'
In l1 u lion Manual
EngineeringPhysics
(:?1)") UNl\fERSITV
IEM"s
..~~Of ENGINEERING
U EM
t{ 0 l t{ ATA
br
(Ot>b!rsh<d
University
1 Laboratory
own University
in Kolkata
1n AO of Stm Gowt.. l rKOgnis.td i.'J 22 ~ UGC Act. t./..111~ ol Hru>. Govt. d ltd.. l
Arca. Plot No. Ill  8/5, New Town, Action Area  Ill, Kolkata  700156
)
)
)
UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING
AND MANAGEMENT
(UEM)
KOLKATA CAMPUS
CJ!'
University area,Plot
Department
No.1118/5,New

'
'
...
"'
ODD SEMESTER
,,
.,
I '
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..,
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Contents
Experiment 1: Determination of Young's Modulus
l. lntroduction:~:
.,
2. Procedure
3. Observation table
4. Calculation
5. Error Analysis
1. Introduction
2. Theory
3. Procedure
4. Observation Table
5. Error Analysis
1. Introduction
11
2. Procedure
12
'
_,,
JI
...._.
3. Observation Table
1213
"
15
2. Procedure
15
3. Observation Table
16
..
l.lntroduction
17
2.Procedure
18
3. Observation Table
19
4. Discussion
19
2022
2. Procedure
22
3. Observation Table
23
4. Error Analysis
24
5. Discussion
24
.,
..
,_
25
2. Procedure
26
3. Observation Table
27
4. Error Analysis
28
5. Discussion
28
29
~
3. Procedure
4. Observation Table
30
3132
3334
5. Calculation
35
5. Error Analysis
35
35
3637
2. Procedure
3839
3. Observation Table
39
4. Calculation
40
5. Error Analysis
40
40
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lH
8Jl
'' 0
fl
UtC
l l
Lt Hi
d t("11lltnC th
r Y )lJN , ~
IOD1JJ,IJS
of
c1,1\llCtl)'
lh
111:\ICll~tl
of,,,,,,,.
,, ,, .. ,
tn<'th d
If :l light b."'r<'I brc:id1h.h :lnd deplh ti is placc<.J honzon1fllly on two "Knife edges separated t.Jy
a d1s1ance L. nmt a load of mass m, ap_plicd at_!he midpoint of thcba~. produces;, dcpr =:.JOn
I of lhe ~r. then Young"s modulus Yof the material of rbe bar is given by

gL3
4bd3

w..!!_crc g is the acceleration due to wvitt. This is the working formula of the experiment, and
is vahd so long as tbe slope of the bar al any point with respect 10 the unstrained posit 10n as
much less than unity. Herc Y is determined by measuring 1hc quanlities b, d, l and the mean
~ion _!_.QITcs~nding_!.C?_ a load rn, _lf b, d, L and I arc measured in cm, m in. gm, g is
expressed in cm/sec", aOd then Y is obtained in dync/cm2 in C.G.S.
PROCEDURE
(i) Measure the length of the given bar with a meter scale and mark its midpoint. Draw
marks on the scale corresponding to some length
LI LI' of the bar {say 70 cm).
(ii) Mount on the bar, rbe frame F carrying a knifeedge. Now place the bar with its leas1
dimension verucal, on the knifeedges NI and N2 such thal 1hc Lill' marks coincide with
the knifeedges. Mount a spirit level on the bar and adjust the leveling screws until the bar JS
horizontal.
(111)B1in
~rnr
o
trarn f>on1hccC'ntrol1i:rni;v
1~
rn.r~o(lt'Y'bar
m1c1
ope ml vr ' the po.nrcr P Adju I 1h lcvcl1n1! screws ol rbe rmcroscop until 1h
I o ie r rfe ,,_
II
<I nnd th (1;(14\ 01 lh microscope IS hor11ont:il Focui the y
p1
On th Cl SS" ues bv kccpmg one or the cross v ires ho11zon1nl
Focus the IJp of the
I mrer and lldju I the \(lttcnl posmon or rhe nucroscope until the llTIA~C of the tip of the
I inter touches rhor of rbe horrzomal crosswire As fnr ns possible ""01d parallax.
th
.
\
edvv
rb
Placc
(1v
tcrrmne the vernier constant of the microscope
th J>O Ilion of the nucroscope on the vert_icill scnic
rh
,,. ( ) Pince a load or0.5 Kg on the hanger. This will produce a depression of the bar. Aller the
rhcal posmon of the microscope until the image or pointer touches that of the horizontal
crosswire. Nore again the vertical scale reading of the microscope. The difference of the two
microscope R"ndings gives the depression of the bar for the load ofO.Skg
'
)
'.)
')
(vii) Remove the bar without disturbing the position of the stands, and measure accurately the
1)
distance between the knifeedges (i.e. LI LI by placing vertically the marked face of a
meter scale across the knifeedges.
(viii) Determine the vernier constant of the slide callipers and measure with ii the breadth b of
the bar at three different places. Calculate the mean breadth of the bar. Nole the zero error, if
any, of the slide callipers and find the correct value of b,
)
~
(1x) Determine the least count of the screw gauge and measure depth d of the bar at a number
of places along the length of the bar. Find the mean value. Note the zero error, ifany of the
screw gauge and obtain the correct value of d.
j
~
(x) Draw a graph with the load m in gm along the Xaxis and the corresponding depression I
in cm along the Yaxis and determine the value of Y.
