Anda di halaman 1dari 15

EFFECT OF METAL COUPLING ON RUSTING OF IRON

A Project Report
Submitted by
Aashray Kotha
CBSE GRADE XII
CHEMISTRY

Nehru Smarka Vidyalaya Kendra


244/C, 32 Cross, 7th block, 2nd Main Rd, Jayanagar,
Bengaluru, Karnataka 560082

2016-17

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Aashray Kotha of Grade XII in Nehru Smarka
Vidyalaya Kendra, Bangalore, with registration number

has successfully completed the project in Chemistry on the topic


Effect of Metal Coupling On The Rusting of Iron, in partial
fulfilment of the requirements stated by CBSE in the year 2016-17.

Signature of the Candidate

Signature of Teacher In Charge

Signature of Principal

Signature of External Examiner

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I warmly acknowledge the continuous encouragement and timely


suggestions offered by our dear Chairman Mr. D. Muniraju, and Mr.
Ashish. I extend my hearty thanks also to our principal, Mr. Arokia
Raj, for giving me the opportunity to make use of the facilities
available in the campus to carry out the project successfully.

I am highly indebted to Mrs. Ashwini M.G. for the constant


supervision, providing necessary information and support in
completing the project. I would like to express my gratitude towards
her for her kind co-operation and encouragement.

Finally, I extend my gratitude to one and all who are directly or indirectly
involved in the successful completion of this project work.

Aashray Kotha

INDEX

S.
N
o
1

Topic
What is corrosion?

Pg.
No
5

Rusting- form of
corrosion

Mechanism of rusting

Prevention of rusting

Experiment- rusting
of metal coupling

Bibliography

10

14

CORROSION
Corrosion is the gradual
destruction of material, usually
metals, by chemical reaction
with its environment. In the
most common use of the word,
this means electrochemical
oxidation of metals in reaction
with an oxidant such as oxygen.
This type of damage typically produces oxides or salts
of the original metal. Corrosion can also occur in
materials other than metals, such as ceramics or
polymers, although in this context, the term
degradation is more common. Corrosion degrades the
useful properties of materials and structures including
strength, appearance and permeability to liquids and
gases.
Many structural alloys corrode merely from exposure to
moisture in the air, but the process can be strongly
affected by exposure to certain substances. Corrosion
can be concentrated locally to form a pit or crack, or it
can extend across a wide area more or less uniformly
corroding the surface. Because corrosion is a diffusioncontrolled process, it occurs on exposed surfaces. As a
result, methods to reduce the activity of the exposed

surface, such as passivation and chromate conversion,


can increase a material's corrosion resistance.
There are different types of corrosion mainly: Galvanic corrosion- Galvanic corrosion occurs when
two different metals have physical or electrical
contact with each other and are immersed in a
common electrolyte.
Pitting corrosion- Pitting corrosion is a form of
extremely localized corrosion that leads to the
creation of small holes in the metal.
Intergranular corrosion- Intergranular corrosion,
also known as intergranular attack, is a form of
corrosion where the boundaries of crystallites of
the material are more susceptible to corrosion
than their insides.
Crevice corrosion- Crevice corrosion refers to
corrosion occurring in confined spaces to which
the access of the working fluid from the
environment is limited.
Microbial corrosion- is corrosion caused or
promoted by microorganisms.
High temperature corrosion-High-temperature
corrosion is chemical deterioration of a material
(typically a metal) as a result of heating.

RUSTING- A FORM OF CORROSION


th

Iron is a metal in the 10 group


of the periodic table. It is the
most abundant and useful metal
of this group. This metal reacts
with the gases present in the
environment [oxygen, carbon
dioxide, water] and is lost as oxides. This process of
destruction of the metal, as we said before, is called
corrosion. In the case of iron, a special term is given,
which is called rusting.
Rusting of iron is the corrosion of the iron object when
exposed to air and moisture. It is called so due to the
formation of rust, which is the reddish brown in color
and is hydrated ferric oxide FeO.xHO.
Rusting of iron depends on the following factors: Impurities in iron- pure iron does not rust in
vacuum or dry air.
Air and moisture- iron does not rust in the absence
of air or moisture.
Electrolytes in water enhance rusting.
Acids and acid forming gases like CO and SO lead
to rapid rusting.
Presence of rust leads to more rusting by
autocatalysis.

