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electrical systems. Students will learn the fundamental concepts of electricity, electrical

circuits, principles of magnetism, tools and test equipment, automotive electrical systems

and circuits as well as comfort and safety.

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

CLO1.Explain and sketch the diagrams of basic electrical quantities, types of electrical

circuits, electrical power and

electrical energy.(P5)

CLO2.Explain clearly the relationship between current flow and magnetism (C2)

CLO3.Apply mathematical equation to solve the automotive electrical related problems

(A4)

( 08 : 04 )

Electrical circuits; basic electrical quantities i.e. electromotive force (EMF),

charge, current, potential difference (voltage) and resistance. Types of electrical

circuits; open circuit and short circuit. The relationship between current, voltage

and resistance. Electrical power, electrical energy and characteristics of series

circuits and parallel circuits

2.0 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROMAGNETISM

( 04 : 02 )

Relationship between current flow and magnetism, factors affecting the strength

of electromagnets, characteristics of magnetic quantities and electromagnetic

induction

3.0 TOOL AND TEST EQUIPMENT

( 04 : 02 )

Measuring properties, measuring equipment and the use of Multimeter and

oscilloscope

4.0 AUTOMOTIVE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND CIRCUITS

( 06 : 03 )

The system approach, Electrical Wiring, terminal and switching,Circuit Diagram

and Symbol

5.0 ACCESSORIES AND SAFETY

( 08 : 04 )

Central locking and electric power windows, In-car Multimedia, Security In

Vehicle, Airbag and Belt Tensione

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quantities

At the end of this chapter you should be able to:

state the basic SI units

recognize derived SI units

understand prefixes denoting multiplication and division

state the units of charge, force, work and power and perform simple calculations involving

these units

state the units of electrical potential, e.m.f., resistance, conductance, power and energy and

perform simple calculations involving these units

The system of units used in engineering and science is the Systme Internationale dUnits

(International system of units), usually abbreviated to SI units, and isbased on the metric

system. Thiswas introduced in 1960 and is now adopted by the majority of countries as

theofficial system of measurement.The basic units in the SI system are listed below iththeir

symbols:

Derived SI units use combinations of basic units and there are many of them. Two examples are:

Velocitymetres per second (m/s)

Accelerationmetres per second squared (m/s2)

SI units may be made larger or smaller by using prefixes which denote multiplication or division by

a particular amount. The six most common multiples, with their meaning, are listed in Table 1.2.

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The unit of charge is the coulomb (C) where one coulomb is one ampere second. (1 coulomb =

6.24 1018 electrons). The coulomb is defined as the quantity of electricity which flows past a given

point in an electric circuit when a current of one ampere is maintained for one second.

Thus,

where I is the current in amperes and t is the time in seconds.

Problem 1. If a current of 5 A flows for 2 minutes, find the quantity of electricity transferred.

Quantity of electricity Q = It coulombs

I = 5 A, t =2 x 60 = 120 s

Hence Q = 5 x 120 = 600 C

The energy supplie by a source of power in driving a unit charge. Force which causes

electrons to move from one location to another.

Symbol: E Unit: Volt (V)

Charge.

Charge is defined as the product of current and time and the unit is Coulomb (C).

The coulomb is defined as the quantity of electricity which flows past a given point in an

electric circuit when a current of one ampere is maintained for one second Charge is defined

as the product of current and time.

Q= I x t

where I is the current in amperes and t is the time in seconds.

Symbol: Q Unit: Coulomb (C)

Current

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Unit is Ampere ( A )

Pontential Energy ( Voltage )

A measure of the energy of Electricity.

Unit is Volt ( V )

Resistance

Ability of substance to prevent or resist the flow of the electrical current.

Unit is ohm ( )

The resistance of an electrical conductor depends on four factors, these being:

(a) the length of the conductor,

(b) the cross-sectional area of the conductor,

(c) the type of material and

(d) the temperature of the material.

