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In l1 u lion Manual
EngineeringPhysics

(:?1)") UNl\fERSITV

IEM"s

..~~Of ENGINEERING
U EM
t{ 0 l t{ ATA
br
(Ot>b!rsh<-d

University

-1 Laboratory

own University

in Kolkata

& MANAGEMENT (UEM)

1n AO of Stm Gowt.. l rKOgnis.td i.'J 22 ~ UGC Act. t./..111~ ol Hru>. Govt. d lt-d.. l

Arca. Plot No. Ill - 8/5, New Town, Action Area - Ill, Kolkata - 700156

)
)
)

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING

AND MANAGEMENT

(UEM)

KOLKATA CAMPUS

CJ!'

University area,Plot

Department

No.111-8/5,New

Town.Actlon Area lll,kolkata-700156

of Basic Science and Humanities

--

'

'

...
"'

Paper Name: Physics lab-I

Paper code: PH-191

ODD SEMESTER

,,

.,

I '

,
..,

'

Contents
Experiment 1: Determination of Young's Modulus
l. lntroduction:~:

.,-

2. Procedure

3. Observation table

4. Calculation

5. Error Analysis

6. Precaution & Discussion

Experiment 2: Newton's Ring Experiment

1. Introduction

2. Theory

3. Procedure

4. Observation Table

5. Error Analysis

6. Precaution & Discussion

Experiment 3: Rigidity Modulus by Static Method

1. Introduction

11

2. Procedure

12

-'
_,,

JI

...._.

3. Observation Table

12-13

"

Experiment 4: Rigidity Modulus by Dynamic Method


1. Introduction ............................................................................................

15

2. Procedure

15

3. Observation Table

16

Experiment S: Optical Fibre Experiment

..-

l.lntroduction

17

2.Procedure

18

3. Observation Table

19

4. Discussion

19

Experiment 6: Carry Foster's Bridge


l.lntroduction

20-22

2. Procedure

22

3. Observation Table

23

4. Error Analysis

24

5. Discussion

24

Experiment 7: Laser Diffraction


1.lntroduction

-.,

-..

,_

25

2. Procedure

26

3. Observation Table

27

4. Error Analysis

28

5. Discussion

28

Experiment 8: Angular Dispersive Power Of Prism


1. Introduction
2. Diagram

29
~

3. Procedure
4. Observation Table

30
31-32
33-34

5. Calculation

35

5. Error Analysis

35

6. Precaution & Discussion

35

Experiment 9: Measurement of Thermal Conductivity by Lee's Method


1. Introduction

36-37

2. Procedure

38-39

3. Observation Table

39

4. Calculation

40

5. Error Analysis

40

6. Precaution & Discussion

40

~
~

"
:)
~
~
~
~

,
~

~
~
~

lH
8Jl-

'' 0

fl
UtC

l l

Lt Hi

111 1\1 ION (

d t("11lltnC th

r Y )lJN , ~

Youns., s modulus ()(

IOD1JJ,IJS
of

c-1,1\llCtl)'

lh

111:\ICll~tl

of,,,,,,,.

,, ,, .. ,

tn<'th d

If :l light b."'r-<'I brc:id1h.h :lnd deplh ti is placc<.J honzon1fllly on two "Knife edges separated t.Jy
a d1s1ance L. nmt a load of mass m, ap_plicd at_!he mid-point of thcba~. produces;, dcpr -=:.JOn
I of lhe ~r. then Young"s modulus Yof the material of rbe bar is given by

---

gL3

4bd3

-----

w..!!_crc g is the acceleration due to wvitt. This is the working formula of the experiment, and
is vahd so long as tbe slope of the bar al any point with respect 10 the unstrained posit 10n as
much less than unity. Herc Y is determined by measuring 1hc quanlities b, d, l and the mean
~ion _!_.QITcs~nding_!.C?_ a load rn, _lf b, d, L and I arc measured in cm, m in. gm, g is
expressed in cm/sec", aOd then Y is obtained in dync/cm2 in C.G.S.

PROCEDURE
(i) Measure the length of the given bar with a meter scale and mark its mid-point. Draw
marks on the scale corresponding to some length
LI LI' of the bar {say 70 cm).
(ii) Mount on the bar, rbe frame F carrying a knife-edge. Now place the bar with its leas1
dimension verucal, on the knife-edges NI and N2 such thal 1hc Lill' marks coincide with
the knife-edges. Mount a spirit level on the bar and adjust the leveling screws until the bar JS
horizontal.

(111)B1in
~rnr
o
trarn f>on1hccC'ntrol1i:rni;v
1~
rn.r~o(lt'Y'bar
m1c1
ope ml vr ' the po.nrcr P Adju I 1h lcvcl1n1! screws ol rbe rmcroscop until 1h
I o ie r rfe ,,_
II
<I nnd th (1;(14\ 01 lh microscope- IS hor11ont:il Focu-i the y
p1
On th Cl SS" ues bv kccpmg one or the cross v ires ho11zon1nl
Focus the IJp of the
I mrer and lldju I the \(lttcnl posmon or rhe nucroscope until the llTIA~C of the tip of the
I inter touches rhor of rbe horrzomal cross-wire As fnr ns possible ""01d parallax.
th

.
\

edvv

rb

Placc

(1v
tcrrmne the vernier constant of the microscope
th J>O Ilion of the nucroscope on the vert_icill scnic

rh

W11h zero loads on the hanger, record

,,. ( ) Pince a load or0.5 Kg on the hanger. This will produce a depression of the bar. Aller the
rhcal posmon of the microscope until the image or pointer touches that of the horizontal

cross-wire. Nore again the vertical scale reading of the microscope. The difference of the two
microscope R"ndings gives the depression of the bar for the load ofO.Skg

in steps of 0.5kg and at each observation, and at each step


record the ven ica I scale reading of the microscope. Now decrease the load 10 zero in the same
steps as used for increasing the load, and record Che corresponding vertical scale-readings of
tbe microscope. Determine the mean of these two readings, and calculate the depression by
subtracting the zero-load reading.
(vi) Increasing gradually the load