OBSERVATIONS
=>
TableI : Determination
or the
.
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.
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I Value
=:/
<Jivis1011
Vernier constant
vc
= (11
/2 )'(
cm)
Wflv
L __
 

I""'~
"
.,
l abl
hO\
()
n length
I obs
Load
\ hCl ,, ,,"llC IC
Ill
{kg)
\l;l1 1
(~)
.,,11u<'1
Tomi
ft v)
(v~
C.\k~)
Dcrrr ~<:1011
I 1c111)
<1111;? fOI
I:
0
a.
(1b
~
~1) a.
c.
'.:\I
(h)
05
) 0
(~)
1~
o:
2.
;.
0...  IL
..
of I vernier
(l2 = : 11) (cm)
Value
. ..
......
division
Vernier constant
v.c. =(I, 
... ..
t.,) (cm)
. .. ..
.:J
:.J
Reading\
(cm)
of
Main
scale
Tora I
Mean b
(cm)
reading b
the
Vernier
Zero error
(cm)
Correct b
(cm)
(cm)
No
of divisious n on the
Least count 
p'I\
(cru)
circutar scale
~~~~~~
I 1hlr
' ...
I "''
\
M nu d
I 1)tnl
1 cnd111
r/(c111)
Re .1.l111ll
l
I "':i~ ~
I he
h:u by th(
<t
/c>tO
(c111)
''
rn11}~<'
t:l I \I
111)
1)11"(.fr/
I 1..111)
_I
'~nle
' I
''_,__________.. _ _____..__
 _l
CALClJLA TIONS
Now draw a graph of Load (m) vs. Depression (I)
m will be along Xaxis and I will be along Y axis
from the graph calculate the value of the slope (llm). Put the value of the inverse of rhe slope
in rbe expression ofY.
Herc Y is determined by measuring rbe quannnes b, d, l and the mean depression I
corresponding to a load m, J f b, d, l and I arc measured in cm, m in gm, g is expressed in
cm/scc2, and then Y is obtained in dyne/cm2 in C.G.S. Jn SJ. Y is obtained in New1on/m2
PRECAUTIONS
(i)
The beam must be kept horizontal and the pointer along with the frame must be
suspended at its !11id points.
(ii)
Since lhe value of depth (d) Ls small and it occurs 10 the third power in the
expression for Y, it must be measured with a screw gauge.
(iii)
While raking rhc reading microscope must be rotated in the same direction , so as
10 avoid the back lash error.
ERR.OR ANALYSIS
y
gL3
4b<I~
"'
"
~
= 3 oL + ob + 3 od + 01
oy)
y
mnz
DiSCUSSJONS
NEvV
ODJCTIVE
To _111dv the formation of Newrons nnas in the airfihn in between a ptaooconvcx lens nnd
~l:iss ~l:lt<.> usmg nearly monochromatic light from a sodiumsource and hence 10 derermme
the radius of curvature of the pianoconvex lens
:i
APP.\R,\ TUS
,~
convex lens
A uavetling microscope
A
THEORY
,.,..
)
I~
~
~
:)
For a normal incidence of monochromatic light, the path difference between the reflected
rays (see Fig. J) is very nearly equal to 2 1 where
and 1 are the refractive index and
thickness of the airfilm respectively, The fact that the wave is reflected from air to glass
Z t=(n+z) A; n ""0.1.L3
~
and for dark fringe
~
~
4
~
10
(I)
'"I
I"
,,).
0,
1,}
(J)
(J)
whe1~D11
tht>tt1r.mc1e1of1hcnthr111
nn<lR
1h\.'rndm:i.orcurvn1t11
On negk.'Cting 11 c<1un11\1n (.>)reduces 10
..
D,; :: StR
/:
,
.\
(4)
)
 ~
.s:
'l
/A
./
Fig.1G~b)'~ed11'.\
di!?t;it~
Ch(a
D,.
= <I n
1\).R
+) /
for nlb bright ring

o I .......
'l
.,
~
(5)
1yR
=4nn:+;
fly
"
(n ~m).lh 11"~l
nne
(~
D_
4nlR
s::
'
(T)
:)
:1
D ... =
~(,,..._ '")\. R
f01{111t}thduic
u
.
(S)
"'
(9)
./1,,V.
~
~
11
;,
,.
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R
_,o_,._
..._o,.
(10)
.J mJ.
PROCEDURE
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Adjust the glass plate G, for maximum visibility of the point of contact of lens L with
the glass plate G <ind hence for maximum visibility of Newton's Rings. Jn this
orienranon. G, as at 4510 the incident beam of tight.
3.
Move 1h.e microscope to the right of the central dark spoi (say order 'n', this is
because the central ring is often broad and may not necessarily will be zero order)
and set it on the extreme visible (say n+20th order) distinct daric ring so shat the
crosswire perpendicular to the direction of movemem of the microscope passes
through the dark ring and is tangential to it. Record the microscope position from the
horizontal scale along with its number with dark ring around the central dark spot as
the f~t dark nng .
4.
Move the microscope to left and record the position of the 16"' dark ring. Continue
shifting the microscope to the left and record data at an interval of 4 rings (i.c l2'h, g1h
and 4h ring)
>
.,
~
;)
5.
Now move the microscope further to the left so that you cross the central dark spot
and reach the 4"' dark ring on lhe left side of the central spot. Take rbe reading of this
.
.
4 1h das k nng.
:J
~
6.
Continue shifl1ng the microscope 10 1he left and rake readings al an interval of four
rings rill you reach the 20.., ring.
7.
Now shift tbe microscope to the right by rotating the horizontal knob in the reverse
direction. Repeal rbe same process mentioned in steps 4, 5 and 6 till you reach the 2oh
ring in the extreme right side of the central dark spot.
8.
9.
Now choose any four pairs of rings from your readings and evaluate the difference of
square of diameters for these four pairs. From these data you can find out rhe vafue of
R for each of these four pairs as given in Table 2. Mean of these four values of R
gives you the value of Radius of curvature R of the planeconvex lens.
~
~
)2
l H~ l I \ ,\ I I ( 1 ~
~
oble I:
~
~
R ""
' ucd
MSR
VSR
in
cm for rhe .
Total:aM
s.nv.s
~
ri!.ht(r)
leO(l)
~
~
ri2ht(r)
ll'O(I)
'
rii_ht(r)
left(l)
')
riJ11.ht(r)
t I...
tr ....
~ r ...
1.. ..
l.
r ...
t 1...
+ l' ...
~I.. ..
TI...
Dao meter
D
Mean
D
R, R,
an cm
x v.c
' I....
right(r)
ll'O(l)

RXVC
ll'O{t)
~,
of the diameter
from
.,'
minnriou
D~1('1
+ r ...
tJ. ..
tr ....
~I.. ..
+ r ...
tr ....
+ 1. ...
i I...
~ r ...
tr ....
(l) ....
(r) ....
. ...
(1) ....
(r) ....
. ...
(l) ....
(r) ....
....
(l) ....
(r) ....
. ...
Q) ....
(r) ....
....
CALCULATIONS
Table 2: Determination
Ring
Mean
no.
D
U\Cm
01
[cm2}
or R
Value
Value of
Value of
of
n+m
lens is found
D~+m D~
MeanR
4..tm
mcm
mcm
RESULTS
The radius of the pianoconvex
on+mD'n
~
(cm')
10
13
be R =
1'
l11 I
N!)
lh
ct up mu
Th
micro
appears
'1
not be <.!1sturbcu
1. km
Th
I\ few
AS
in
xper
111)
n1
n pnr11<.:uf:ir
set while
in
point
dark.
.
.
nngs near the centre of the pattern should be avoided while rakrng readings.
R=
,j
D~+m D~
4~m
~
Since D,. .... and D,. arc only measured, the maximum proportional error in R is given by
;)
2.oD
D,,. D,,
1111
~
")
o,,.,,. or D is oD = 2 x Y.C.
Hence,
= 4 x Y.C
( aRif?)~.._ D,,.,.,  D,,
")
:3
~
X 100%.
~
~
DISCUSSIONS
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..._
__..
10
____
w_oR_K_IN_STRUCTION
DETERMINATION
OF
RIGIDITYMODULUS
BY
STATIC METHOD
_l
_.,
WORK INSTRUCTION
  
I 0
NAI\
OF EXPERIM"ENT:RJGIOITY
  
3.0
PRINCIPLE:Lct the lower end of a wire of length J and radius r be twisted by an angle of
0 radian by the application ofan external couple of moment mgd. Where ~g is the weight
of the mass m placed on each pan and d is the diameter of the flywheel. Due to this twist
in the wire, an internal couple of magnitude nrrr48/2l will be set up which will balance
the external couple.
LI
OQ9';.c:
...A:...,+
'Pf r4tl
tor equiilibri
1 ium"21' = mgd
&.
l~
If the~
H eoee, ipr2r''
3601_
= 8 ~ian
. idi1ty11 = :J:r
360lgd (m)
= mgd _or ng1
0
If
'
I 2.
WORK INSTRUCTION
40
4.2
4.3
1001..!>IAPPAllATUS
llEQUllU~D:
R1g1d1ty modulus setup
sloucd w 1ghts
Slide Cahpcis
44
Screw Gauge
4.5
Meter Scale
5.0
Procedure:
5.l
5.6
Measure the distanceof the wire from the fixed end A and B of the wire.
Measure the diameter of the fly wheel 'd' by slide calipers,
Measure the diameter of the experimental wire in various places and al each place reading arc
taken in two sections at right angles to each other. Calculate the radius 'r ' from mean
diameter.
Gently placed slotted weight on the hanger. Wait for few minuses & note down the
reading of the twist in pointer P.
Increase the load in steps and till the maximum permissible load is reached. Note the
readings of the pointer P.
Now decrease the load in steps and note the pointer reading. Calculate mean reading.
5.7
A.graph is drawn
4.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.7
with load and twist. The graph is straight line. Calculate ;0 from the graph.
Calculate rigidity modulus from the working formula by putting mcasurcd and ca.Jculated data.
~
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~
II)
"'
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~
6.0
EXPERIMENTAL
DAT.A!
6.1
No. of Observation
~
~
~
~
.,
~
I
2
'
.:
'
..,
WORK INSTRUCTION
Measurement of the diameter of [lywhccl,
(,)
,.
,,
.
No of Obs.
M.S.R
Mean Diameter
Tot.al
V.S.R
~
~
...
~
6.3
No. of Obs.
C.S.R
Total
Mean Diameter
Radius 'r'
.,,
~
~
:J
~
6.4
No.
Load on
of
each pan
Obs.
in Kg
Twist
Degrees
Load Increasing
Load Decreasing
Mean
(4'0)
'1
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
..
..
: ~
....
WORK INSTRUCTION
DETERMINATION
OF
~
RIGIDITY
MODULUS
I~
,
BY
:t
~
: DYNAMIC METHOD
~
>
~
~
~
~
~
~
~
...
~
\: ~~/\ !)
':I
C.1t
\
t\,,
l.t. d
\)../
J
 
1.0
2.0
"'.O
PRINCIPLE: The period (1) with which the bob of a torsion pendulum oscitlates, with
its suspension wire as axis is given by
'\~
471! I ~ ,Sit~ .., I "" <
T=2Jt
or c= ' ;.::;:.._
'\..
T1
4. T ~ c:: '}_ "~ 'IV\< v
.,,
.;a,
.
. ~~~
Where I is the moment of inertia of the suspension cylinder about its own axis is
given by I = l/ 2 (mass)(radius)2
Here c represent the resting couple exerted by the suspension wire of length I for
one radian twist as its free end and rs.given by C= n7t y4 /fl
.
Where n isthe rigidity of the material of itu(wjre,"while land rare eespectively
the length and radius of the suspension wire. Hence, .we may write n~87Cll. / T2 r4
.
Calculating I and measuring 1. r &T experimentally, we can find the rigidity n of
the by employing the equation.If I, r are put in meters I in ~~m2 then n wilJ be in N/ mi.
1'
~
~
~
:.
y''
~ :t1~;; ~
2...t.
~
~
~
~,
T'
4 "'1\ __L_ .
'').....
c) \. ";;
't
e
;.1 ~
r;:;, ~
" 'J..
L (U"
~~~
y'i
l~)
\ \..
~)
~
~
~
(
~
~
'9
~
~.,_
~3
..
4
..
1
4.0
4.l
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
5.0
TOOLS/APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Solid cylinder with unifonn cross section
A stand with circular scale
Stop watch
Screw gauge
Meter scale
PROCEDURE:
S. l
Take the length of the suspension wire from the point of suspension to the point
S.2
5.3
S.4
S.5
..
WORK IN. 'TH
EXPERIMl~NTAL
RESULTS:_
upplicd:
I) Mas of the cylinder, M=3208 gm.
2) Length of the suspension wire from the point of suspension lo the point where the cylinder
is attached, I = 86.5 cm.
Table1
Vernier constant (v.c.) of the slide calipers
__ divisions (say,
. m) of the vernier scale= __ divisions (say, n) of the. main scale.
Value of 1 smallest main scale
division
(/,)
(cm)
Noof
o~tttion.
Vernier constant
v.c. = (/1 11)
n
=11
m
(cm)
(cm)
Table2
r der
Diameter o fth ccvm
Total
reading
RQdiN!:S cm) of the
D(cm)
v.s.
m.s.  
Radius
R(cm)
Mean
D(cm)
1
2
Table3
Least count I.e. of the screw
No. of divisions on the
circular scale n
e
Least count=p/n
cm
Table4
Measurement of the diameter (d=2r) of the wire
Mean
Total reading
Readines 'cm) of the
D(cm)
D(cm)
c.s.
m.s.
No of obs.
Radius
r (cm)
IablcS
Determination of the period (TI of torsional oscillation of the cvlinder
No of obs
Time for 20
oscillation (t)
Mean time
~1
~
~
OBJECTJVE
10 optical
fibre
i)
~
To de1crmme
APPARATUS
Fiber optic analogue transmiuer and receiver ki1s. one and five meters fibr
cords. mhne SM:\ adaptors.
1.
~
~
Scre9n
F.O.
Cable
,.
........
IN
s
;,
..,
scale
:,
:.J
~
TIIEORY
The numerical aperture (Na) of an optical fibre is the amount of light what is collected
by it at its end.
.;J
For
So,
In the Fig .. I, Set the light beam from the fibre end fall on the screen = W
air medium
,, = J
Na  sin (J
Where L is the distance between the end A of the optical fibre and the screen. w is the
:>
...
4t
.
~
1
Screen
The loss of the optical energy is a function of the length of the optical fibre when one joins
two fibres by inline adaptor. In this experiment loss per unit length as well as loss due 10 fibre
to fibre joints will be calculated
33
18
>
the
Pol: P02
And similarly loss due 10 the fibre of length 5 metre and the SMA is given by
>
Therefore, loss per unit length, = (Po2  Poi) I (Lr L1) dB/m
And the loss due the inline SMA (fibretofibrejoint) is given by
A= (POJ  Poz)  La dB/m
PROCEDURE
I.
~
~
~
~
To connect the J metre optical fibre with LED part of the transmitter kit so that light
seen to pass through the other end. To make the room dark. Then 10 insert tbe orber
end of the fibre through the hole of the Lshaped numerical aperture measuring kit. To
place the circularly calibrated screen plate vertically on the marked end of the Lkit.
To switch on machine. To make one circle completely bright on the vertical plate by
adjusting the intensity knob. To note down the distance L. To measure the value of
1he diameter of tbe circle (W)
rs
~
~
2. To move the vertical circularly calibrated screen at different positions and note down
diameter (W) of the completely illuminated circle in each case.
~
~
~
~
,
"
3. To take out the output end of the fibre from the Lkit and to connect it 10 the power
measuring poll of the receiver kit. To apply an input voltage by Turing the set Po
knob. To make sure 1ha1 the fibre is fully stretched without any coiling or bending.
Now, 10 measure the input voltage and the out put power with the help of Muhemeter.
This loss is Poi.
