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Blasius Theorem

AOE 5104
Advanced Aero- and Hydrodynamics
Dr. William Devenport and
Leifur Thor Leifsson

Blasius Theorem - Basics


Finding the force and moment on any region in ideal flow
Force and Moment on a Body:
p
iy
dx
ds diy
Fy
MO

Fx

Fx = p sin ds

Fy = p cos ds

Fx iFy = p (i cos sin )ds

M O = ( xp cos + yp sin )ds

Substituting for pressure using Bernoulli and introducing W(z) and z:


THE BLASIUS RELATIONS
Can also be shown to apply
to any region of the flow
(not just a body)

i
Fx iFy = W ( z ) 2 dz
2
MO =

Re W ( z ) 2 zdz

}
2

Blasius Theorem - Explanation


iy

Fx iFy =

Fy
MO

Fx

i
2
(
)
W
z
dz

MO =

These integrals will be zero unless the indefinite


integrals W(z)2dz and W(z)2zdz are functions that can
have different values at the start and the end of the loop

Re W ( z ) 2 zdz

zi

Only one type of function has this property logez = loger +


i since may increase by 2 in traveling around the loop.
In general loge(z-zi) increases by 2i when passing around
any loop enclosing zi
Only functions of the form (z-zi)-1 integrate to loge(z-zi)
3

Blasius Theorem - Procedure


iy

Fx iFy =

Fy
MO

Fx

i
2
(
)
W
z
dz

MO =

Re W ( z ) 2 zdz

1. Express W(z)2 or W(z)2z as a sum of terms of the form Bi(z-zi)n


e.g.

7z3,

1
, ( z + 5) 2 ,
( z 2) z

z
,
z 1

A
, sin z ,
2
( z 3i )

3 + 4i
, m/ z
3
( z + 2)

2. Extract n=-1 terms. will be 2i of coefficients Bi for which zi lies


inside the body or region
i.e. For
For

W(z)2 :

= Re{2i B
2

Fx iFy =

W(z)2z : M O

i
2i Bi
2

n = 1
zi in loop
n = 1

i zi in loop

) = B
}= Im{ B

n = 1

i zi in loop
n = 1

i zi in loop

Example 1 Force and Moment on


a Circular Cylinder with Circulation

V a 2 i
W ( z ) = V 2
z
2z

Fx iFy = Bi

n = 1
zi in loop

M O = Im Bi

n = 1
zi in loop

Example 2 Force on a Vortex with


Free Stream in Ground Effect
V

Fx iFy = Bi

n = 1
zi in loop

Example 3 Moment generated by a Joukowski airfoil


d
~
For foil W ( z ) = W ( )
dz
Take

W(z)2z

z=+C2/

-plane

1 = me

Write in
terms of z

l=-V

M O = Im Bi
or, by convention,

or,

n = 1

Write as Laurent series

z-plane

}= lm cos( ) 2V C

MO

sin( 2 )

Positive counterclockwise

M O = 2V2C 2 sin( 2 ) lm cos( )

Positive clockwise

zi in loop

CM O =

4C 2
m
sin(
2

C
cos( )
l
2
c
c

Positive clockwise

Pure moment
Moment due to lift acting on lever arm m cos( )

Example 3 Interpretation
M O = 2V2C 2 sin( 2 ) lm cos( )

CM O

4C 2
m
= 2 sin( 2 ) Cl cos( )
c
c

Transferring the moment:


For a general point z, lever arm has a
length r cos( ) m cos( ) so

z=rei

Lift l
r

MO

f, g

M Z = 2V2C 2 sin( 2 ) + lr cos( ) lm cos( )


4C 2
r
m
C M Z = 2 sin( 2 ) + Cl cos( ) Cl cos( )
c
c
c

m cos( )

Center of pressure: Point about which moment is zero (located by distance f).

C 2 sin( 2 )
Setting Mz=0 gives f =
2a sin( + )

Aerodynamic center: Point about which moment is independent of (located by g).


Setting

M Z
2
2 2
= 0 gives g = C cos( ) / a and M Z | Aero = 2V C sin( 2 )
8

center

Results for Moment


-plane

z=+C2/
z=rei

Lift l

dz
C2
= 1 2

MO

V
1. The lift acts almost at mid chord (but dont
say this in public)
2. For a thin uncambered airfoil, the center
of pressure f is close to the chord. The
lift appears to act at this point.
3. For any thin airfoil the aerodynamic center
will be close to the quarter chord, and very
gradually moves upstream with
4. The moment about the aerodynamic
center varies with camber (almost linearly
with the zero lift angle of attack

f, g

m cos( )

4C 2
m
C M O = 2 sin( 2 ) Cl cos( )
c
c
C 2 sin( 2 )
f =
g = C 2 cos( ) / a
2a sin( + )

M Z | Aero cent = 2V2C 2 sin( 2 )


a C and a and c increase
slowly with camber
Where
c 4C and thickness
a C c/4
for a thin airfoil
and
9
m << a , c , C