'
)

'.)
')

(vii) Remove the bar without disturbing the position of the stands, and measure accurately the
1)
distance between the knife-edges (i.e. LI LI by placing vertically the marked face of a
meter scale across the knife-edges.
(viii) Determine the vernier constant of the slide callipers and measure with ii the breadth b of
the bar at three different places. Calculate the mean breadth of the bar. Nole the zero error, if
any, of the slide callipers and find the correct value of b,

)
~

(1x) Determine the least count of the screw gauge and measure depth d of the bar at a number
of places along the length of the bar. Find the mean value. Note the zero error, if-any of the
screw gauge and obtain the correct value of d.

j
~

(x) Draw a graph with the load m in gm along the X-axis and the corresponding depression I
in cm along the Y-axis and determine the value of Y.

OBSERVATIONS

=>

Table-I : Determination

or the

Vernier Constant (v.c.) of the microscope

.
~
.
~

~
~

~
. ,

Sc Divisions (say m) of the vernier scale=

I Value

.<:t.~.. divisions {say n) of the main scale .

of I smallest main Value- of I vernier


(11
1) (cm)
/ scale divrsion i/1)
ft?'

=:/

<Jivis1011

Vernier constant

vc

= (11

/2 )'(

cm)

Wflv

L __

- ---

--------

I""'~

"

.,

l I o. cl dcp1 c sro n cl:ll. fo1

l abl

hO\

()

n length

Dis1nncc between 1hc knife-edges L

I obs

Load

\ hCl ,, ,,"ll-C IC

Ill

hh1.-n ... 1u~ IO:ld ICn>

{kg)

\l;l1 1

(~)

--.--,,11u<'1-

Tomi

ft v)

(v~

C.\k~)

Dcrrr ~<:1011
I 1c111)

<1111;? fOI

I:

0
a-.
(1-b
~
~1) a.
c.

'.:\I
(h)

05
) 0

(~)

1~

o:

2.

;.

0... - IL

Table-J : Vernier Constant (v.c.) or the slide calipers


..... Divisions of the vernier scale=

V"luc of I smallest main

scale division (Ii)

..

divisions of the main scale.

of I vernier
(l2 = : 11) (cm)
Value
. ..

......

division

Vernier constant
v.c. =-(I, -

... ..

t.,) (cm)

. .. ..

.:J
:.J

Table-e : Measurement or breadth (b) of the bar by slide calipers


No
of
obs

Reading\

(cm)

of

Main
scale

Tora I

Mean b
(cm)

reading b

the

Vernier

Zero error
(cm)

Correct b
(cm)

(cm)

Table-5 : Least count (L.C.) of the screw g:rnge


Pitch of the screw p (cm)

No

of divisious n on the

Least count -

p'I\

(cru)

