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Assignment Course- Fundamental Land Administration

Course code- (lama.511)


prepared by ebuy alemayo 1ST year student
Id no- BDU070001175PK
ogest 2007 e.c

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO
1
2

Title
Introduction
Objectives
Methodology

The role of land administration for sustainable development

page
3
3
4
4

The efficient use of land administration impacts on economic


development

4.1

Land Tenure and Administration for economic Growth

5-6

4.2

Land redistribution for productive use

6-7

4.3

Land titling and agricultural production

7-9

The efficient use of land administration impacts on local liveli hoods


Tenur Reform Decision Activities And Prossess

9-10

efficient land administration effects of land disputs

10

Summery

10-11

References

11-12

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1. Introduction
The worlds resources are finite, and growth that is unmanaged and un sustained will
lead to increased poverty and decline of the environment. We owe it to future
generations to explore lifestyles and paths of development that effectively balance
progress with awareness of its environmental impact. In order to preserve the future,
we must appreciate the interconnectedness between humans and nature at all levels.
Sustainable development practices can help us do this, and through education and
building awareness, preserving the future is within everyones reach. Land is the
foundation of all human activities on the earth and it is un ultimate resource without it
life can not exist and sustain. The Land and interaction of human societies with it
because of this land is a source of all wealth, it is a scarce and fragile resource.
Because of scarcity of land.. the land

needs good land administration about

environmental protection, social and economical development which leads to


sustainable development. Therefore, appropriate and effective land administration is
importance for sustainable development If land administration systems do not
respond and expand to meet the challenges of societys increasingly complex
relationship with land, sustainable development will not move beyond rhetoric. So by
solving those land and human problems we got sustainable development Those
sustained limited natural resources needs good land administration system this leads
to gathering of revenue from the land through sales, leasing and taxation and the
resolving of conflict concerning the ownership and use of the land. Sustainable
development and land administration function have their own strong relation because
if there is no good land administration function there is no sustainable development
(Ian Williamson, Sting Enemark, Jude Wallace
2. Objectives
The aim of this paper is to understand/know/

more about the sustainable

development ,The roll of land administration for sustainable development and the
efficient of land administration impacts on economic development, livelihood
improvements at house level and community level, environment or land management
gender equity, on access to land and reduction of land related disputes.
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3. Methodology
The methods which I use to prepare this paper is by using internet and dounloding
different books and literatures and also reading books which is found in the library
regarding the course.
3. The role of land administration for sustainable development
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
(United Nations, 1987. Sustainable development is the development to reach
equilibrium in between

poor and rich, between current and future generations,

between humankind and nature without compromising the cultural, social and
biological diversity Sustainable development promotes the idea that social,
environmental, and

economic progress are all attainable within the limits of our

earths natural resources. Sustainable development approaches everything in the


world as being connected through space, time and quality of life. According to
Enemark (2004) the design of adequate systems in the areas of Land Tenure and
Land Value should lead to the establishment of an efficient land market. The design
of adequate systems in the areas of Land-Use Control and Land Development should
lead to an effective land-use administration. The combination of an efficient land
market and an effective land-use administration should then form the basis for a
sustainable approach to economic, social and environmental sustainability. (Wallace
Mukupa Land Administration to Support Sustainable Devel. 2011). FAO (2007) states
that land is the single greatest resource in most countries. Accesses to land, security
of tenure and land management have significant implications for sustainable
development. For instance land administration through taxes on land plays a
significant role in raising revenue for public finances Therefore, if we are working the
process of land administration effectively and efficiently we are protecting our
environment and attaining
sustainable development.

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economic and social development, which leads

4.