To repeat 'Step 3. For the 5 metre fibre. The input voltage should be same as earlier.
This power l()ss is Po2
5.
To repeal step 3 once again by joining two fibres by inline SMA. This power loss is
Po;.
I~
l~
34
T:iblc I: Octcrmin:ition
NO

of numerical aperture
Mean Na
Na= WI (4L" +
W2}tn
W(mm)
L(mm}
I
I
I
I
I
.
.
r
SI.No.
Po1
P02
= (Po2  Po1} I
Pol
(L2 L1)
ao
a,
33
as
Ao
A,
I
I
3
~
~
~
~
~
RESULTS
~
~
"3
DJSCUSSJONS
~
..,
.I
35
A3
As
I,
AREYFOSTER'
IlRJDGE XPRJJ\t1ENT
OBJECTJVE
APPARATUS
~
~
.)
~
fl
C<>rcyFosrers
n.
THEORY
The Carey Foster bridge is an electrical circuit that can be used lo measure very low
resistances. It works on the same principle as Wheatstone's bridge, which consists of four
resistances R1: R2, R3 and R4 that are connected to each other as shown in the circuit diagram
in Fig. l. In this circuit, E is a voltage source, G is a galvanometer and K1 and K2 are two
keys. "If the values of the resistances arc so adjusted thar no current flows through the
galvanometer (balance condition), then the resistances R,, Ri. R3 and ~ satisfy the
relationship
,
~
~
~
(I)
In a meter bridge, two of the resistors, say R3 and R are replaced by a resistance wire of one
meter length and uniform cross sectional area fixed on a meter scale. Point D is a sliding
contact thar can be moved along the wire, thus varying the magnitudes of R3 and R4 The
Carey Foster bridge is a modified form of the merer bride in which the effective length of the
wire is considerably increased by connecting a resistance in series with each end of the wire
This increases accuracy of tbe bridge.
ic1~1l1lt..
....
l !' ')
1 \ .
d r
l
..
.JI J l

The four points A, B, C ond .D in Fig. 2 exactly correspond to the imilarly labeled
points in the Wheatstone's bridge circuit in Fig. I. Therefore irthe balance point i located at
a distance /1 &om, then we gel
P

X+o+l,p
Y+P+(I001,)p
(2)
where p is the resistance per un,it lcng1h or the wire, and a and /3 ore the resistanca due to
eod corrections at the left and right ends. If now the positioM of X and Y ftf' interchanged nod
the balance point is found at a distance /2 from, then
y +a +l1P
(3)
=
Q X +P+(I001,)p
,;
__ Y__a_+...1/1=.:.P
__
X+IJ+(IOOl1)p
(4)
2.?
..Y
>'
 f)
I
(10()
I (1
I 00
,.
I,)
J), (100
>'
I ('f
fl
IOOp
J) .. ( I 00 I,) p
(S)
fJ t>(IOO/))p
1,)p=Y'
Or )' = X  (11
I, )p
(6)
Thus once we know II I 1 p and X the unknown resistance Y can be determined using Eq,
~
p=/2 1,
.a
(7)
Thus
~
PROCEDURE
I.
~
I.
Make the circuit connections as shown in Fig. 2. Make sure rha1 all connections
are
ligb1.
~
~
2.
Connect the given resistances P arid Q (JO each) in gaps 2 and 3. Jn tbis pan, Xis a
fractional resistance box and Y is a short circuit (zero resistance).
3.
Switch on power voltage source so that current flows through tbe circuit.
4.
Firsr set rbe resistance X at zero and see if the galvanometer shows opposite
deflections when the jockey is pressed al the two ends of the wire. Also check
whether the nu JI point is localed around the middle of the bridge wire. J fit is so, then
the connections are likely to be correct.
5.
Now
6.
Locate the balance point. Record the distance of the balance point from the left end
(point E) of the wire as Jengch ".
7.
Reverse rbe direction of current flow by tbe commutator and again record the balance
point I, for 1hc reverse current. Take average of 1, for direct and reverse current (see
Table l) in order 10 eliminate l~e effect of any thermo emf
~
,
,
~
sci
= 0. IQ
8.
Increase resistance X, in steps of say 0.2 Q. 0.4 Q. etc and repeat steps 6 7 each lime.
Interchange rhe posiuons of X and the zero resistance Y and repeal steps 6 7 for rhe
same set of resistance values for X The corsesponding balance point disrance
,
~
r ~
,
s
urcd tr m th
Ill
>
' blc
.,
I I.
sam
end of th
To find an unknown
low rcsislnnce
n h
d;;I;\
:i~
al a
small
value
unknown
as
R~peat the cm ire sequence of sieps :>9 in pan J of the procedure and Jill up Table 2
3
OBSERVATIONS
SI
No.
(0)
Direct
current
(cm)
Reverse Mean
current
I,
11 I,
(cm)
= 0)
p=
x
/2  /I
(cm)
Direct
current
Reverse
Mean
current
(O/cm)
t,
3
~
~
Table 2: Determination
~
~
SI
No.
/l  '1
( O ) ~Rig_h_t_g_a_p_(
/,.).~Left'gap_(_/_
(cm)
1)i
~
(cm)
(cm)
(0)
Direct
current
Reverse
current
Mean
/'
Direct
current
Reverse
current
Mean
1i
~
~
~
~
!