circutar scale

~~~~~-~

I 1hlr

1\lr1,111 C'l1lr111 of tlrpl h (d) of I h

' ...
I "''
\

M nu d

I 1)tnl
1 cnd111
r/(c111)

Re .1.l111ll

l
I "':i~ ~
I he

h:u by th(

<t

/c>tO

(c111)

''

rn11}~<'

t:l I \I
111)

1)11"(.fr/
I 1..111)

_I

'~nle

' I

---'--------'-_,__________.. _ _____..__

- _l

CALClJLA TIONS
Now draw a graph of Load (m) vs. Depression (I)
m will be along X-axis and I will be along Y axis
from the graph calculate the value of the slope (llm). Put the value of the inverse of rhe slope
in rbe expression ofY.
Herc Y is determined by measuring rbe quannnes b, d, l and the mean depression I
corresponding to a load m, J f b, d, l and I arc measured in cm, m in gm, g is expressed in
cm/scc2, and then Y is obtained in dyne/cm2 in C.G.S. Jn SJ. Y is obtained in New1on/m2
PRECAUTIONS
(i)

The beam must be kept horizontal and the pointer along with the frame must be
suspended at its !11id points.

(ii)

Since lhe value of depth (d) Ls small and it occurs 10 the third power in the
expression for Y, it must be measured with a screw gauge.

(iii)

While raking rhc reading microscope must be rotated in the same direction , so as
10 avoid the back -lash error.

ERR.OR ANALYSIS
y

gL3
4b<I~

"'

The maximum proportional error in Y is thus

-"
~

= 3 oL + ob + 3 od + 01

oy)
y

mnz

DiSCUSSJONS

NEvV

ON'S HJNG EXPERIMENT

ODJCTIVE

To _111dv the formation of Newrons nnas in the air-fihn in between a ptaoo-convcx lens nnd
~l:iss ~l:lt<.> usmg nearly monochromatic light from a sodium-source and hence 10 derermme
the radius of curvature of the piano-convex lens

:i

APP.-\R,\ TUS

."'\nearly monochromatic source of lighi (source of sodium light)


A piano-convex Jens
An optically Oat glass plates

,~

convex lens
A uavetling microscope
A

THEORY

,.,..
)
I~

FU!. 2. Newton's tines

~
~

:)

When a parallel beam of monochromatic light is incident nonnally on a combination of a


piano-convex lens Land a glass plate G, as shown in Fig. I, a part of each incident ray is
reflected from the lower surface of the lens, and a part, after refraction through the air film
between the lens and the plate, is reflected back from lhe plate surface. These two reflected
rays are coherent hence they wiJJ interfere and produce a system of alternate dark and brighr
rings with the point ofcontact between the Jens and the plate as the center. These rings are
known as Newton's ring.

For a normal incidence of monochromatic light, the path difference between the reflected
rays (see Fig. J) is very nearly equal to 2 1 where
and 1 are the refractive index and
thickness of the air-film respectively, The fact that the wave is reflected from air to glass

Therefore, IOr bright fringe

Z t=(n+z) A; n ""0.1.L3

~
and for dark fringe
~
~

4
~

10

(I)

'"I

I"

,,).

0,

1,}

(J)

(J)
whe1~D11

tht>tt1r.mc1e1of1hcnthr111
nn<lR
1h\.'rndm:i.orcurvn1t11
On negk.'Cting 11 c<1un11\1n (.>)reduces 10

of the low r sur l.u c

ol1he plnno convex lcn

..

D,; :: StR

/:

-,

.\

(4)

)
- -~

.s-:

'l

/A

./

Fig.1G~b)'~ed11'.\

di!?t;it~

Ch(a

hdrn~c; alt~ dS'-'*"n

From equations (1) and (4), we get,

D,.

= <I n

1\).R
+) /
for n-lb bright ring
-

o I .......

'l

.,
~

(5)

1yR

=4nn:+-;

fly

"

(n ~m).lh 11"~l

nne

(~

Similarly, from equations (2) and (4), we obtain

D_

4nlR
s::

'

(T)

for It -th dar\: ring

:)

:1

D ... =

~(,,..._ '")\. R
f01{1-11t}thduic
u

----.

(S)

Thus for bright as well as dark rings, we obtain

"'

(9)
./1,,V.

Since 11 / for air-film,

above equnuon gives

~
~
11

;,

,-.
'

'
'

',
R

_,o_,._
..._o,.

(10)

.J mJ.

PROCEDURE

Level rbe tr:i' clling microscope with its


Fit! I 3n<J focus the microscope

'
'
~

Adjust the glass plate G, for maximum visibility of the point of contact of lens L with
the glass plate G <ind hence for maximum visibility of Newton's Rings. Jn this
orienranon. G, as at 4510 the incident beam of tight.

3.

Move 1h.e microscope to the right of the central dark -spoi (say order 'n', this is
because the central ring is often broad and may not necessarily will be zero order)
and set it on the extreme visible (say n+20th order) distinct daric ring so shat the
cross-wire perpendicular to the direction of movemem of the microscope passes
through the dark ring and is tangential to it. Record the microscope position from the
horizontal scale along with its number with dark ring around the central dark spot as
the f~t dark nng .

4.

Move the microscope to left and record the position of the 16"' dark ring. Continue
shifting the microscope to the left and record data at an interval of 4 rings (i.c l2'h, g1h
and 4h ring)

>

.,
~

;)

5.

Now move the microscope further to the left so that you cross the central dark spot

and reach the 4"' dark ring on lhe left side of the central spot. Take rbe reading of this
.
.
4 1h das k nng.

:J
~
6.

Continue shifl1ng the microscope 10 1he left and rake readings al an interval of four
rings rill you reach the 20.., ring.

7.

Now shift tbe microscope to the right by rotating the horizontal knob in the reverse
direction. Repeal rbe same process mentioned in steps 4, 5 and 6 till you reach the 2oh
ring in the extreme right side of the central dark spot.

8.

From these measurements, evaluate the diameters of different rings

9.

Now choose any four pairs of rings from your readings and evaluate the difference of
square of diameters for these four pairs. From these data you can find out rhe vafue of
R for each of these four pairs as given in Table 2. Mean of these four values of R
gives you the value of Radius of curvature R of the plane-convex lens.

~
~

<\](IS ven real Arran~e rhe set-up tis shown in


on the air-film. Newton's Rings will be clearly seen.

)2

l H~ l I \ ,\ I I ( 1 ~

~
oble I:

~
~

R ""

' ucd

MSR

VSR

in

(0) of rhr rings

cm for rhe .

Total:aM

s.n-v.s

-~

ri!.ht(r)
leO(l)

