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CSSRI Technical Brochure 05/2010

GROUNDWATER RECHARGING:
_/In Idea[r[oo[for
Jfarnessing (j(ainwater in qUJarat

G. Gururaja Rao
M. K. Khandelwal
Anil R. Chinchmalatpure
Sanjay Arora
S. K. Kamra

Jr

~
..

Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (I CAR)


t .
Regional Research Station
:il
,
.
Bharuch 392 012 (Gujarat)
.
.

2010

G. Gururaja Rao, M.K. Khandelwal, Anil R. Chinchmalatpure, Sanjay Arora and


S.K. Kamra (2010). Ground water Recharging : An Ideal Option for Harnessing
Rainwater in Gujarat, CSSRI Technical Brochure OS/2010, Central Soil Salinity
Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Bharuch, Gujarat, India.

Published by: Director


Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Karnal132 001 (Haryana), India.
Telephone: +91-184-2290501
Fax: +91-184-2292489
E-mail: director@cssri.ernet.in

Printed at : Anand Press, Gamdi, Anand 388001 (Gujarat).

sq

~JD)lJJJ.JiJjfiB ~.JJWmJPJj'

An I deaf '['00 {for Jiamessing CJ(ainwater in qujarat

Water is life. For all human beings and


animals and other living organisms, water is
precious for continuing their lives. Water is one of
the five basic elements from which creation
emanates. Water has been described as "the elixir
of life and cleanser of sins". In other words,
mankind cannot do without water. Unfortunately, .
with a galloping population growth, urbanization
and ever-increasing demand on it, global water
resources are fast depleting. The need for water
conservation has therefore become imperative.
The per capita availability of fresh water is fast
declining. In India, the per capita average annual
3
freshwater availability has reduced from 5177 m
3
in 1951 to about 1869 m in 2001 and is estimated
to further come down to 1341 m 3 in 2025 and
1140 m3 in 2050. If the present use pattern
continues, two third of the population will live in
moderate or severe water shortage conditions by
the year 2025. In India, about 85% of drinking
water is available through dug well, bore well,
tube well etc. Besides, the Indian farmers have
the age-old tradition of groundwater irrigation. In
1950-51 , about 65 lakh ha of land were used for
irrigation in India which has crossed 400 lakh ha
by now.
The rapid growth in population, together
with the extension of irrigated agriculture and
industrial development are putting stress on the
quality and quantity aspects of natural systems.
Thus, water resource development and its
judicious use is a challenging issue. Water is the
most crucial resource for sustainable agricultural
production in the rainfed areas. Excess runoff
from the agricultural fields not only causes loss of
water but also washes away the top fertile soil.
Due to easy access and ease of extraction of

groundwater through pumping, the water tables


fall to lower levels and in tum result in water
scarcity problems which if continued, meeting
the water needs of crops in areas other than
irrigation commands shall no longer be possible.
This situation can be improved by evolving
strategies for groundwater recharge through
artificial recharge wells and also by conserving
rainwater in farm ponds.
What is Rainwater Harvesting?
Rainwater harvesting is the principle of
collecting and using precipitation from a
catchment surface for domestic as well as
irrigation purposes. Rainwater harvesting is a
well known and extensive traditional system in
India. Rainwater is collected in village ponds for
community purposes.
Why Rainwater Harvesting?
Rainwater harvesting is essential because:
1. surface water is inadequate to meet our
demands and we have to depend on
groundwater;
2. due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain
water into the sub-soil has decreased
drastically and recharging of groundwater has
thus diminished;
3. over-exploitation of groundwater resource
has resulted in decline in water levels in most
parts of the country;
4. to enhance availability of groundwater at
specific place and time;
5. to arrest sea water ingress, particularly in
coastal areas;

remunerative crops due to availability of good


quality water resulting from the groundwater
recharging. Benefits from the recharge of
groundwater recharge are:

6. to improve the water quality in aquifers;


7. to improve the vegetation cover;
8. to raise the water levels in wells and bore
wells; and
9. to reduce power consumption for drawing
water from deeper aquifers.