Resistance, R, is directly proportional to length, l, of a conductor, i.e. Rl. Thus, for example, if the

length of a piece of wire is doubled, then the resistance is doubled. Resistance, R, is inversely

proportional to crosssectional area, a, of a conductor, i.e. R1/a. Thus, for example, if the crosssectional area of a piece of wire is doubled then the resistance is halved. Since Rl and R1/a then

Rl/a. By inserting a constant of proportionality into this relationship the type of material used may

be taken into account. The constant of proportionality is known as the resistivity of the material and

is given the symbol (Greek rho). Thus

is measured in ohm metres (_m). The value of the resistivity is that resistance of a unit cube of the

material measured between opposite faces of the cube.

Resistivity varies with temperature and some typical values of resistivities measured at about room

temperature are given below:

Copper 1.7 108 _m (or 0.017 _m)

Aluminium 2.6 108 _m (or 0.026 _m)

Carbon (graphite) 10 108 _m (0.10 _m)

Glass 1 1010 _m (or 104 _m)

Mica 1 1013 _m (or 107 _m)

Note that good conductors of electricity have a lowvalue of resistivity and good insulators have a

high value of resistivity.

Example.

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Calculate the resistance of a 2 km length of aluminium overhead power cable if the cross-sectional

area of the cable is 100^2. Take the resistivity of aluminium to be 0.03 10^(6) m.

Length l =2 km=2000 m,

area a=100 2 =100 10(6) 2

and resistivity =0.03 10(6) m.

Solution

Resistance R = l

a

= (0.03 10-6 m)(2000 m)

(100 10-6 2)

= 0.03 2000

100

= 0.6

Semiconductor

Which have moderate resistance

Exp: Germanium, Silicon.

Conductor.

Electricity flows more easily through some materials than through others. Good conductors have

little resistance.

A conductor is a material having a lowresistance which allows electric current to flow in it. All

metals are conductors and some examples include copper, aluminium, brass, platinum, silver, gold

and carbon.

Insulator

An insulator is a material or object which contains no free electron permit the flow of electricity.

An insulator is a material having a high resistance which does not allow electric current to flow in

it. Some examples of insulators include plastic, rubber, glass, porcelain, air, paper, cork, mica,

ceramics and certain oils

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resistance, insulators decrease in resistance, whilst the resistance of some special alloys

remain almost constant. The temperature coefficient of resistance of a material is the

increase in the resistance of a 1_ resistor of that material when it is subjected to a rise of

temperatureof 1C. The symbol used for the tempe raturecoefficient of resistance is

(Greek alpha). Thus, if some copper wire of resistance 1_ is heated through 1C and its

resistance is then measured as 1.0043_ then =0.0043 _/_ C for copper. The units are

usually expressed only as per C, i.e. =0.0043/C

for copper. If the 1_ resistor of copper is heated through 100C then the resistance at 100C

would

be 1+1000.0043=1.43_. Some typical values of temperature coefficient of resistance

measured at 0C are given below:

Copper 0.0043/C

Nickel 0.0062/C

Constantan 0

Aluminium 0.0038/C

Carbon 0.00048/C

Eureka 0.00001/C

Type Of Electrical Circuit

Simple circuits, complete circuit, open and short circuits.

An open circuit has an infinite resistance, which means that it has zero current flow

through it for any finite voltage across it. On a circuit diagram it is indicated by two

terminals not connected to anything.

A short circuit is the opposite of an open circuit. It has zero voltage across it for any

finite current flow through it. On a circuit diagram a short circuit is designated by an

ideal conducting wire a wire with zero resistance. A short circuit is often called a

short. Not all open and short circuits are desirable. Frequently, one or the other is a

circuit defect that occurs as a result of a component failure from an accident or the

misuse of a circuit.

Complete Circuit:

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i. Have 3 main components voltage supplied, resistance and Current flow in the medium.

R

I

Incomplete Circuit:

i. Open Circuit

> caused intentionally when a user opens a switch,

> one of the 3 main components missing

Resistor missing

Or

Lamp not on

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> Whenever the resistance of a circuit or the resistance of a part of a circuit drops in value

to almost zero.

> Connection by passed with a non-value of conductor.

Voltmeters

Voltage is measured in volts, V.

Voltmeters are connected in parallel across components.

Voltmeters have a very high resistance.

Symbol

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1A is quite large, so mA (milliamps) and A (microamps) are often used. 1000mA = 1A,

1000A = 1mA, 1000000A = 1A.

Ammeters are connected in series.

To connect in series you must break the circuit and put the ammeter across the gap, as

shown in the diagram.