The

efficient

use

of

land

administration

impacts

on

economic

development
Land administration, economic growth, development, security of tenure and
customary tenure is undoubtedly an important resource and an engine for enhancing
economic growth as it is key to all human survival. From it man gets food, shelter,
social status, employment, income and power. It is the basic resource of production
on which all actors carry out their socio-economic activities. As the worlds population
continues to grow there is a pressing demand for land. The role of land in enhancing
economic growth has long been understood and appreciated. Not only do surveyors
have the goal of integrating their skills to enhancing economic growth and achieving
objectives such as the Millennium development goals, they also have the goal of
ensuring that the underlying resource needed to achieve these objectives and goalsland is efficiently and effectively administered.
4.1. Land Tenure and Administration for economic Growth
The land tenure system in a given jurisdiction comprises the set of possible
bases on which land may be used and integrates two basic elements namely
land tenure and land administration (FAO, 2006). Land tenure may be
defined as a set of rules that define rights of access by people to particular
natural resources and is also the form of social endorsement of these
relationships (FAO, 2006).
Land tenure systems are not static in nature as they can be modified,
reformed, redefined, changed or improved upon as a result of various factors
such demographic, economic and political changes.
Land administration is the process of determining, recording and disseminating
information about ownership, value and use of land when implementing land
management policies (UN/ECE Land Administration Guidelines).
Lemmen and Van Der Molen (2004) contend that the functions of land
administration might be the improvement of land tenure security, better
functioning of the land market, more profitable land taxation, better land use
planning, development and control, better management of natural resources,
better land reform and land redistribution. On the other hand a land
administration system is the set of structures and institutions that implement
the land policy, affect rights, deliver titles and deeds, and manage information
systems (European Union, 2004). These structures can be state or local
government institutions although they may also be customary institutions that
perform some land administration functions (European Union, 2004).
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Sustainable land administration should therefore consider the various


institutions that deal with land at the local or community level, civil societies
and various government and private sector bodies.
Focused on improving security of tenure through the provision of individualized
title. But it is essential to question whether this has enhanced economic growth
or improved the livelihoods of the indigenous people.
Most land-based livelihoods rely on having secure access to land. It is also a
precondition for sustainable agriculture, economic growth and poverty
reduction. The main reasons underlining the importance of secure land tenure
are discussed below
4.2. Land redistribution for productive use
Redistributive land reform, which can include the restitution of land to the
dispossessed, is generally taken to mean the redistribution of property rights in
land for the benefit of the landless, poor tenants and farm labourers. Invariably,
the motivation for redistributive land reform is political and coincides with a
shift in the balance of power between conservative and more radical forces.
Throughout history, opportunities for redistributive reform have been associated
with specific political moments
There are a number of possible scenarios, but we can learn most about
agriculture and poverty reduction when:
land redistribution has enabled or coincided with increases in farm output and
productivity from which the poor have benefited and

land redistribution has not resulted in increases in farm output and


productivity and/or has not been beneficial for the poor.
It is important to be clear whether land redistribution is about equity and
social justice (especially redressing past dispossession) or whether it is about
driving agricultural production. These twin goals are not automatically
complementary.
The cost of inaction can be very high. If the legitimate claims of the rural poor
are ignored, the negative consequences of failing to act can be huge. Social
mobilization for land reform can be fuelled and sustained by a deep sense of
grievance. Initially, moderate means will be used to present the demands for
land reform, but if people meet with intransigence, their demands are likely to
become more radical, and farm killings and land.

For land reform to have a significant impact on poverty reduction it must be


part of a broader process of political, social and economic change, rather than
narrow intervention equity and agricultural growth occurs when equitable
security of ownership enhances the scope for investment in land, leading to
agricultural growth. It also occurs when equitable growth contributes to a
vibrant rural society capable of making its voice heard. This, combined with
improved funding from taxation, is likely to strengthen governance issues
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specifically in relation to land, and possibly more generally. There may also be
potential trade-offs between redistribution and agricultural growth. For
example, in remote rural areas, redistribution can increase equity in land
assets. However, it may be the case that consolidating land holdings into larger
commercial farms and encouraging smallholders to pursue alternative
livelihoods (as agricultural laborers or in the non-farm economy) may have
greater poverty reduction effects.
Land administration, agricultural growth and poverty reduction Probably
because of the mixed results, redistribution has tended to slip from the agendas
of many donors. A more forward thinking strategy is to adopt a more flexible
approach to individual land title arrangements. New approaches to land
administration emphasize the need for faster transfers of land rights, and this
will promote economic growth. While there are clear explanations of how better
land markets can contribute to poverty reduction, there is less clarity over how,
when and why this might be achieved. The issue of twin objectives is pertinent
to the following outstanding questions:
Appropriate taxation of land and productive resources The ways in which land is
taxed has implications for poverty reduction through agricultural growth. In
theory, if the state taxes the value of land more heavily and productive activity
less heavily, the outcome will almost certainly be more efficient land use,
increased production and increased demand for labor. This will increase
real wages for working people and probably broaden the ownership of land by
bringing more land onto the market at a lower price. Large taxes on land,
particularly land transfers, present a barrier for small-scale farmers. A
progressive tax on large land holdings is often proposed for the purpose of
increasing the availability of parcels of land for smallholders, but international
experience indicates that progressive land taxes have never been effective in
redistributing land from large-scale to small-scale producers.
4.3. Land titling and agricultural production
Land tenure systems and registration of individual ownership has promoted the
individualization of tenure through land titling on grounds of economic efficiency. These
reforms aimed to transform land into a commodity that could be owned initially by clans,
then families and eventually by individuals and could then be sold (alienated) without
consultation with the wider group. The impact of titling on the distribution of land ownership
will depend on the adjudication criteria adopted, the survey and registration procedures and
the advice and assistance available to the people affected. Tenure and needs in informal
settlements on communal land Individual family needs include:

