
280 mm (%1,6)

AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION
(Section 1)

5 m excavation +
anchorge
Soil Improvement
with jet grouting
5 m berm and
excavation to 17 m
depth with a 1/1
inclined slope
Construction of core
part of the
superstructure
Excavation of
remaining area to 17
m depth with
strutting

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION CONSTRUCTION PHASES

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION - DISPLACEMENTS

Expected displacement was 72 mm (%0,4)

ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION - DISPLACEMENTS

Up to 100 mm (%0,6) displacement is encountered during


construction due to erosion of the berm due to rainfall
100 (%0,6)mm << 280 (%1,6)mm (Expected displacement with
tender design)

INCREASE OF DISPLACEMENTS WITH TIME

DESIGN FOR SECTION 2

COSTRUCTION OF PERMANENT DIAPHRAGM WALL

Water Stops are installed


between diaphragm wall
panels

COSTRUCTION OF PERMANENT DIAPHRAGM WALL


Water Stops are installed
with special hydraulic
Stop-Ends

Stop-Ends are
manufactured by
Z Makine (sister
company of
ZETAS)

COSTRUCTION OF PERMANENT DIAPHRAGM WALL


Water Stops are installed between
diaphragm wall panels
HYDRAULIC STOPEND WATER-STOP

TREMI PIPE

COSTRUCTION OF PERMANENT DIAPHRAGM WALL

Permanent Diaphragm Wall


Construction Water Stop
Installation

EXCAVATION PHASE

EXCAVATION PHASE BERM WITH SOIL


IMPROVEMENT

BASE FAILURE MEANWHILE THE EXCAVATION


WORKS DUE TO SOFT CLAY AND HIGH WATER LEVEL

CLAY SUBSOIL

PROTECTION OF THE BERM

INSTALLATION OF THE STRUTS

INSTALLATION OF THE STRUTS

Slab/Foundation Diaphragm Wall Connections

Epoxy Rebar Planting into


diaphragm wall

SECTION 2 SIDE CONSTRUCTION PHASE

GENERAL VIEW OF THE SITE AFTER CORE


STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Presently various challenging projects are
being constructed simultaneously along the
Kagithane River where very poor soil
conditions do exist.
The case study presented has covered an
engineering approach to meet required
performance criteria limiting letaral
displacements as a result of deep excavations
in Kagithane Shopping Mall Project.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


Supporting system in the tender design for
deep excavation provided by the Geotechnical
Consulting Group has included bored piles
and jet grout columns supported with
prestressed anchorages.
Preliminary calculations for the tender design
displayed excessive lateral displacements
(280mm, %1.6) as a result of:
Existence of Soft Clay Subsoil
Presence of High Water Table

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


As a result an alternative design was
proposed to limit lateral displacements and to
have acceptable Factor of Safety against base
failure.
The Alternative design has offered the
possibility of meeting performance criteria
(%0,6) further gave the advantage of
complition of the work with a lower cost
(about 20 percent) in comparison to tender
design.
Although the soil properties were very poor it
was possible to excavate down to 17 m under
very high ground water table with limited
displacements and no potential base failure.

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION