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Chemistry Teaching Materials Development for Junior High

school at the Acid-base Material Using Four Steps Teaching


Material Development (4S TMD)
Ragil Astuti1,Sjaeful Anwar2 and Hendrawan3
1

Sekolah Pasca Sarjana, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
Departemen Pendidikan Kimia, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi no 229, Bandung 40154,

a)

Corresponding author: ragilsurosoastuti@gmail.com

Abstract. The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of chemistry teaching material development for
junior high school in acid-base materials using Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4STMD). There are four
stages of 4STMD those are selection, structuring, characterization and reduction didactic. The selection phase should
follow the criteria of compliance with the curriculum, develop the concept of truth, and the values associated with the
concepts. The structuring stage should follow a systematic presentation of teaching materials, mapping concept and each
concept. The teaching materials characterization stage was determined the level of difficulty of each text, and the
reduction step is used to reduce the difficult text in order to obtain the text that is easily understood. From this
development, obtained five indicators that is developed from standard competence (KD) then selecting the concept of a
reliable source of the truth of the concept, and the development of values that is integrated with the chemical concept. At
the structuring stage developed a concept map, the macro structure and multiple representations. The characterizations
phase includes the preparation characterization instruments and understandability test to 25 students at one of junior high
school in Bandung to identify the difficult concepts. At this stage the data showed that of the 44 parts of the material,
there are 30 parts categorized as easy and 14 parts as difficult. From the understandability test results, concluded that
based on the determination of the basic idea, the understandability of teaching materials reached 75.33% with a high
category. The results of the feasibility test of teaching materials based on the validation results obtained percentage value
overall feasibility of teaching materials by 88.88% with the eligibility criteria well.

INTRODUCTION
In Indonesia, officially chemical subjects taught at the junior level since 2006 in the Education Unit Level
Curriculum (KTSP) and then proceed to the curriculum in 2013. To meet these needs, the government set in Law
UU No. 14 of 2005, Permendiknas No. 16 of 2007 on Standards of Academic Qualifications and Competencies
Teacher, and Permendiknas No. 15 of 2010 on Service Standards minimum of basic education in the district / city
that teachers teach in accordance with the background on a clump of science [11].
In fact there are several issues, one of them because it is still lacking the science teacher education undergraduate
background in chemistry in junior high school [4]. Generally the teachers who teach science subjects in junior high
school has a background in undergraduate biology education and physical education. This is supported by the data
of interviews conducted in several junior high schools in Bandung of 12 teachers who teach science in junior high
school 50% educational background in biology, 41.67% educational background in physical, and 8.33% educational
background in science, no teacher educational background in chemistry.
Interest chemistry began to be taught in junior high school is to introduce the fundamentals of chemistry lesson
before moving on to a higher level (senior high school). Therefore, it is necessary to build the perception of students
that chemistry is an interesting lesson to be learned [8]. Moreover, chemical subjects generally considered by most
students as a difficult subjects [9].

In the learning process there are three main components that are involved in it, there are teachers, learners
(students), and teaching materials. In the process occurs in the transformation of science (teaching materials) from
teacher to learners (students), and the results of the transformation of students gain learning experience [1].
Holbrook [5] stated that teachers must provide relevant teaching materials so that learning becomes meaningful for
students. Birisci & Metin stated that the teaching materials developed for learning has an important role in creating
active lessons [2]. In addition, materials can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of teaching methods [7].
Anwar states that there are four steps that must be taken before the instructional materials feasible delivered to
students[1]. The fourth stage is called 4S TMD (Four Steps Teaching Material Development), which consists of the
selection process, structure, characterization and reduction. This whole process is the stages of how the teaching
materials processed so ready to be studied by students as teaching material independently. If viewed in general, Four
Steps Teaching Material Development has clear measures at every stage. This suggests that the development model
is designed for the development of teaching materials for students.
Based on the above author felt the need to develop relevant chemical teaching materials in hjunior high school
that can assist teachers in implementing the learning and teaching and students can learn chemistry optimally. The
title is taken investigators was Chemistry Teaching Materials Development for high school at the Acid-Base
Material Using Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4S TMD).

METHODS
This study is a research and development (R & D). Development being done is on chemical teaching materials of
junior high school on acid-base materials are developed using the Four Steps Teaching Material Development at one
of the junior high school in Bandung.
Development procedures used in this study is a modified model of Thiagarajan (1974) with the 4D model (fourD), includes the step of defining, designing, development and deployment phase [12]. The research was conducted
only reached the stage of development. The deployment phase cant be done due to time constraints and cost.
a.