Assurance that they will not be evicted without compensation;


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Ability to improve their house to protect themselves against weather, thieves etc.;
Assurance their children can inherit the property or that they can sell or otherwise
transfer the property. They need:
To be able to use the property as collateral to borrow money;
A reduction in property related disputes;
Properties to be serviced with such things as water, electricity and the upgrading of roads;
An inexpensive and accessible system of administering property rights.
A system that is nationally uniform and sustainable;
A basis for implementing local taxation, land use and building control and for the
provision of infrastructure;
a flexible means of administering property rights, e.g. the ability to accommodate
individual and group rights, the rights of the middle class, business and poor people;
Ability to deliver land titles to the people in an accessible and user friendly manner;
Ability to deliver land titles that are not perceived as inferior and can be upgraded to full
freehold;
Ability to deliver social justice in relation to land reform and resource allocation.
In any case, land titling must be seen as only one element of tenure reform.
Registered in their name because of discriminatory laws. Because these underlying rights
may be disregarded by officials, there are long-standing disputes between provincial and
local governments and traditional leaders about who owns and therefore controls the land.
Traditional leaders complain that local government initiatives undermine pre-existing land
rights, while councilors complain that tribal leaders block development so as to ensure that
their authority remains intact. In the process, the views of the rural poor are ignored. there
are chronic problems of inefficient land use and ineffective management of common
property resources due to the lack of clarity in relation to rights. Thus we can characterize
tenure insecurity in communal areas as comprising:
a relatively small number of high profile cases where tensions or conflict have emerged
or development is clearly stalled; these are now increasing in number as local level
development planning begins;
A chronic, low-profile condition in which lack of certainty and weak legal status constrains
the land based livelihoods of the majority. The cost to society of taking no action to resolve
these problems is considered to be very high. Measures in the proposed land rights
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legislation (e.g. the legal protection of informal land rights; clarification of tenure rules;
decentralization of land administration and conflict resolution; placing legal control over
land rights in the hands of the de facto rights holders at local level; and the strengthening
of the land rights of women) would have a positive impact on the economy through security
of tenure over land and other natural resources. The fact that some systems and institutions
operating at local level do appear to have legitimacy and confer a degree of security is good
news for government, since it means that tenure reform in these areas can build on these
institutional foundations. This would allow for the evolutionary adaptation-by-choice model
of tenure reform to be implemented at a much lower cost than if an ambitious
replacement model were to be pursued. The proposed land rights legislation is a farreaching attempt to tackle an important underlying cause of rural poverty, namely the
prevailing uncertainty about the rights of those who occupy and use the land. Economic
constraints imposed on rural households in the former homelands The impact of the Land
rights legislation can contribute to economic development through tenure security
5. The efficient use of land administration impacts on local lively hoods
Tenor Reform Decision Activities and Possess
Increased production of agricultural goods (marketed and directly consumed)
increased but better managed use of natural resources for: - household provisioning (food
and fuel) - medicinal plants - craft production - building
Local economic development via
reduced levels of conflict and greater social stability
Greater equity in the distribution of benefits Rural Livelihoods
More income (monetary and non monetary)
reduced vulnerability
improved food security
increased health and well being
More sustainable use of natural resources
Provision of infrastructure, services and public works (e.g. Land Care & Work for Water)
Development projects (e.g. housing)
Grants and subsidies to the rural poor Economic Growth and Development
increased production and income
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increased markets for consumer goods.