1. Find a better solution for water problems in


areas having inadequate water resources.
2. Rise in ground water levels and improve the
quality of water.
3. Increase availability of water from wells.
4. Reduction in the use of energy for pumping
water and consequently the cost - a one
metre rise in water level saves about 0.49
KWH of electricity.
5. Reduction in flood hazard and soil erosion.
6. Mitigate the drought effect and achieve
drought proofing.
7. Upgrade the soil and environment status.

Factors to be considered in selecting the


proper location of sites for artificial recharge:
1. Water (availability, source, turbidity, quality,
etc .)
2. surface catchment producing runoff
3. depth to aquifer and type of formation
4. geologic structure and capacity of the
groundwater reservoir
5. water transmission characteristics
6. location of withdrawal area

Groundwater resource in Gujarat State


Effects of over exploitation of Groundwater
Resource
-

Though the state has got about 9.9. lakh


tube wells, the agricultural utilization is mainly
through open wells (7.8Iakh wells) followed by
tube wells (0.3 lakhs). While 9 lakh ha area is
irrigated through tube wells, about 19.9 lakh ha
area is irrigated through open wells. The
maximum area under groundwater irrigation is in
North Gujarat and it is less in the Southern
districts of the state. In Ahmedabad, Bharuch
and Narmada districts, tube well irrigation tend to
dominate over open wells.

Drastic fall of groundwater levels.


Drying up of wellslbore wells.
Enhanced use of energy.
Ingress of sea water in coastal areas and
deterioration of water quality.

Therefore, there is need of rainwater harvesting


in order to artificially recharge the ground water
and also for use of domestic or community
purposes.

Rainfall variability in Bharuch district


Gujarat State, a Western Province in
India is characterized by arid/semi-arid climate
with hot and dry pre-monsoon summer months
(March to May) followed by well-experienced
monsoon (June to September). The subsequent
period of October and November receives
uncertain and infrequent showers followed by

Benefits from Groundwater recharging


From the agricultural point, the groundwater
recharging in rainfed areas can be a boon for the
farmers by enabling them to take crops during
moisture stress periods and improve their socioeconomic conditions. They can also go for
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fair, dry and mild winter (December to February).


The state receives rains during South-west
monsoon that spreads from June to October. The
annual rainfall pattern is quite varying i.e., about
1480 mm in South Gujarat, 700-800 mm in
Central Gujarat and 250-350 mm in North
Gujarat and Kutch region. The state experiences
drought during the crop growth period and at
times crop failure occurs mainly due to limited
availability of irrigation waters.

Groundwater potential status


The groundwater potential created for
irrigation (IPCr) has been reported as 21.5lakh
ha and the maximum potential is in Bharuch
district (4.8 lakh ha). Due to skewed utilization
behaviour, there has been an increase in the
balance of the potential (Bal IP GW) in all the
districts except Banaskantha, Gandhinagr and
Mehsana districts where there was deduction due
to over drafting (Table 1).

Table 1. Ground water potential in Bharuch and adjoining districts ('000 ha)

District

Irrigation Potential
Created

Balance Irrigation
Potential

Ultimate Irrigation
Potential

48
89
99

32
189
56

80
278
155

Bharuch
Surat
Vadodara

State: IP Cr: 2150; Bal IP GW 759; Vlt, IP GW : 2909


The total groundwater recharge of
Bharuch and adjoining districts has been
estimated at 499 MCM/year, of which 100
MCMlyear is utilized for domestic and industrial
use, resulting in about 399 MCM/year utilizable
groundwater recharge. Since the groundwater

draft is less than that of the groundwater recharge,


the level of groundwater development IS
moderated in this district (Table 2).