~++.4+i4+tt1
~
~
~
~
E===:r~~+__.__+F+_r!~~=
4
2 '1
CALCULI\ TJONS
.
r~
,
>
 /1)
in
Table I
RESULTS
p=
op)
a(I l)
2a1
( _p max = 112 I, = 11  I,
1
x
1, /1
3
Where
~
~
,
~
_)
ol
Using a typical observed value of ( 11 I,). we cakulate the maximum percentage error in p
as
( ap)
P
x 100%.
max
oY.....
~
~
>
.,
= ( 1,
=X
(11 1,)p
~
~
DlSCUSSJONS
~
~
~
~
4
......
=0J
(a;) ...~.
X100%
,
,.
l.1\Sl.I~
Vl~
fhfl1,
Io
c1 'IC1 min
p uem w uh
llOO
I\
the wavelength
of n given LASl:R
source by (ornung
d1\)(JC
L1\SER derccior
THEORY
The LASER Diode module and LASER detector are mounted in place of collimator and
telescope of a spectrometer respectively. The grating is mounted on prism base of the
spectrometer. The emitted Laser beam is diffracted by grating. The diffraction pattern can
,
,,
be seen on a screen by holding i1 at the place of detector. Here one can notice the decrease
in the intensity of light as one move away from the zeroth order towards the higher orders.
Now the wavelength of the LASER light is obtained from the relation
A.= dsinB
m
Where. d is the pitch of the grating
m ts the order of the maxima
~
~
9
~
(nboot Im)
Fig:J
~
~
~
41
~
;,
~
10
.J'I
Opoca
....
baneb
PR_~ DURE
Switch on the LASER source
At thrs position t:ike rhc: darn ofrhe both vermcr scales (vernier I&.
vcnucr
II)
Fhrs
Laser beam is now diffractedby the graring and .make a spectrum like fig I
6.
Keeping undisturbed the arrangement, now take the darn of rhe both vernier scales
~
~
for central order i.e. O'" order. This readings should coincide with rbe direct readings.
Now move the LASER detector towards left from the central order and set the
detector at the left side I" order. Note down the data of the both vernier scales in
Table I
8. After taking the data of the Isa order again move the LASER detector rowards left
and sci the detector at the left side 2nd order. Note down the data of the both vernier
scales in Table I
9.
foUow the same procedures for rhe left side 3'd order.
10
10
Check the readings again and ensure that should matched wirh previous central order
readings .
I I. Move the detector towards right from the central order and repeat steps 7, 8 and 9
for right side lsi, 2nd and 3'11 oder.
12. Now calculate the wavelength of the LASER source for 151, 2"" and J'J oder in Table
~
~
OBSERVATJONS
~
~
d=
~
~
~
~
41
~
4
~~
f 'J
Tnbte t
~
n
ol
llljl\
OHi
>
a
,
or n1\~l1'
1111'111r1H
L ff
order
order
\'frnitr

II
VSR
Toc:1I
MS
VSR
lo1:tl
I<
(dcgr
(clt'gr
(dt81
(}'I
~)
o:
(dtg1
(dcgr
C<')
ee)
M.S.
R
V.S.R
Toc:il
~s
V.S.K
(dcgr
(d
(deg1
(dcg1
ee)
B," .
(degr
(degr
C'C)
ee)
ee)
ee)
V('rn1cr II 
Vernier I
i\1 S
ee)
of d vinrion
LRiljhl
Vernier I
01t1f't
l\h'.,
cc)
rotl'\I
gr
O"I
(deg1
ee)
ee)
0(,~111
:ii)
>
CALCULATIONS
or
maxima
. 281
= ()~ B,
(degree)
28
= 28, + 291
2
(degree)
(degree)
.
'
20
9(degrcc)
..1. (cm)
ERROR t\NALYSJS
) = r!_~in
'*
~
111
Hence,
.
,,
>
a
~
( a;..)
).
Where
ae
=2X
V.
DJSCUSSJONS
= cotB.ae
11\.1\
C. of spectrometer
,.
.
.a
llVI
APl'/\Hi\1
ti.
10111,ur\th
,
D1p11v
Pow11or11
v I,
m.111.1lof
o<l1111n hcht
p111m
hnre
h.1
1 Jll~ORY
'9
(.\) = 1'F01flc
(l)
Where J.tr and uc Are refracrive indices of F. lines bluish green 4861 A) Md C lines
(and 65'63 A) of Hydrogen spectrum and 0 is the refractive index for D lines (5893
A) of Sodium (Na) respectively. The refractive index. ).tf. ~ and 0 of the material
of the prism for the different lines can be obtained from the formula,
am
Where, A and
arc the angle of the prism and the t1nglc of the minimum deviation
respectively for the
line concerned.
~
~
3
~
>
~
~
~.
DIAGRAM
~
~
~
l6
DIAGRAM
0 I A C RAM
FO.R ME/\SU.RING
F 0 R i\l
r AS UR
l7
ING
t\
1\NGLE
NG I 1 0
OF
PRISM
0 EV I A l 10 N
!
..
PR(
1)
11)
Fnlm F.
Al
r.r ... 1 the level mg. adjusuneurs and focu 111g of the spectrometer
bas 10 be derermrncd
in
have lob
done
toward
the
collimator and 11s rcfracung faces (AB and AC) gel almost equally the parnllc!
rays coming out of the collimator
from these two faces will be 2A if t.he prism angle be A. This is because when
the face AC turns and goes to the position of AB, then the angle through which
the reflected rays turns, will be equal to 2A. Hence, if the angle between the rays
reflected from these two refracting faces is determined by the spectrometer, then
>
.,
~
The vernierconstants of both the circular scales are determined and noted .