Ammeters have a very low resistance

Symbol

Ohmmeter

An ohmmeter is used to measure resistance in ohms ( ). Ohmmeters are rarely

found as separate meters but all standard multimeters have an ohmmeter setting.

1 is quite small so k and M are often used. 1k = 1000, 1M = 1000k = 1000000.

Symbol

The wattmeter is an instrument for measuring the electric power (or the supply rate of electrical

energy) in watts of any given circuit . Symbol for wattmeter

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OHMS LAW

Ohms law

Ohms law states that the current I flowing in a circuit is directly proportional to the applied

voltage V and inversely proportional to the resistance R, provided the temperature remains constant.

Or

The current though a conductor between two points is directly Proportional difference across the

two points (Voltage) and inversely proportional to the resisstance between them.

Thus,

V = voltage

I = current

R = resistance

V

I

Find the current in the circuit

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ELECTRICAL POWER

Define Power.

Power is the time rate of expanding ( or absorbing ) energy, measured in watts (W).

The power absorbed ( or supplied) by an element is the product of the voltage across the element

and the current through it.

P = V x I watt

(1)

Power P in an electrical circuit is given by the product of potential difference V and current I

P

V

Substituting for V in equation

(1) gives:

P=(IR)I

P =R

watts

Also, from Ohms law, I =V/R. Substituting for I in equation (1) gives:

P = V x /

P = 2/ watt

Example 1.

A 100W electric light bulb is connected to a 250V supply. Determine (a) the current flowing in the

bulb, and (b) the resistance of

the bulb.

Solution.

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Example 2.

Calculate the power dissipated when a current of 4mA flows through a resistance of 5 k.

Solution.

OR

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Currents, voltages and resistances can often be very large or very small. Thus multiples and

sub-multiples of units are often used, as stated in Chapter 1. The most common ones, with

an example of each, are listed in Table 2.1.

Example. 3 Determine the p.d. which must be applied to a 2 k resistor in order that a current of

10mA may flow.

Resistance R = 2 k = 2 103 = 2000

Current I = 10mA = 10 103 A

Conductors and insulators

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Series and parallel networks

Series circuits

Figure shows three resistors R1, R2 and R3 connected end to end, i.e. in series, with a battery

source of V volts.Since the circuit is closed a current I will flow and the p.d. across each

resistor may be determined from the voltmeter readings V1, V2 and V3.

In a series circuit

(a) the current I is the same in all parts of the circuit and hence the same reading is found on

each of

the ammeters shown, and

(b) the sum of the voltages V1, V2 and V3 is equal to

the total applied voltage, V,

i.e. V =V1 +V2 +V3

From Ohms law: V1 =IR1, V2 =IR2, V3 =IR3 and V =IR where R is the total circuit

resistance. Since

V = V1+V2+V3 then IR = IR1+IR2+IR3. Dividing throughout by I gives

R=R1 +R2 +R3

Thus for a series circuit, the total resistance is obtained by adding together the values of the

separate resistances.

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Example 1. For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.2, determine (a) the battery voltage V, (b) the

total resistance of the circuit, and (c) the values of resistors R1, R2 and R3, given that the

p.d.s across R1, R2 and R3 are 5V, 2V and 6V respectively.

Example 2. For the circuit shown in Fig. 5.3, determine the p.d. across resistor R3. If the

total resistance of the circuit is 100_, determine the current flowing through resistor R1.

Find also the value of resistor R2.

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having resistances of 4_, 9_ and 11_. Determine the current flowing through, and the p.d.

across the 9 resistor. Find also the power dissipated in the 11 resistor.

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Potential divider

The circuit shown in Fig. 5.5(b) is often referred to as a potential divider circuit. Such a circuit can

consist of a number of similar elements in series connected across a voltage source, voltages being

taken from connections between the elements. Frequently the divider consists of two resistors as

shown in Fig. 5.5(b), where

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Example 5. Two resistors are connected in series across a 24V supply and a current of 3A flows in

the circuit. If one of the resistors has a resistance of 2_ determine (a) the value of the other

resistor, andm(b) the p.d. across the 2 resistor. If the circuit is connected for 50 hours, how much

energy is used?

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Parallel networks

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Current division

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