~
~

ri2ht(r)
ll'O(I)

'

rii_ht(r)
left(l)

')

riJ11.ht(r)

t I...

tr ....

~ r ...

1.. ..

l.

r ...

t 1...
+ l' ...

~I.. ..

TI...

Dao meter
D

Mean
D

R, R,

an cm

x v.c

' I....

right(r)
ll'O(l)

--

Right end of the nng(R.)


Total-MS
V.S.R
M.S.R
R ... V S.R

RXVC
ll'O{t)

~,

of the diameter

- Ld\ end of 1hc rim?.CR,)

from

.,'

minnriou

Reedmu of rhc imcroscope

D~1('1

+ r ...
tJ. ..

tr ....

~I.. ..

+ r ...

tr ....
+ 1. ...

i I...

~ r ...

tr ....

(l) ....
(r) ....

. ...

(1) ....
(r) ....

. ...

(l) ....
(r) ....

....

(l) ....
(r) ....

. ...

Q) ....
(r) ....

....

CALCULATIONS
Table 2: Determination

Ring

Mean

no.

D
U\Cm

01
[cm2}

or R

from the data of Table I

Value

Value of

Value of

of

n+m

lens is found

D~+m -D~

MeanR

4..tm

mcm

mcm

RESULTS
The radius of the piano-convex

on+m-D'n
~
(cm')

10

13

be R =

1'

l11 I

N!-)

lh

ct up mu

Th

micro

m t ny \'-r:\Y durmg per form th

ope must ahH\)'S be moved m one direcnon


10 avoid

I ns (L) and glass plate (G)

appears
'1

not be <.!1sturbcu

the readings, so,

1. km

Th

I\ few

AS

in

xper

111)

n1

n pnr11<.:uf:ir

set while

;iny backlash CrTOr


bould be set

in

such a wa)' 1ha1 the cenrral

point

dark.

.
.
nngs near the centre of the pattern should be avoided while rakrng readings.

ERROR CALCULA TlONS

The radius of curvature is calculated from Equation (3). viz

R=

,j

D~+m -D~
4~m

-~

Since D,. .... and D,. arc only measured, the maximum proportional error in R is given by

;)

2.oD
D,,. -D,,

1111

~
")

Now the maximum error in measuring

o,,.,,. or D is oD = 2 x Y.C.

Hence,

= 4 x Y.C
( aRif?)~.._ D,,.,., - D,,

")

:3
~

Now calculate the maximum pcn:cnoagrror as ( ~)_

X 100%.

~
~

DISCUSSIONS

~
~

~
~
~
~
~
~

..._

__..

10

____

w_oR_K_IN_STRUCTION

DETERMINATION
OF
RIGIDITYMODULUS

BY
STATIC METHOD

_l

_.,

WORK INSTRUCTION

- ------- --

I 0

NAI\

OF EXPERIM"ENT:RJGIOITY

- --- ----

MODULUS OY STATIC METHOD

OBJECTIVE:TO DETERMINE TIIE MODULUS OF RJGIOITY (17) OF THE MATERIAL


OF nIE \VIRE BY STATICAL METHOD
.

3.0

PRINCIPLE:Lct the lower end of a wire of length J and radius r be twisted by an angle of
0 radian by the application ofan external couple of moment mgd. Where ~g is the weight

of the mass m placed on each pan and d is the diameter of the fly-wheel. Due to this twist
in the wire, an internal couple of magnitude nrrr48/2l will be set up which will balance
the external couple.
LI---

OQ9';.c:

...A-:...,+

'Pf r4tl
tor equiilibri
1 ium"21' = mgd
&-.

l~

If the~

in the wire be 0 then 0 = ~

H eoee, ipr2r''
3601_

= 8 ~ian

. idi1ty11 = -:J:r
360lgd (m)
= mgd _or ng1
0
If

'

I 2.

WORK INSTRUCTION
40
4.2
4.3

1001..!>IAPPAllATUS
llEQUllU~D:
R1g1d1ty modulus setup
sloucd w 1ghts
Slide Cahpcis

44

Screw Gauge

4.5

Meter Scale

5.0

Procedure:

5.l

5.6

Measure the distanceof the wire from the fixed end A and B of the wire.
Measure the diameter of the fly wheel 'd' by slide calipers,
Measure the diameter of the experimental wire in various places and al each place reading arc
taken in two sections at right angles to each other. Calculate the radius 'r ' from mean
diameter.
Gently placed slotted weight on the hanger. Wait for few minuses & note down the
reading of the twist in pointer P.
Increase the load in steps and till the maximum permissible load is reached. Note the
readings of the pointer P.
Now decrease the load in steps and note the pointer reading. Calculate mean reading.

5.7

A.graph is drawn

4.1

5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

5.7

with load and twist. The graph is straight line. Calculate ;0 from the graph.

Calculate rigidity modulus from the working formula by putting mcasurcd and ca.Jculated data.

~
~
~

II)

"'
~
~

6.0

EXPERIMENTAL

DAT.A!

6.1

Measurement the length of wire:

No. of Observation
~
~
~
~

.,
~

I
2

Length of wire (I)

Mean Length (I)

'

.:
'

..,

WORK INSTRUCTION
Measurement of the diameter of [ly-whccl,

(,)

,.
,,

.--

No of Obs.

Reading of the Slide Calipers for measuring the diamclcr

M.S.R

Mean Diameter

Tot.al

V.S.R

~
~

...
~

6.3

Determination of the radius of the wire:

No. of Obs.

Read in of theScrew augc for measuring the radius


L.S.R

C.S.R

Total

Mean Diameter

Radius 'r'

.,,

~
~

:J
~

Determination of the twist (4'0) of the wire for various load.

6.4

No.

Load on

of

each pan

Obs.

in Kg

Reading of pointer in degree (4'o)

Twist

Degrees
Load Increasing

Load Decreasing

Mean

(4'0)

'1
~
~
~
~
~

~
~
~

..

..

-: -~

....

WORK INSTRUCTION

DETERMINATION
OF
~

RIGIDITY
MODULUS
I~
,
BY
:t
~

: DYNAMIC METHOD
~

>
~
~
~
~
~
~
~

...
~

\: ~~/\ !)

':I

C.1t
\

t\,,

l.t. d

\)../

-J

- -

1.0

NAME OF EXPEIUMENT: RIGIDITY MODULUS

2.0

OBJECTIVE: DETERMINATION OF MODULUS OF RlGlDlTY OF Tl IE


MATERIAL OF WIRE BY DYNAMICAL METHOD

"'.O

PRINCIPLE: The period (1) with which the bob of a torsion pendulum oscitlates, with
its suspension wire as axis is given by
'\~
471! I ~ ,Sit~ .., I "" <
T=2Jt
or c= -'- ;.-::-;:---.._
'\..
T1
4. T ~ c::- '}_ "~ 'IV\< v
.,,

.;a,

.
. ~~~
Where I is the moment of inertia of the suspension cylinder about its own axis is
given by I = l/ 2 (mass)(radius)2
Here c represent the resting couple exerted by the suspension wire of length I for
one radian twist as its free end and rs.given by C= n7t y4 /fl
.
Where n is-the rigidity of the material of itu(wjre,"while land rare eespectively
the length and radius of the suspension wire. Hence, .we may write n~87Cll. / T2 r4
.
Calculating I and measuring 1. r &T experimentally, we can find the rigidity n of
the by employing the equation.If I, r are put in meters I in ~~-m2 then n wilJ be in N/ mi.

1'
~
~
~

:.

y''

~ :t1~;; ~

2...t.

~
~
~

~,

T'-

4 "'1\ __L_ .
'').....

-c) \. ";;

'I .,'"f 'i


~,_,

't
-e-

-;.1 ~

-r;:;, ~

" 'J..

L (-U"