Table 2. Ground water balance and utilistion in Bharuch and adjoining districts (MCMNear)
District

Total
GW
Recharge

Domestic
and
Industrial
use

Bharuch
Surat
Vadodara

499
1389
966

100

278
193

Groundwater Groundwater
Utilizable
Gross
Balance
Development
Groundwater Groundwater
Recharge
Draft
(%)

399
1111
773

238
356
494

161
755
279

60
32
64

State: Total GW Recharge: 16060; Domestic and Industrial use: 3212;


Utilizable GW Recharge: 12848; Gross GW Draft: 9709: GW Balance: 3139; GW development: 79%
3

Rainfall trend in Bharuch district

groundwater recharging will help in meeting the


water demands for the crops, livestock and
household and improve groundwater quality
apart from enhancing water productivity of crops
and improve the socio-economic conditions of
the farming community.

The district Bharuch received minimum


rainfall of 379 mm during the year 2009 and
maximum rainfall of 1683 mm in 1976. Average
rainfall was 805 mm. The rainfall showed 34 per
cent coefficient of variation. Use of groundwater
is in practice in Narmada district. While the
water-table is quite deep (> 90m) in Narmada
district, in Bara tract covering Jambusar, Amod
and Vagra talukas of Bharuch district, it varies
from 4.5 to 9.3 m. Farmers in Bara tract do not use
the saline groundwater for irrigation and depend
mainly on monsoonal rains during the Kharif
season.

Water table situation in Bharucb and


adjoining districts

Water tables recorded by Gujarat Water


Resources Development Corporation (GWRDC)
during pre-monsoon (May )and post -monsoon
(August) in Bharuch and adjoining districts viz.,
Narmada, Surat and Vadodara indicated the
highest water table in Surat followed by Vadodara
and the lowest in Bharuch district both during
pre - and post-monsoon periods. The change in
pre- and post-monsoon water table levels was
also more in Surat, Vadodara and Narmada
districts when compared to Bharuch which had
recorded the least change. Data in table 3 indicate
largest fluctuation in ground water table depths
from May, 2006 to Aug, 2006. This clearly shows
that rainwater harvesting helps in the region to
augment groundwater, which is an ultimate
exercise ofthe present write up to focus on.

The Bara tract has been brought under


irrigation from Sardar Sarovar Irrigation Project,
wherein canal water is supplied in rabi season on
volumetric basis thus limiting the irrigation only
to low water requiring crops. Some times, water
availability at the end of kharif crop season
constitutes a limiting factor thus lowering the
crop yields significantly. As farmers of Bharuch
and Narmada districts in Gujarat state are
resource poor and find it hard to meet their
livelihood with low and insecure farm income,

Table 3. Water table levels observed in four districts during pre and post monsoon of 2006.

District
Bharuch
Narmada
Surat
Vadodara

WTMa):06
-21.90
-17.23
-6.82
-12.36

WT AUK 06
-17.30
-7.88
-1.77
-4.57

Water tables recorded in various talukas of


Bharuch district namely, Amod, AnkIeshwar,
Bharuch, Hansot, Jambusar, Jhagadia, Vagra and
Valia during pre- and post-monsoon of 2006 are
given in table 4. Variation in groundwater table
from -6 ill to -22 m in different talukas amply
explains variation in topography, aquifer

WTsCbanKe.
-4.60
-9.35
-5.05
-7.79

characteristics etc. Hansot and Vagra taluka, due


to their proximity to the sea showed least
variation. Similarly, watertable during premonsoon and post-monsoon season of 2006 in
four talukas of Narmada district showed larger
variations.

Table 4. Water table levels observed in talukas of Bharuch district during


pre-and post- monsoon of 2006.