facilitating investment in Spatial Development Initiative projects
The opportunity costs imposed by the existing situation of tenure insecurity
Overall economic benefits the estimates of the potential economic impact of tenure reform
discussed above are provisional, and only make sense when seen in their full context that
of a coordinated and well targeted rural development programmed aimed at enhancing
rural livelihoods in a sustainable manner. No estimates are available on the impact of tenure
reform on a number of components of the model
The focus has been on land-based livelihoods which should be a major concern of any
programmed of land reform.
6. Efficient land administration effects of land disputes
All formal and informal forms of land conflict resolution should be strengthened in order to
achieve equity and equality under the law in line with traditional rules. Many disputes are
directly attributable to the exclusion of local users and communities and ignorance of
autochthonous institutions. The economic benefits of averted or resolved resource conflicts
are difficult to estimate but the benefits are enormous for investment incentives, planning
security, social peace and political stability.
Existing models and norms for solving land tenure conflicts are a mirror image of the
prevalent tenure problems. They are also subject to rapid change
7. Conclusion
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The function of land administration is more or less recording, acquiring the basic
information about land ownership, land value and land use. and disseminating the
data or the information for the decision makers that leads to managing the land
efficiently and effectively. This land administration/ land management function have
their

own

impact

on

the economic,

social

and environmental

development

/sustainable development.
When we are think about sustainable development land administration system must
be implemented efficiently and effectively because land is the basic or the ultimate

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resource of life that existing on earth and it is a source of all wealth. So good land
administration function is the base for sustainable development..
Land administration, economic growth, development, security of tenure and
customary tenure is undoubtedly an important resource and an engine for enhancing
economic growth as it is key to all human survival. From it man gets food, shelter,
social status, employment, income and power. It is the basic resource of production
on which all actors carry out their socio-economic activities.
Land tenure may be defined as a set of rules that define rights of access by people
to particular natural resources and is also the form of social endorsement of these
relationships (FAO, 2006). Land tenure systems are not static in nature as they can
be modified, reformed, redefined, changed or improved upon as a result of various
factors such demographic, economic and political changes. Redistributive land
reform, which can include the restitution of land to the dispossessed, is generally
taken to mean the redistribution of property rights in land for the benefit of the
landless, poor tenants and farm laborers. Invariably, the motivation for redistributive
land reform is political and coincides with a shift in the balance of power between
conservative and more radical forces. land tenure systems and

registration of

individual ownership has promoted the individualization of tenure through land titling
on grounds of economic efficiency.

Good land administration is associated with a wide range of social and economic
benefits of securing rights in land.

Good land administration acts as a basis for land management and can facilitate the
development of a secure financial sector.

Introducing new land administration systems calls for sound administrative and
organizational structures, functioning legal frameworks and up-to-date land related
data.

Efficient land administration systems require sound technical, financial, institutional,


land use and legal backings.

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Through time land becomes a scarce resource to be managed efficiently thus the
need to a wise management and administration system to bring about sustainable
development

The need for mutually accepted and simply applicable policies laws and regulations
are the agendas of the day

8. References:

Wallace

Kukupa

Development - FIG

(2011)

Land

Administration

to

Support

Sustainable

Working Week 2011, Bridging the Gap between Cultures,

Marrakech, Morocco, 18-22 May 2011.


Menorah Velour and Daniel Steindler (2009) Role of Land Administration in
Sustainable Development - Country Case Studies of India and Switzerland - FIG
Working Week 2009, Surveyors Key Role in Accelerated Development, Eliot, Israel,

3-8 May 2009.


Ian Williamson, Stag Enema, Jude Wallace and Abbes Rajabifard (2010)
Land administration for sustainable development - FIG Congress 2010, Facing the

Challenges Building the Capacity, Sydney, Australia, 11-16 April 2010.


Land administration for sustainable development.
Surveyor-General of New South Wales, Professorial Associate, Department

of Geometrics, The University of Melbourne, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia


United nations economic commission for Europe 1996

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