~~~

y'i

l~)

\ \..-

~)

~
~
~
(

~
~

'9
~

~.,_
~3

..

-4

..

1-

4.0
4.l
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5

5.0

TOOLS/APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Solid cylinder with unifonn cross section
A stand with circular scale
Stop watch
Screw gauge
Meter scale

PROCEDURE:
S. l
Take the length of the suspension wire from the point of suspension to the point
S.2
5.3
S.4
S.5

where the cylinder is attached .


Determine the vernier const. of the slide calipers .
Measure the diameter of the cylinder by the slide calipers
Determine the least count of the screw gauge. Then measure the diameter of the
wire.
Determine the time period (1)of the torsional oscillation of the cylinder .

..
WORK IN. 'TH

EXPERIMl~NTAL

RESULTS:_

upplicd:
I) Mas of the cylinder, M=3208 gm.
2) Length of the suspension wire from the point of suspension lo the point where the cylinder
is attached, I = 86.5 cm.
Table-1
Vernier constant (v.c.) of the slide calipers
__ divisions (say,
. m) of the vernier scale= __ divisions (say, n) of the. main scale.
Value of 1 smallest main scale
division
(/,)
(cm)

Noof
o~tttion.

Vernier constant
v.c. = (/1 -11)

Value of I vernier division


/2

n
=-11
m

(cm)

(cm)

Table-2
r der
Diameter o fth ccvm
Total
reading
RQdiN!:S cm) of the
D(cm)
v.s.
m.s. - -

Radius
R(cm)

Mean
D(cm)

1
2

-Pitch of the screw


p cm

Table-3
Least count I.e. of the screw
No. of divisions on the
circular scale n

e
Least count=p/n

cm

Table-4
Measurement of the diameter (d=2r) of the wire
Mean
Total reading
Readines 'cm) of the
D(cm)
D(cm)
c.s.
m.s.

No of obs.

Radius
r (cm)

Iablc-S
Determination of the period (TI of torsional oscillation of the cvlinder

No of obs

Time for 20
oscillation (t)

Mean time

Period Tin sec

~1

OPTJ 'AL FJDRE EXPERIMENT

~
~

OBJECTJVE

the numerical aperture and the energy lo s related

10 optical

fibre

i)
~

To de1crmme

APPARATUS

Fiber optic analogue transmiuer and receiver ki1s. one and five- meters fibr
cords. mhne SM:\ adaptors.

-1.
~
~

Scre-9n

F.O.

Cable

,.

........

IN

s
;,

..,

scale

:,
:.J
~

TIIEORY

The numerical aperture (Na) of an optical fibre is the amount of light what is collected

by it at its end.

.;J

The numericaJ aperture Na= I' sinO

For

So,

In the Fig .. I, Set the light beam from the fibre end fall on the screen = W

Na= WI (4L1 + W1)111

air medium

,, = J
Na - sin (J

Where L is the distance between the end A of the optical fibre and the screen. w is the

:>

diameter of the illuminated circle in the screen .

...
4t

.
~

1--

Screen

The loss of the optical energy is a function of the length of the optical fibre when one joins
two fibres by inline adaptor. In this experiment loss per unit length as well as loss due 10 fibre
to fibre joints will be calculated
33

18

lfP,.b the power of rhc hgju cn rgy ntcrin3nn<>pl1,1lf1breoflrn31hl


.nrJP!I
II pt1w1,
output then los due to the fibr m n .urcd as lout0(1'/P0) rn J """8 111 tlH In,,,,.
''' :1 11111t
opuc: I fibre loss 1 equal to El If A be the total lo due to the adaptor
1hr 101.,1 If>,., 1,
equal 10 L t A If Poi and Pin are the power losses due to fibre" of l<:nBh-. I , onrl J 1 nnrl J>0,
1 thnt due 10
the combination
when the fibres MC jorncd with on mlt1w. '_,MA <J( lo
conu ibuuon A, rben
loss due to fibre of one metre lcn lh an<l the <ifvl1\ of I<> 'l
conmbuuon, then 1hc loss due 10 the fibre of one metre length and rhe SMA 1.,. uvcn h~

>

the

Pol: P02
And similarly loss due 10 the fibre of length 5 metre and the SMA is given by

>

Therefore, loss per unit length, = (Po2 - Poi) I (Lr L1) dB/m
And the loss due the inline SMA (fibre-to-fibre-joint) is given by
A= (POJ - Poz) - La dB/m

PROCEDURE

I.

~
~
~
~

To connect the J metre optical fibre with LED part of the transmitter kit so that light
seen to pass through the other end. To make the room dark. Then 10 insert tbe orber
end of the fibre through the hole of the L-shaped numerical aperture measuring kit. To
place the circularly calibrated screen plate vertically on the marked end of the L-kit.
To switch on machine. To make one circle completely bright on the vertical plate by
adjusting the intensity knob. To note down the distance L. To measure the value of
1he diameter of tbe circle (W)

rs

~
~

2. To move the vertical circularly calibrated screen at different positions and note down
diameter (W) of the completely illuminated circle in each case.

~
~
~
~

,
"

3. To take out the output end of the fibre from the L-kit and to connect it 10 the power
measuring poll of the receiver kit. To apply an input voltage by Turing the set Po
knob. To make sure 1ha1 the fibre is fully stretched without any coiling or bending.
Now, 10 measure the input voltage and the out put power with the help of Muhemeter.
This loss is Poi.

To repeat 'Step 3. For the 5 metre fibre. The input voltage should be same as earlier.
This power l()ss is Po2-

5.

To repeal step 3 once again by joining two fibres by inline SMA. This power loss is
Po;.

I~

l~

34

T:-iblc I: Octcrmin:-ition

NO

--

of numerical aperture
Mean Na

Na= WI (4L" +
W2}tn

W(mm)

L(mm}

I
I

I
I

I
.

.
r-

Table 2: Calculation of loss of power


~
I

SI.No.

Po1

P02

= (Po2 - Po1} I

Pol

(L2- L1)

ao

a,

33

as

Ao

A,

I
I

3
~
~
~
~
~

RESULTS

~
~

"3
DJSCUSSJONS
~

..,

.I

A= (Pol - Po2) - L1 dB/m

35

A3

As

I,

AREY-FOSTER'

IlRJDGE XPRJJ\t1ENT

OBJECTJVE

To determine rhc resistance per unit length of


determine the value of an unknown lo.w resistance.