Taluka
Amod
Ankleshwar
Bharuch
Hansot
lambusar
Jhagadiya
Vagra
Valia CAL)
Valia (HR)

Aug '06
-25.76
-10.23
-17.08
-4.18
-8.01
-4.80
-4.28
-9.51
-17.52

Mal '06
-26.92
-12.95
-20.19
-5 .65
-9.72
-11.73
-7.55
-14.83
-21.94

Difference
-1.16
-2.72
-3 .11
-1.47
-1.69
-6.93
-3.27
-5 .32
-4.42

Groundwater recharge - CSSRI's Efforts

Decline in water table has resulted in decline


in farm productivity in Gujarat state mainly
due to increased pumping costs, deterioration
in groundwater quality and associated
environmental problems. Ministry of Water
Resources (GOI) has strengthened the
CS SRI's efforts in enhancing the
groundwater recharge by providing financial
assistance, under which about 25 sites have
been earmarked for groundwater recharge
wells and farm ponds for integrated farming
activities.

.~

.--'-"
-.._....--.._._

The Regional Research Station, Bharuch has


so far installed 15 recharge wells and
completed renovation of four farm ponds.
The design features of the recharge wells and
their locations along with cost etc. are given
in Table 5.

Plate 1. Location map of recharge wells


under the FPARP Project

Table 5. Location and design features of recharge wells and the cost component
Village
Taluka

& Month

Moriyana,
Valia

Depth
(')

Diameter(")
Bore Pipe

../

25760

-do-

../

16650

-do-

../

23650

-do-

../

21500

-do-

../

24620

-do-

../

30727

Med. Black River


sand and murram
at 90-100'
- do-

-do-

../

21500

-do-

../

25 100

Med. to deep
black soils
Medium to light
black soils sand
after 70'
-do-

-do-

../

29800

-do-

../

23500

-do-

../

26500

-da-

26500

-do-

../

33600

Med. Black Soil


with kankar from
80-100'
-do-

100

16

Borebhata,
Jun.08
Ankleshwar
Netrang,
Nov.08
Valia
Kavitha I, Mar.09
Bharuch

100

16

135
120

10
/7*
16

Kavitha 2,
Bharuch
Kurchan,
Amod

Mar.09

100

16

Apr.09

100

16

Samn~

Apr.09

100

16

Amod
Jhagadiya,
Jhagadiya

Apr.09

100

16

Apr.09

100

16

Jun. 09

100

16

Jun. 09

100

16

May.IO

100

16

May.IO

100

16

May.10

100

16

Sodgam,
Valia

22535

Chhapra,
Jun. 08
Ank1eshwar

Deep black soils


with kankar up to
5.6 m depth
- do-

Med. To light
black soil sand
after 100'
-do-

* 7" dia bore after 20' depth

(~)

../

Rocky

Cost

14850

10
/7*

Compressor
usage
y

150

Luna 2,
Valia
Pansoli,
Valia

Slits

Rocky 7 after 3-75


20' of medium nun
black soil
-doDeep to medium
black soils, river
sand after 40"
-do-do-

Jun.08

Finchwara,
Jhagadiya
Juna Tavra,
Bharuch
Luna 1,
Valia

Lithology

Under the project entitled "Farmers'


Participatory Research on enhancing
groundwater recharge and water productivity
in north-western India (FPARP)", we have
carried out excavation of recharge bores
(Plate 2) of 400 mm bore, lowering of 110
mm outside of PVC pipes, two blank and
three strainers and filling with aggregates 820 mm, followed by compressor to a depth of
100 ft at almost all places (Borebhata,
Kavitha, Kurchan and Sarnni) except at
Chhapra (85 ft due to quick sand flown in) . .
Only at village Moriyana, due to rocky
formation, the same was cut with cutter ofT'
dia to a depth of 150 ft and placement of 8"

dia PV C pipe to a depth to top 20'. Looking at


the rocky formation at this site, we took up
another site at village Netrang close to
Moriyana, where we could restrict
excavation to 135 ft. So far, it has been
noticed that the water-table just after
excavation of the recharge bore well gained
certain depth due to flow of rain and runoff
down the chamber. Quality of groundwater
also improved during the same period.
Similarly, the locations where the other
recharge wells were constructed have also
showed rise in water-table levels with
significant improvement in the water quality
(Fig 1-3).

