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Section (1) :
1. With respect to loading timber cargo in question;
a) Explain under what circumstances, vessel is able to load to
Lumber load lines.
Type and compactness of timber cargo, e.g., logs, cants, ragged
end packages, square (or flush) both ends, etc.
Type of vessel timber load line or not.
Strength, pitch and tending of lashings.
Height of cargo and stability considerations.
Measures to deliberately jettison cargo.
Keeping clear all sounding and air pipes necessary for the
working of the ship, ensuring means of safe access to all parts
of the ship, keeping cargo hold ventilators clear for operation.
Under-deck and on-deck bills of lading.
Hatchcovers and other openings below decks should be securely
closed and battened down.
Hatches and decks, and the cargo itself, should be kept free of
any accumulations of ice and snow.
All deck lashings, uprights, etc, in position before loading

The cargo must not interfere in any way with the navigation or
necessary working of the ship.
b) Explain how would you ensure safety of crew and prevent
possibility of damage to ship structure with respect to weight
and height of cargo, when loading Timber on:
Top of the hatch cover
Vessel must have adequate stability at all stages of the voyage
for the amount of cargo which it is proposed to load. Bear in
mind that some cargoes such as timber can absorb up to 1/3 of
their own weight of water. Loss of weight due to consumption of
water, fuel and store must be considered. Upsetting moments
caused by wind must be taken into account.
Adequate provision must be made for the safety of the crew
when passing from one part of the vessel to another. When
carrying deck cargo which prevents access for the crew to their
quarters along or under the deck, a walkway has to be provided
over the cargo with suitable dimensions.
Steering arrangements must be effectively protected from
damage and in the event of a breakdown in the main steering
arrangements an emergency gear must be capable of being
rigged and operated.
Where the cargo is stowed on the hatches, these are to be
properly battened down and of sufficient strength to take the
intended cargo
The decks are to be of sufficient strength for the intended cargo
and if necessary they should be strengthened by tomming or
shoring underneath.

The deck cargo is to be well secured and if necessary, protected

from the weather and from the heat of the sun. It must not be
so high as to interfere with the navigation of the ship.

a) With aid of simple sketches show different methods of
securing the timber deck cargo.
The following three types of lashing equipment with different
strength and elongation characteristics are most frequently
used for securing timber deck cargoes. Individual
suitability should be determined by such factors as ship type,
size and area of operation, and as described in the cargo
securing manual
1 chain lashings;
2 wire lashings; and

3 fabricated web lashings.

All lashing equipment should be visually examined according to
the instruction in the cargo securing manual before use and
only equipment fit for purpose should be used for securing of
timber deck cargoes.
The necessary pre-tension in the lashings used should be
maintained throughout the voyage.
Entries of all examinations and adjustments to lashings should
be made in the ship's logbook.
Uprights should be fitted when required by this Code and as
prescribed in the ship's cargo securing manual