APPARATUS

Carey Fosler bridge, galvanometer, two equal resistances (sa I

~
~

.)
~

fl

C<>rcy-Fosrers

n.

bridge wife and hence

each), voltage source (2v

power supply). connecting wires etc.

THEORY
The Carey Foster bridge is an electrical circuit that can be used lo measure very low
resistances. It works on the same principle as Wheatstone's bridge, which consists of four
resistances R1: R2, R3 and R4 that are connected to each other as shown in the circuit diagram
in Fig. l. In this circuit, E is a voltage source, G is a galvanometer and K1 and K2 are two
keys. "If the values of the resistances arc so adjusted thar no current flows through the
galvanometer (balance condition), then the resistances R,, Ri. R3 and ~ satisfy the
relationship

,
~

-~
~

(I)

In a meter bridge, two of the resistors, say R3 and R are replaced by a resistance wire of one
meter length and uniform cross sectional area fixed on a meter scale. Point D is a sliding
contact thar can be moved along the wire, thus varying the magnitudes of R3 and R4 The
Carey Foster bridge is a modified form of the merer bride in which the effective length of the
wire is considerably increased by connecting a resistance in series with each end of the wire
This increases accuracy of tbe bridge.

ic1--~1l1lt..

Fig. J Whearstone bridge

....

l !' ')
1 \ .

d r

-l

..

.JI J l

-----

F\3.2: Ccarey Fo t r t>r1d8 ctreult dl.-cmm


11.e circuil die m for \he Corey os'cr brtdgc is 1hown in Pia. 2. Two otond&rd low
resi~'anocs, P nd Q, of 18)' I ohm e h Ott COtmeClcd in the inner gap 2 nd ), A known
~.
i.e., &a tional resisumcc box X ond lhe unknown
tcrnce Y who e r. I 1 nee i
to be detcmuncd
re eonneeted in the outer 8ftP' 1 1md A. s; pc tively. A one met.er kme
resislance win or uniform orea or cross section is soldered to the end of rwe copper triP'.
Since tbe wire hos uniform eross-secrien I Mea, 'he res tonee per unit length i the me
along the wire. A golvop9~cr Q l$~Q.D.Ot ~ii. ~l "o~l B.M<l the.jockcy 0, which
is in sliding con,ac1 that with the bTidgc w\fC. A vohasc s6urce i eonoeered between
tcnninab A ond C.

The four points A, B, C ond .D in Fig. 2 exactly correspond to the imilarly labeled
points in the Wheatstone's bridge circuit in Fig. I. Therefore irthe balance point i located at
a distance /1 &om, then we gel
P
-

X+o+l,p
Y+P+(I00-1,)p

(2)

where p is the resistance per un,it lcng1h or the wire, and a and /3 ore the resistanca due to
eod corrections at the left and right ends. If now the positioM of X and Y ftf' interchanged nod
the balance point is found at a distance /2 from, then

y +a +l1P

(3)

-=
Q X +P+(I00-1,)p
,;

From Eq. (2) ond (J). we ob1airi


X +er + l,p
Y+{J+(I00-1,)p

__ Y__a_+...1/1=.:.P
__
X+IJ+(IOO-l1)p

(4)

2.?

..Y

>'

- f)

I
-(10()

I (1

I 00

,.

I,)

J), (100

>'

I ('f

fl

IOOp

J) .. ( I 00 I,) p

(S)

fJ t>(IOO-/))p

1,)p=Y'

Or )' = X - (11

I, )p

(6)

Thus once we know II I 1 p and X the unknown resistance Y can be determined using Eq,
~

(6) In order lo deterrmne

p=-/2 -1,

.a

(7)

p can be determined by short circuiting Yaod measuring I, and I,.

Thus
~

p , put Y = 0 in Eq. (6) 10 gel,

PROCEDURE

I.

~-

I.

To find the resistance per unit length of the wire ( p)

Make the circuit connections as shown in Fig. 2. Make sure rha1 all connections

are

ligb1.

~
~

2.

Connect the given resistances P arid Q (JO each) in gaps 2 and 3. Jn tbis pan, Xis a
fractional resistance box and Y is a short circuit (zero resistance).

3.

Switch on power voltage source so that current flows through tbe circuit.

4.

Firsr set rbe resistance X at zero and see if the galvanometer shows opposite
deflections when the jockey is pressed al the two ends of the wire. Also check
whether the nu JI point is localed around the middle of the bridge wire. J fit is so, then
the connections are likely to be correct.

5.

Now

6.

Locate the balance point. Record the distance of the balance point from the left end
(point E) of the wire as Jengch ".

7.

Reverse rbe direction of current flow by tbe commutator and again record the balance
point I, for 1hc reverse current. Take average of 1, for direct and reverse current (see
Table l) in order 10 eliminate l~e effect of any thermo emf

-~

,
,
~

sci

a small resistance in X, say X

= 0. IQ

8.

Increase resistance X, in steps of say 0.2 Q. 0.4 Q. etc and repeat steps 6- 7 each lime.

Interchange rhe posiuons of X and the zero resistance Y and repeal steps 6- 7 for rhe
same set of resistance values for X The corsesponding balance point disrance

,
~

r ~

,
s

urcd tr m th

Ill

>

' blc

.,

I I.

sam

end of th

To find an unknown

bridPc w1r<' should be record d

low rcsislnnce

n h

d;;I;\

Remove the short c1rc1111 and set the resistance


resis.tnnce.

:i~

al a

small

value

unknown

as

R~peat the cm ire sequence of sieps :>-9 in pan J of the procedure and Jill up Table 2

3
OBSERVATIONS

Table 1: Determination of the Carey Foster bridge wire (with Y

SI

No.

