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# AP Chemistry: Chapter 7 Practice Quiz

1. Define
Effective nuclear charge net attractive force of nucleus on
valence electrons
Electron affinity energy change which occurs when an electron
is added to a gaseous atom
Ionization energy- energy required to remove an electron from
the ground state of an isolated gaseous atom or ion
2. What is the effective nuclear charge of bromine, if the ionization
energy of the bromine atom is 272 kcal/mol?
272 Kcal/mol = (Zeff)2(313.6Kcal/mol)/42:Zeff =3.73
3. What is the average atomic radius of a silicon atom, if its ionization
energy is 188 kcal/mol?
188 Kcal/mol = (Zeff)2(313.6Kcal/mol)/32: Zeff =2.323
rave=(0.528)(n2/Zeff)[1.5-(L(L+1)/2n2)]
rave=(0.528)(32/2.323)[1.5-(1(1+1)/2(32))]=2.84 ang
4. What are the general trends in 1st ionization energy in the periodic
table? Explain the causes of these trends in terms of atomic structure.
1st ionization increases from left to right in a period. This is
because Zeff increases from left to right. Since Zeff is increasing,
the energy required to remove an electron also must be higher.
1st ionization energy decreases in a family as the period
increases (going down a group). With each step down in a family
the valence electron is in a higher energy level. At a higher
energy level the electron is farther from the nucleus. Since the
force between charges is inversely proportional to distance
squared, the force of the nucleus on the electron decreases as
the distance increases. That means less energy is required to
remove the electron as one goes down the family.
5. What are the trends in atomic radius in the periodic table? Explain the
causes of these trends in terms of atomic structure.
Atomic radius decreases from left to right in a period. This is
because Zeff increases from left to right. Since Zeff is increasing
and the distance of the electron from the nucleus (energy level)
is approximately the same, the force between the electron and
nucleus is greater. The greater force pulls the electron cloud
closer to the nucleus. Thus the atomic radius is smaller. Atomic
radius increases in a family as the period increases (going down
a group). With each step down in a family the valence electron is
in a higher energy level. At a higher energy level the electron is
farther from the nucleus.
6. List six characteristics of metals.
Shiny luster, solid at room temp, malleable, ductile, good
conductors of electricity and heat, form cations in aqueous

## solutions, lower IE than nonmetals. Metal oxides are basic ionic

solids.
7. Choose the best answer from the following: F, O, S
Has the most negative electron affinity?
o F
Has the largest ionization energy?
o F
o S
8. Choose the best answer from the following: Be 2+, He, Li+
o Be2+
Has lowest ionization energy?
o He
Are isoelectronic?
o He, Li+, Be2+
9. List 2 allotropes of oxygen. What is the most common allotrope of
sulfur?
O2, O3,
S8
10.
What is the trend in reactivity for the alkaline earth metals? Give
Reactivity increases going down the family (as atomic number
increases). Be does not react with water at any temp. Mg reacts
with steam but not water. Ca, Sr, and Ba react readily with water.
11.
Contrast the properties of potassium with those of calcium.
Include at least 4 areas of contrast excluding atomic size and ionization
energy.
Calcium is harder, melts at a higher temp, is less reactive, and
burns with a brick red color(K burns lilac)
12.
Why does magnesium have a higher electron affinity than
sodium?
Magnesium has filled 3s orbital. Therefore, it is less willing to add
an electron than sodium which has only 1 3s electron.
13.
Which elements are exceptions to the trend in ionization energy
across the 2nd period? Explain these exceptions in terms of atomic
structure.
Beryllium is higher than expected. This is because the electron
would have to be removed from the filled 2s orbital. A filled 2s
orbital is more stable than a 2p occupied by one electron. The 2p
electron is also farther from the nucleus than the 2s electron.
Therefore, it is easier to remove the 1 2p from B then a paired 2s
from Be. Nitrogen is also higher than expected. This is because
nitrogen has an electron in each 2p orbital. The addition of the

## next electron in oxygen causes pairing of one of the 2ps. The

nitrogen arrangement is more stable and has less electronelectron repulsion than the arrangement in oxygen. Therefore,
more energy is required to remove the nitrogen electron than
that in oxygen.