1v)
The prism is properly set on the prismtable {Fig 2) and the sli: is properly
illuminated by a sodium vapor lamp or a burner .
v)
.I
The telescope is rotated gradually and the image of the slit reflected from the
face AB of the prism,~ received in it in the position T1. The crosswire is set at
a particular end of the slitimage and the reading of the telescope is noted from
>
the circular and the vernier scales. The reading are taken thrice and the mean is
taken. Let it be M1.
~
vi)
~
~
.a
a
.a
vii)
To determine
A= (M,M~)/2
the angle of minimum deviation(l>m). the prism is placed on the
prismtable in such a way that one of the faces ( AC) points towards the
collimator ( Fig 2).ln this position, rays coming out of the collimator will be
refracted through the face AC and will be finally come out of the face AB. If the
prism table rs gradually rotated and the slitimage is viewed through the
telescope, it will be found that the image is deviated up to a certain point and
then comes back in the same direction, irrespective of the direction of the
rotation of the prismtable. The point whercfrom the image returns back, is the
position of minimum deviation.
Keeping the prism at the position of the
minimum deviation. the slitimage there is focused in the telescope tn rhe
position Trannd rbe telescope reading is taken. This reading is taken at least
,
~
~
~
28
''
111)
Ih
fll l\Jll
a
,,
,,
,.
,
th
II
WHhd
' I
I;()
I lei c deicrmining the values of 1\ and[>," he value of the refractive index (11)
of1hc motcri31 ~fthc prism can be determined
x)
Now the sodium ligh: is replaced by hydrogen discharge lube which rs excited
by means of an induction coil or n transformer. The tube is held vertically and
the slit is illuminated by ii directly. On viewing through the telescope with the
prism set properly, well defined lines of hydrogen spectrum are visibJe. The
strong Cli.nc in the red is identified and ii is focused on the crosswire al the
minimum deviation position of the prism. Telescope readings tire noted.
Sim~arly, the strong Fline in 1hc bluishgreen is identified and focused at the
minimum deviation position of the prism.
xi)
Finally, the diJ"Ccl reading of the slitimage is taken from which the values of rbe
minimum deviation (6,,., corresponding to the red, bluishgreen and yeJJow
lines are obtained.
>
,
,
,.,
xii)
Substituting the values of 6,,. for the different Hoes in equation 2, the values of
F, llc oare determined, from which the value of the dispersive power (a>) of tbe
material of the prism is obtained using equation I
OBSERY A TlONS
Vernier constants of the spectrometer
i) Vernier constants of rhe prismtable Vernier:=
,
~
~
~
~
~
4'
29
\
~~
,1
'
..
i\'I a i
.n
Seal
e
:.>
c
C>
>
Vernie
r
II
T,
:\I
Tot
al
i.111
Differcuc
c of the
mean
readings
for rhe
\lean
I he
of
diffrrc
nee
(2,.\)
hVO
(i\'J, IVJ,)
>
>
First
...
...
...
...
...
...
. ..
. ..
. ..
...
. ..
.. .
. ..
. ..
I
Seeon
cl
. ..
...
...
...
...
Vernie
r
Seal
~
Total
Mea
{R2)
AngJeof
the
minimum
deviation
(bm
=R2R1)
Mean "~lue ]
of the Angle
of the
minimum
I
I
deviation
{5,.)
Firsr
Secon cl
I
30
CA'
....
61
e
....u
>
Total
(R2)
J\Tean
Angle of
the
minimum
deviation
{om
R2R1)
.
First
...
... . ...
. ..
...
...
...
. ..
...
...
:
. ..
Second
'm.
if 
<>
c
. ..
...
...
...
...
...
...
Mean
Angle of
the
minimum
deviation
(Om =R2R1)
...
Main
Scale
Vernier
Tolal
Mean
(R,)
Main
Scale
Vernier
Fint
...
. ..
...
...
...
. ..
. ..
. ..
. ..
.. .
...
...
...
. ..
. ..
. ..
. ..
. ..
:>
Total
(R2)
~
~
~
~
...
<>
I..
ivJt>an v1>J11r
of 1he 1\nglt
of1hc
rnlnlrnu m
t.lc\'l~lion
(5rn)
Mean value
of the Angle
of the
minimum
deviation
(5m)
~
~
I
~Second
'
~
31
...
i 
1\l.
lJl~1\flON
Usmg cquotJon (2) rhc rcfmcuv uidrccs ''' Pr rand Jin of J llnd
1111 of If ydio ''"
Sodn1m D hncs are re pecnvcly found out from rhe values of co1rcspond111 ~ "'~'
mmunum dcvia1ioo (~ ... ) ob1oincd. Then subs1i1u1ing
(I) the value oft~ dispersive power of the material
the value
of 1r 1r and 10
r1CI
11
'
of
q1rn11011
111 1
PRECAUTIONS
i)
In all
corresponding
there.
ii)
iii)
,a
10
10
de vint ion
position of the
pri:'m
Sc"Cral independent settings of the crosswire are 10 be made for each reading
avcding thereby any position errors in laking re..ding.s of the vernier.
The discharge tube should be held vertically in front of the slir properly, so lhar
the brighlest pan of the illumination remains in fronr of rhc slit
6F+Oc
Fc
oo
o1
This is true when tbe errors in #lF. c and o are approximately equal and ID is small.