Mechanism of Rusting
According to the electrochemical theory of rusting,
i r o n b e h a ve s l i k e a n d
electrochemical cell in the
presence of water containing
dissolved O or CO. It is also
called corrosion cell. In these
cells, pure iron acts as the anode
where the oxidation takes place and impure iron the
cathode where reduction takes place.
2+

At the anode, Iron atoms oxidize into Fe and the 2es


that are produced are used by the cathode for
reduction.
2+

Anode

2Fe

----------> 2Fe +4e-

Cathode

O2+ 4H +4e ----------->2H2O

2+

Overall reaction: 2Fe + O2 + 4H -------> 2Fe + 2H2O


The ferrous ions are further oxidised by atmospheric
oxygen to ferric ions which come out as rust in the
form of hydrated ferric oxides [ Fe2O3.2H2O] and with
further production of hydrogen ions.
0

The total E cell is 1.67 V which is positive. Therefore


the reaction is feasible. This is the reason of the
rusting of iron in the presence of air and moisture. If
one of the components is missing, rusting does not take
place.

PREVENTION OF RUSTING
Rusting can be prevented in many ways.
1. Barrier method- in this method a barrier film is
introduced between the iron and the atmosphere.
2. Galvanization- coating the iron with zinc. Zinc
being the more reactive metal reacts with air and
loses electrons, thus protecting the iron object.
3. Use of antitrust solutions- like alkaline sodium
phosphates, tarnic acids and potassium chromates.
4. Sacrificial protection- it provides a sacrificial
electrode of another metal, like Mg or Zn which
corrodes itself but saves the object.

EXPERIMENT- EFFECT OF METAL COUPLING ON


RUSTING OF IRON
Aim
To investigate the effect of metal coupling on rusting
of iron.
Apparatus required
Two petri dishes
4 test tubes
Four iron nails
Beaker
Sandpaper
Wire gauze
Gelatin
Copper, zinc and magnesium strips
Potassium ferricyanide solution
Phenolphthalein

Theory
Metal coupling affects the rusting of iron. If the nail is
coupled with a mire electropositive metal like zinc,
magnesium or aluminium rusting is prevented but if on

the other hand, it is coupled with less electropositive


metals like copper, the rusting is facilitated.
Procedure
1. At first we have to clean the surface of iron nails
with the help of sand paper.
2. After that we have to wind the zinc strip around
one nail, a clean copper wire around the second
nail and a clean magnesium strip around the third
nail. Then to put all these three and a fourth nail
in Petri dishes so that they are not in contact with
each other.
3. Preparation of the agar-agar solution:- heat about
1 gram of agar-agar in 100ml of water taken in a
beaker until the solution becomes clear. Add about
1 ml of 0.1 M potassium ferricyanide solution and 1
ml of phenolphthalein solution and stir well the
contents.
4. Then to fill the petri dishes with hot agar-agar
solution in such a way that only lower half of the
nails are covered with the liquids.
5. Keep the covered petri dishes undisturbed for one
day or so.

Observation
S.no
.

Metal pair

Color of
the
patch

Iron-Zinc

Blue

No

IronMagnesium

Blue

No

Iron-Copper

Pink

Yes

Iron nail

Pink

Yes

IRON NAIL WITH ZINC

IRON NAIL WITH


COPPER

Nail rusts
or not

Result
Two types of patches are observed around the rusted
nail
One is blue- due to the formation of potassium
Ferro-ferricyanide
Pink patch is due to the formation of hydroxyl ions
which turns colorless phenolphthalein to pink
It is clear from the observation that coupling of iron
with more electropositive metals such as zinc and
magnesium resists corrosion and rusting of iron.
Coupling of iron with less electropositive metals such
as copper increases rusting.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
www.wikipedia.com
Referred the book Comprehensive chemistry for
more details on corrosion and its causes.
NCERT Textbook- for the electrochemical theory of
rusting