(0)

Position of balance point with Y (= 0) in the


Right gap ( /1 )
Left gap ( 11)

Direct

current

(cm)
Reverse Mean
current
I,

11 I,
(cm)

= 0)
p=

x
/2 - /I

(cm)
Direct
current

Reverse

Mean

current

(O/cm)

t,

3
~

~
Table 2: Determination

~
~

SI
No.

of the unknown low resistance, Y

Position of balance point with Y (- 0) in the

/l - '1

( O ) ~--R-ig_h_t_g_a_p_(
/-,.-)---.~--L-eft-'--g-ap_(_/_
(cm)
1-)---i

~
(cm)

(cm)
(0)

Direct

current

Reverse
current

Mean

/'

Direct
current

Reverse
current

Mean

1i

~
~
~
~

!
~--+---+.--4----+--i-----4---+---t--t------1

~
~
~
~

E-=-==--:r~---~---+---__.__-+--F---+--_-r!---~-~=
4

2 '-1

CALCULI\ TJONS

.
r~

,
>

1 C:tkulotc the value of ( /1

for each value of X

- /1)

in

Table I

2 C<lkui:He p for each value of X

in Table I using Eq. (7).


~ Calcutare the meanp from the values obtained in Table I for differcm X.
4. Usmg this mean value of p in Eq. (6), calculate the unknown r~israncc Y for each
row mTable 2.
5. Use rbese results 10 calculate the mean value of Y.

RESULTS

Resistance per unit length of bridge wire, p


Value of the unknown low resistance, Y""
ERROR ANALYSJS

p=-

op)
a(I -l)
2a1
( _p max = 112- I, = -11 - I,
1

x
1, -/1

(Assum~ng the face value of X to be correct)

3
Where
~
~

,
~

_)

ol

= 1 smallest div. of the meter scale

Using a typical observed value of ( 11 -I,). we cakulate the maximum percentage error in p

as

( ap)
P

x 100%.

max

oY.....

~
~

>

.,

= ( 1,

=X

-(11 -1,)p

t; )op+ p.20/ ( Assuming ax

p[(i, -1,) ~ + 201]

= P['' -1, + i]2a1


( ar)
Y "'" R 1 -I,

Now using a typical set of observed data. we can calculate

~
~

DlSCUSSJONS

~
~
~
~

4
......

=0J

(a;) ...~.

X100%

,
,.

l.1\Sl.I~

Vl~
fhfl1,

Io

c1 'IC1 min

p uem w uh

llOO

J\PPARA }US L1\SER

I\

l)IFFRJ\ "'TlON EX~EJ~IMEN'I

the wavelength

of n given LASl:R

source by (ornung

plane imnsrmssrou gra1mg

d1\)(JC

module with power supply, Spectrometer, Gr:l~i.ng,

L1\SER derccior

THEORY
The LASER Diode module and LASER detector are mounted in place of collimator and
telescope of a spectrometer respectively. The grating is mounted on prism base of the
spectrometer. The emitted Laser beam is diffracted by grating. The diffraction pattern can

,
,,

be seen on a screen by holding i1 at the place of detector. Here one can notice the decrease
in the intensity of light as one move away from the zeroth order towards the higher orders.

Now the wavelength of the LASER light is obtained from the relation

A.= dsinB
m
Where. d is the pitch of the grating
m ts the order of the maxima

8 is the angle of deviation


~

~
~

9
~

(nboot Im)

---Fig:J

~
~
~

41
~

;,
~

10

.J'I
Opoca
....

baneb

PR_~ DURE
Switch on the LASER source

ei the spcctronx1cr as 11 source and detector should be colhncar

At thrs position t:ike rhc: darn ofrhe both vermcr scales (vernier I&.

vcnucr

II)

Fhrs

is called direct readinss


eNow place the grnting ar rhe centre of the prism table

Laser beam is now diffracted-by the graring and .make a spectrum like fig I

6.

Keeping undisturbed the arrangement, now take the darn of rhe both vernier scales

~
~

for central order i.e. O'" order. This readings should coincide with rbe direct readings.

Now move the LASER detector towards left from the central order and set the
detector at the left -side I" order. Note down the data of the both vernier scales in
Table I

8. After taking the data of the Isa order again move the LASER detector rowards left
and sci the detector at the left side 2nd order. Note down the data of the both vernier

scales in Table I

9.

foUow the same procedures for rhe left side 3'd order.

I 0. Now move the detector

10

the opposite direction and get back

10

the centra I order

Check the readings again and ensure that should matched wirh previous central order

readings .
I I. Move the detector towards right from the central order and repeat steps 7, 8 and 9
for right side lsi, 2nd and 3'11 oder.

12. Now calculate the wavelength of the LASER source for 151, 2"" and J'J oder in Table

2 by using the data of the Table I

~
~

OBSERVATJONS

~
~

d=

Vernier consram of the spectrometer =

~
~
~
~

41
~

4
~~

f 'J

Tnbte t

~
n

ol
llljl\

OHi

>

a
,

or n1\~l1'

1111'111r1H

L ff

order

order
\'frnitr

--

II

VSR

Toc:1I

MS

VSR

lo1:tl

I<

(dcgr

(clt'gr

(dt81

(}'I

~)

o:

(dtg1

(dcgr

C<')

ee)

M.S.
R

V.S.R

Toc:il

~s

V.S.K

(dcgr

(d

(deg1

(dcg1

ee)

B," .
(degr

(degr

C'C)

ee)

ee)

ee)

---V('rn1cr- II- --

Vernier I

i\1 S

ee)

of d vinrion

LRiljhl

Vernier I

01t1f't

l\h'.,

cc)

rotl'\I

gr

O"I
(deg1

ee)

ee)

0(,~111
:ii)

>

CALCULATIONS

Table 2 : Measurement of wavelength of the source


Order

or

maxima

. 281

= ()~ -B,

(degree)

281 =Bi -02

28

= 28, + 291
2

(degree)

(degree)

.
'

RESULTS The wavelength of the LASER source is found lo be ..1. =

20

9(degrcc)

..1. (cm)

ERROR t\NALYSJS

) = r!_~in

'*
~

111

Hence,

.
,,

>

a
~

( a;..)
).