DISCUSSIONS
32
r,
I
,
~
J
J
111rlllod
Aim
conductivity
"""'i~
>
..
~
>
>
>
.
~
9
~
~
9
9
~
...
(2) Two thcnnometcrs, (3) Stop watch, (4) Weighing balance, (5) Special lamp stand
(6) Boiler and (7) Heater
Theory:
Thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct
heal Conduction will take place if there exists a temperature gradient in a solid (or stauonary
fluid) medium. Energy is transferred from more energetic to less energetic molecules when
neighboring molecules collide. Conductive heat flow occurs in direction of the decreasing
temperature because higher temperature is associated with higher molecular energy. Fourier's
Law expresses conductive heat transfer as
(I)
where H is the steady state rate of heat
transfer, k is the thermaJ conductivity of
the sample, A is the cross sectional area
and (T 2  T1) is the temperature difference
across the sample thickness 'x (see Fig.
I). assuming that the heat loss from the
sides of the sample is negligible, To keep
the loss from thesides small. the sample is
H = kA (Tz  Ti)
made in form of a thin disk with a Jar,ge
x
cross sectional 31e3 compared to the area
exposed at the edge. Keeping 'A' large and
'x ' small produces a large rate of energy
transfer across the sample. Keeping x small
Fig. J
also means that the apparatus reaches a
steady state(when temperature T1 and T2 are constant) more quickly .
Generally speaking, there are a number of possibilities to measure thermal condocnvnv, each of
them being suitable for a limited range of materials, depending on the thermal properties and the
medium temperalure. The most commonly used methods are Searles method and Lee's disc
method, for good and bad conductors of heat, respectively. In the experiment, we will use Lee's
disc method to determine the thermal conductivity of a bad conductor, e.g Glass
.
"
"
".
De o 1ption
of I cc'
apparatus:
TI1 opparatu
hown in Fig 2 con ists of two pails The lower part C rs circular metal
disc. The expcnmcntal specimen G, usually rubber, glass or ebonitc (here 11 is glass) is plac don
it The diameter of G is equal to that of C and thickness is uniform throughout A steam chamber
1
placed on C The lower part of the steam chamber, 13 is made of a thick metal plate of the arne
~1amcter as of C The upper part is a hollow chamber in which two side tubes are provided for
inflow and outflow of steam. Two thermometers T1 and T2 are inserted into two hotesin C and
B, respectively. There are three hooks attached to C. The complete setup is suspended from a
clamp stand by attaching threads to these hooks.
Steam in
Steam
Chest
+
Steam Out
.a
Tz
Brass Base B
T,
Brass Disk C
:.:I
,
,
,
J_
x
Fig.2
~
~
~
a
~
~
~
;,
~
,, ..
IS
th
ready
Temperature of 0
Surface area of G
Conductivity
Thickness of G = x
~
~
'
= T1
= T2.
=A
of G = k
H=
4T
msctc
.......
>
a
a
~
~
~
(2)
9
~
'"'"'Y
Hence amount of heat flowing through G per second. H is given by Eq. (I}. When the apparatus
is in steady state (temperatures T1 and T2 constant}. the rate of heat conduction into the brass disc
C is equal to the rate of heat loss from the bottom of it, The rate of heat loss can be determined
by measuring how fast the disc C cools at the previous (steady state) temperature T, (with the top
of the brass disk covered with insulation). If the mass .and specific heat of the lower disc arc m
and s, respectively and the rate of cooling at T1 is dT/dt then the amount of heat radiated per
second is,
.a
radually remain
Si3lC
.........
(3)
Procedure:
J. Fill the boiler with water to nearly half and heat it to produce steam
2. In the mean time. take weight of C by a weighing balance. Note its specific heat from a
constant table. Measure the diameter of the specimen by a scale or slide calipers, if
possible. Calculate the surface ~
A=n
3. Measure the thickness of the specimen by screwgauge. Take observations at 5 spots and
take the mean value .
4. Put the specimen. steam chamber etc. in position and suspend it from the clamp stand.
Insert the thermometer. Check if both of them are displaying readings at room
temperature. If not, note the difference 0, is to be added to (T2  T1) later .
5 Now stem is ready. Connect the boiler outlet with the inlet of the steam chamber by a
rubber tube .
6. Temperatures recorded in the thermometers will show a rise and finally will be steady at
T1 and T2.
7. Wait for 10 minutes and note the steady temperature. Stop the inflow of steam.
8 Remove the steam chamber and the specimen G. C is still suspended Heat C directly by
the steam chamber till its temperature is about T, + 7.
r.
R move the steam chamber and wan for 2  3 minutes so that heat is uniformly
distributed over the disc C
l 0 Place the insulating material on C. Start recording the temperature at Y1 mi nut~ intervals.
Continue ttll tbe temperature falls by 10 from T1
Observations:
ti)
TableI:
SI No.
Diameter (cm}
2
....
Thickness:
Pitch=
SI No.
Initial
(m)
!~
,~
1
,~
(using screwgauge)
Table 2:
~
~
.
Reading
.)
1>
la
1s
I~
l~
(11)
~
4
Difference
(I  F) in
cm
Mean
(cm)
(Ill)
..
~
(IV)
>
~
(V)
Time (minute)
Graph:
Calculation:
Temperature
(Celsius)
oT
k::: ...............
~
~
ot
Time (Seconds)
9
~
Fig. 3
,~._
~.!L
1
I ..