Plate 2. Groundwater recharge structures developed by CSSRI in Bharuch district


7

. .-

June 08 Sept 08 June 09 June 09 July 09 July 09 Aug 09 Sept 09 Sept 09

::

..,

:ii

-4

-5

-6

..

......... ....

Oct 09

Nov 09 June10 Sept 10

... ......

,/

'a

IA.

'-

........./'- ~

.a

'-

'-

iii

:!!.
u

'-

._....

Fig. 1. Water table depth and gronnd water EC and pH


at Borebhata (Bharuch district)
=GWTO

June 08

..
.=

.-

Sept 08

.....

-4

J!

-6

['...

July 09

Aug 09

..... pH

Sept 09

-~

......

"'"'

C.

"0

June 09

..... EC

.a

June 10

I'-...

Sept 10

~
:z:

Co

.._

~
:!!.
<)

Nov 09

:0
~

Oct 09

'.-

'--

....

.._

10

.._

....
L...-

12

Fig. 2. Water table depth and ground water EC and pH


at Chhapra (Bharuch district)
Time of observations

o
-2

-4

6
8
.! 10
~ 12

.g

14
16

Borbhata

Chhapra

Moriana

0 Netrang

18 L---------------------------------------------~------------~

Fig.3. Water table depth (m) in some recharge wells under FPARP Project

Recharge bore well at Netrang

farmer) and recharge well. The water is being


used for irrigating the agri-horti system of
Mango-soybean (Plate 3).

The rocky formation at the village Netrang


(135 ft) happens to be similar to the rocky
formation at village Moriyana. The entire field of
mango orchard is situated on the receiving side of
catchment feeding the seasonal drain at close by.
While the water-table increased from 5.55 min
December 2008 to 11 .95 m in June 2009, the EC
of grwound water during the same period
increased from 0.65 dS/m to 1.02 dS/m. This
change in over six months period is attributed to
the impact of summer (Table 6). Rainwater
conservation at Netrang has been done with '
facilities created at the site for maximum
harvesting through open well (built by the

The farmer, Shri Kiritbhai Shankar bhai


Patel, under the technical guidance and
cooperation of CSSRI, RRS, Bharuch could
succeed in harnessing the runoff during monsoon
of 2009 which he could use for providing
irrigation for longer duration. He is a delighted
man today because he could effectively use the
water from the open well and groundwater (from
the tube well) for all his crop needs. The on- farm
income generated from mango and soybean crops
before and after the installation of recharge well
have been described separately.

Plate 3. Recharge well at Netrang and the Mango-Soy bean crop in the field
9

Date

Cumulative Water table

Groundwater quality
EC,dS/m
pH

Recharge well
11 December 2008

18 March 2009
15 April 2009
04 June 2009
18 June 2009
13 July 2009
30 July 2009
25 June 2010
05 Sept 2010

5.55
9.20
10.30
11.95
12.04
10.25
3.20
13.70
1.95

152.0
269.0
284.0

0.65
0.52
0.59
1.02
1.08
0.44
0.14
0.57
0.22

7.35
7.30
7.00
7.25
7.40
7.35
7.70
7.20
7.00

Open well
I1December2008
18 March 2009
15 April 2009
04 June 2009
18 June 2009
13 July 2009
30 July 2009
25 June 2010
05 Sept 2010

152.0
269.0
284.0

5.52
9.80
10.95
11.90
7.15
4.20
3.20
13.65
1.95

10

0.66
0.58
0.53
1.02
1.08
0.32
0.14
0.58
0.23

7.40
7.40
7.42
7.45
7.40
7.35
7.30
7.15
7.00

Impact of groundwater recharge on farm


income and economy of the farmers

water quality problems. However, a long term


study would give more impetus 011 the overall
farm economy.

