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Thermodynamics I

Chapter one
Introduction and Basic Concepts
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Thermodynamics & Energy

The 1st law of thermodynamics

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Chapter 1

Conservation of energy principle

SYLLABUS

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

Energy cannot be created or destroy


Only change forms

Energy is a thermodynamic property

THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES
PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

The 2nd law of thermodynamics

Heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Applications of thermodynamics

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PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY

TEMPERATURE AND THE


ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

All equations must be dimensionally


homogeneous

Unity conversion ratios

PROCESSES AND CYCLES

1 = 0.45359
1 = 0.3048
1 = 1.0551
1 = 32.174 / 2
= 9.807/ 2
= 32.174 / 2

Dimensional homogeneity

Others (e.g., velocity(V), energy(E), etc.)


These can be expressed in terms of the primary
dimensions

SI and English units

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

Mass(m), length(L), time(t), and temperature (T)

Secondary dimensions

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM

Primary dimensions

SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

Dimensions & Units

/ 2

=1 &

32.174 2

=1

A 3-kg rock is thrown upward with a force


of 200N at a location where the local
gravitational acceleration is 9.79m/s2.
Determine the acceleration of the rock?

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SYLLABUS

Systems and Control Volumes

THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

System: a quantity of matter or a region in


space chosen for study
Surroundings: The mass or region outside the
system
Boundary: The real or imaginary surface that
separates the system from its surroundings

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

The boundary of a system can be fixed or movable

Closed system (control mass): A fixed amount of


mass, and no mass can cross its boundary
Open system (control volume): a property
selected region in space

It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such


as a compressor, turbine, or nozzle
Mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control
volume

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Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

Properties of a System

SYLLABUS

THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY

DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

Property: any characteristic of a system


Some familiar properties: pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and
mass m.
Intensive properties: those that are independent of the mass of a
system, such as a temperature, pressure, and density
Extensive properties: those whose values depend on the size or extent
of the system, such as total mass, total volume, and total momentum
Specific properties: extensive properties per unit mass

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

Density and Specific Gravity

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

Density: mass per unit volume =

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY

Specific volume: volume per unit mass = =

Specific gravity: the ratio of the density of


a substance to the density of some standard
substance at a specified temperature

(usually water at 4.) =

STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM


PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Specific weight: the weight of a unit volume


of a substance =

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State and Equilibrium

SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

No unbalanced potentials within the system

Thermal equilibrium: If the temperature is


the same throughout the entire system

Processes and Cycles

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY

STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM

PROCESSES AND CYCLES

TEMPERATURE AND THE


ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Equilibrium: A state of balance

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics: An


Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/eb/Beta_stirling_animatio
n.gif

Process: any change that a system undergoes


from one equilibrium state to another
Path: the series of states through which a
system passes during a process
Quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium process:
when a process proceeds in such a manner that
the system remains infinitesimally close to an
equilibrium state at all times
Isothermal process: A process during which the
temperature T remains constant
Isobaric process: A process during which the
pressure P remains constant
Isochoric (or isometric) process: A process
during which the specific volume v remains
constant
Cycle: A process during which the initial and
final states are identical

Process diagrams plotted


by employing
thermodynamic properties
as coordinates are very
useful in visualizing the
processes.

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SYLLABUS

Steady-Flow Process

THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES
PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE


Steady-flow process: A process during
which a fluid flows through a control
volume steadily
Steady-flow conditions can be closely
approximated by devices that are intended
for continuous operation such as turbines,
pumps, boilers, condensers, and heat
exchangers or power plants or refrigeration
systems

The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium


with a third body, they are also in
equilibrium with each other
By replacing the third body with a
thermometer, the zeroth law can be
restated as two bodies are in thermal
equilibrium if both have the same
temperature reading even if they are not in
contact

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA
http://www.wackyarchives.com/offbeat/dell-turns-to-ash.html

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Temperature

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SYLLABUS

THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA
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Ice point: a mixture of ice and water


that is in equilibrium with air
saturated with vapor at 1 atm
pressure 0 32
Steam point: a mixture of liquid
water and water vapor in
equilibrium at 1 atm pressure
(100 212)
Celsius scale: in SI unit system
Fahrenheit scale: in English unit
system
Thermodynamic temperature scale:
a temperature scale that is
independent of the properties of
any substance
Kelvin scale (SI) & Rankine scale (E)
The reference point is the triple
point of water (the state at which all
three phases of water coexist in
equilibrium), which is assigned the
value 273.16 K.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/08/Phase_diagram_of_water.svg

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Pressure

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

A normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area

Absolute pressure: the actual pressure at a given position

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Chapter 1
SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure)

Gage pressure: the difference between the absolute pressure and the
local atmospheric pressure. Most pressure-measuring devices indicate
gage pressure
Vacuum pressure: pressures below atmospheric pressure

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Chapter 1
SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES
PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

Pressure

Variation of pressure with depth

The pressure of a fluid at rest increases with depth


As a result of added weight

= 2 1 =

Pascals law

1 = 2

1
1

2
2

2
1

2
1

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Pressure

The manometer

The barometer

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Chapter 1
SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES

+ 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 = 1

1 = 2 = +

PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

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Problems
The water in a tank is pressurized by air, and
the pressure is measured by a multi-fluid
manometer as shown in the figure. Determine
the gage pressure of air in the tank if h1=0.2m,
h2=0.3m, and h3=0.46m. Take the densities of
water, oil, and mercury to be 1000kg/m^3,
850kg/m^3, and 13,600kg/m^3, respectively.
(1-53)

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Chapter 1
SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES
PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

A gas is contained in a vertical, frictionless


piston-cylinder device. The piston has a mass of
3.2kg and a cross-sectional area of 35cm^2. A
compressed spring above the piston exerts a
force of 150N on the piston. If the atmospheric
pressure is 95kPa, determine the pressure
inside the cylinder.
(1-67)

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA

MAE 3310 001


Preview &
Chapter 1
SYLLABUS
THERMODYNAMICS AND
ENERGY
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS

SYSTEMS AND CONTROL


VOLUMES
PROPERTIES OF A
SYSTEM

DENSITY AND SPECIFIC


GRAVITY
STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM
PROCESSES AND CYCLES
TEMPERATURE AND THE
ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
PRESSURE

HW

64 67 76 81 91

Images from engel, Y.A. and Boles, M.A., 2006, Thermodynamics:


An Engineering Approach, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, MA