Define
The purpose of this stage is to analyze the curriculum, school conditions and the study of literature as a basis for
the preparation of teaching materials. Based on the background is known, the next step is to collect data as
preliminary research process. This is done by conducting interviews related educational background in junior high
school science teacher and the availability of chemical teaching materials in junior high school.

b.

Design
The purpose of this phase is to develop teaching materials in accordance with the steps four steps of teaching
material development (4S TMD) which includes the selection phase, structure, characterization, and didactic
reduction. In the selection phase of development of teaching materials should follow the criteria of compliance with
the curriculum, developed the concept of truth, and the values associated with the concepts developed. At the
structuring stage, the development of teaching materials should follow a systematic presentation of teaching
materials, mapping concepts developed, and systematic presentation of each concept. At the teaching materials
characterization stage determined the level of difficulty of each text being served, and the reduction step is used to
lower the level of difficulty of each text, in order to obtain the texts constituent of teaching materials that easily
understood by students.

c.

Develop
The purpose of this stage is to produce teaching materials that have been developed to follow the four steps
teaching material development (4S TMD) that has been revised based on input from experts (validator) consisting of
four Chemistry education lecturers of UPI. Experts validate the feasibility of teaching materials follow the BSNP
standard [3]. The validation of assessed aspect among other aspects of the content content, presentation of the
material aspects, aspects of language and graphic aspects.

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION


a.

Selection stage
There are three elements that are selected on the development of these materials, namely the selection of the
curriculum content, the selection of basic or general chemistry textbooks and selection of relevant material values
Chemistry. From this development, obtained five indicators that is developed from standard competence (KD) then
selecting the concept of a reliable source of the truth of the concept, and the development of values that is integrated
with the chemical concept.

b.

Structuring stage
At the structuring stage developed a concept map, the macro structure and multiple representations. The result of
this phase is a draft of teaching materials that have been coinciding with a concept map, the macro structure, and
multiple representations.

c.

Characterization stage
The characterization phase includes the preparation characterization instruments and understandability test to 25
students at one of junior high school in Bandung to identify the difficult concepts. Before the trials carried out, then
made an instrument to know the characteristics of teaching materials which consists of two instruments, namely
comments on the difficulty level of the teaching materials presented and the determination of the main idea. At this
stage the data showed that of the 44 parts of the material, there are 30 parts categorized as easy and 14 parts as
difficult. From the understandability test results, concluded that based on the determination of the basic idea, the
understandability of teaching materials reached 75.33% with a high category.

d.

Reduction didactic stage


Reduction didactic made on 14 parts of the material categorized difficult at previous characterization stage. The
concept that has been categorized into abstract, complex and complicated then determined the type of reduction
didactic. The results of the reduction didactic stages teaching materials in the form of draft which further validated
the feasibility of teaching materials.

e.

feasibility of teaching materials


Based on questionnaire validation, data obtained feasibility of teaching materials presented in the form of a
percentage. Feasibility aspect contents percentage gain eligibility of 94.87% with the eligibility criteria well, aspects
of the presentation of material gain eligibility percentage of 73.33% with a category of eligibility criteria
sufficiently, aspects of language gain eligibility percentage of 81.48% with the eligibility criteria sufficiently, and the
last graphic aspects of the feasibility get a percentage of 96.29% with the eligibility criteria well. If the percentage of
all of the above aspects are averaged, then the percentage value obtained overall feasibility of teaching material that
is 88.88% with the eligibility criteria well.

Figure 1. Graph the percentage of feasibility aspects of teaching materials

CONCLUSION
Based on the research and analysis of data, conclusions can be drawn as follows. From the development of
teaching materials subject of acids and bases using the four steps of teaching material development (4S TMD) in the
selection obtained five indicators that is developed from standard competence (KD) then selecting the concept of a
reliable source of the truth of the concept, and the development of values that is integrated with the chemical
concept. At the structuring stage developed a concept map, the macro-structure and multiple representations.
The characterization phase includes the preparation characterization instruments and understandability test to 25
students at one of junior high school in Bandung to identify the difficult concepts. At this stage the data showed that
of the 44 parts of the material, there are 30 parts categorized as easy and 14 parts as difficult. From the
understandability test results, concluded that based on the determination of the basic idea, the understandability of
teaching materials reached 75.33% with a high category. The results of the feasibility test of teaching materials
based on the validation results obtained percentage value overall feasibility of teaching materials by 88.88% with the
eligibility criteria well.

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