The groundwater recharge work taken up


by CSSRI RRS in different villages in Bharuch
district has by and large yielded in increased
watertable depths and improvement in the quality
of groundwater. Here we present two case studies
ie., Borebhata and Netrang villages based on the
feedback received from the farmers.

Netrang: Shri Kirit bhai Shankar bhai Patel of


Netrang village has about 13 acre offarm land in
which 6 acres are under Mango, Soybean in 6
acres as sole crop as well as intercrop in mango
and about 1 acre under vegetables. The watertable prior to the installation of recharge well at
his farm was 5.5 m in November 2008 and raised
to 3.2 m in July 2009, indicating an increase of2.3
m and the groundwater quality (EC) improved
from 1.02 dS/m (pre-monsoon, TDS of 654 ppm)
to 0.14 dS/m (post-monsoon, TDS of 90 ppm).
Prior to the construction of recharge well during
2008, the yield of soybean was 10 q/ha which
increased to 15.2 q/ha during 2009 season. The
recharging of the groundwater resulted in
adequate groundwater resources, and thus the
farmer could provide irrigation as per the need
during the crop growth. Prolonged water
availability and its improved quality were the two
reasons given by the farmer for better crop
performance both in case of mango and soybean.
In 2009 he had auctioned the mango crop for
~ 85000/-. Due to the recharging of groundwater
and improved water quality, the farmer used drip
irrigation system to irrigate the mango crop in
2010 (using the tube well installed earlier for
drawing the water) and could auction the mango
orchard for n65000/- with an increase of
~13300/- per acre. Mango being the sensitive
crop to salinity responded well to the improved
water quality.

Borebhata: The farmer, Shri Kaushikbhai Patel ,


had Banana, Papaya and Sapota in about 11.5
acres and vegetables in 0.5 ha. He had one tube
well the groundwater EC of which was about 1.9
dS/m ETDS 1219 ppm) prior to monsoon (June
2008). The groundwater recharging during the
years 2008 and 2009 monsoon had resulted in
groundwater EC of 0.3 dS/m (TDS 192 ppm) and
0.4 dS/m (TDS 256 ppm), respectively, thus
indicating the improvement in groundwater
quality. His average income from banana from 7
acre was ~80000/- per acre prior to the
installation of recharge well. Since the
installation of recharge well, the income has
increased by ~30000/- per acre ie., 37.5 per cent.
The reasons as given by the farmer are prolonged
groundwater availability as well as improved
water quality. The farm which had been under
drip irrigation and the farmer has also not
encountered the frequent clogging of emitters
and thus there is a saving 011 the cleaning of the
drip system. Similarly, income from Papaya
increased from ~ 140000/- per acre to ~ 160000/per acre with an increase of 14.3 per cent. The
Sapota crop is in early stage and has not yet come
into bearing. Vegetables, however, are grown to
meet the domestic needs and to fetch additional
revenue to meet the domestic expenses .
The farmer is of the opinion that the groundwater
recharging work taken up by CSSRI has helped
him in overcoming the water shortage and the
11

The studies hitherto conducted yielded the following findings:

1. Groundwater recharge has helped in rise of water- table at all the locations.
2. The groundwater salinity has decreased considerably.

3. Due to the recharging ofthe groundwater, the water quality at the farm was
extended by few months so as to enable the farmers to give adequate
irrigation to the crops
4. Some farmers have also reported additional revenue due to prolonged water
availability and improved water quality.
5. The response of all the farmers has been overwhelming.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION


Please Contact

Director
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Kamal 132 001 (Haryana), India.
Telephone: +91-184-2290501
Fax: +91-184-2292489
E-mail: director@cssri.emet.in
Website: cssri.org

Head
Central Soil Salinity Research Institute
Regional Research Station
Bharuch 392 012 (Gujarat), India
Phone: +91-2642-225673,225688
Fax: +91-225673
E-mail: salinityguj@gmail.com

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