Where

ae

=2X

V.

DJSCUSSJONS

= cotB.ae
11\.1\

C. of spectrometer

Now ca ku late the maximum percentage error as [ ~

?t] max X 100 % .

,.

.
.a

llVI

APl'/\Hi\1

ti.

10111,ur\th
,

D1p11v

Pow11or11

'' m 1 t, p11.111, p11111

v I,

m.111.1lof

o<l1111n hcht

p111m

our e 1rnd hydrogen di.

hnre

h.1

1 Jll~ORY

'9

(.\) = 1-'F0-1-flc

(l)

Where J.tr and uc Are refracrive indices of F. lines bluish green 4861 A) Md C- lines
(and 65'63 A) of Hydrogen spectrum and 0 is the refractive index for D- lines (5893
A) of Sodium (Na) respectively. The refractive index. ).tf. ~ and 0 of the material
of the prism for the different lines can be obtained from the formula,

am

Where, A and
arc the angle of the prism and the t1nglc of the minimum deviation
respectively for the

line concerned.

~
~

3
~

>
~
~

~.

DIAGRAM

OF SPECTROMETER USING PRISM FOR STUDYING DISPERSIVE


PO\VER

~
~
~

l6

DIAGRAM

0 I A C RAM

FO.R ME/\SU.RING

F 0 R i\l

r AS UR

l7

ING

t\

1\NGLE

NG I 1- 0

OF

PRISM

0 EV I A l 10 N

!-

..

PR(

1)
11)

Fnlm F.
Al

r.r ... 1 the level mg. adjusuneurs and focu 111g of the spectrometer
bas 10 be derermrncd

Nc:(t tbe angle of the prism(/\)


to be set on the prism-table

in

have lob

done

To do thrs. the prrsn; has

such a way that us vertex points

toward

the

collimator and 11s rcfracung faces (AB and AC) gel almost equally the parnllc!
rays coming out of the collimator

{ Fig. I } The angle between the rays re fleeted

from these two faces will be 2A if t.he prism angle be A. This is because when
the face AC turns and goes to the position of AB, then the angle through which

the reflected rays turns, will be equal to 2A. Hence, if the angle between the rays
reflected from these two refracting faces is determined by the spectrometer, then

->

.,
~

the value of A will be obtained .


iii)

The vernier-constants of both the circular scales are determined and noted .

1v)

The prism is properly set on the prism-table {Fig 2) and the sli: is properly
illuminated by a sodium vapor lamp or a burner .

v)

.I

The telescope is rotated gradually and the image of the slit reflected from the
face AB of the prism,~ received in it in the position T1. The cross-wire is set at
a particular end of the slit-image and the reading of the telescope is noted from

>

the circular and the vernier scales. The reading are taken thrice and the mean is
taken. Let it be M1.

~
vi)

~
~

The telescope is then rotated to the position T2 and similarly slit-image is


received init when light is reflected from the side AC of the prism. Readings of
the telescope arc taken thrice as before and the mean reading is noted. Lei it be
Mi the angle of the prism (A) will be give by

.a

a
.a

vii)

To determine

A= (M,-M~)/2
the angle of minimum deviation(l>m). the prism is placed on the

prism-table in such a way that one of the faces ( AC) points towards the
collimator ( Fig 2).ln this position, rays coming out of the collimator will be
refracted through the face AC and will be finally come out of the face AB. If the

prism table rs gradually rotated and the slit-image is viewed through the
telescope, it will be found that the image is deviated up to a certain point and
then comes back in the same direction, irrespective of the direction of the
rotation of the prism-table. The point whercfrom the image returns back, is the
position of minimum deviation.
Keeping the prism at the position of the
minimum deviation. the slit-image there is focused in the telescope tn rhe
position Trannd rbe telescope reading is taken. This reading is taken at least

lhnce and their mean (R1) is taken

,
~

~
~

28

''

111)

Ih

fll l\Jll

a
,,

,,

,.
,

th

II

WHhd

' I

I;()

I lei c deicrmining the values of 1\ and[>," he value of the refractive index (11)
of1hc motcri31 ~fthc prism can be determined

x)

Now the sodium ligh: is replaced by hydrogen discharge lube which rs excited
by means of an induction coil or n transformer. The tube is held vertically and
the slit is illuminated by ii directly. On viewing through the telescope with the
prism set properly, well defined lines of hydrogen spectrum are visibJe. The
strong C-li.nc in the red is identified and ii is focused on the cross-wire al the
minimum deviation position of the prism. Telescope readings tire noted.
Sim~arly, the strong F-line in 1hc bluish-green is identified and focused at the
minimum deviation position of the prism.

xi)

Finally, the diJ"Ccl reading of the slit-image is taken from which the values of rbe
minimum deviation (6,,., corresponding to the red, bluish-green and yeJJow
lines are obtained.

>

,
,

,.,

tnble nnd the tcle<:cop


~ bfou3l11 ro rh
I
t
1
l111a
r.' 0,"111~" t '0111O11ih1nrn1or
can nl r the telescope drr ct ly fire
0111
focus d' 11h lh mn side of the sht-imagc a be for nnd the
' .l( I ino 0
lhe I le

Op ~ noted 1 h1 1 known As rhc duecr re:iding Th


I
d11
01
IOk 11 If

lr e and the menn reading (R2) is determined. Thus rhc


nrteor . .
.
'
mullfnum dcv1otion H>rn) of the prism will be S,,. (R1-R1)
111

xii)

Substituting the values of 6,,. for the different Hoes in equation 2, the values of
F, llc oare determined, from which the value of the dispersive power (a>) of tbe
material of the prism is obtained using equation I

OBSERY A TlONS
Vernier constants of the spectrometer
i) Vernier constants of rhe prism-table Vernier:=

ii) Vernier constants of the telescope Vernier:

,
~
~
~
~
~

4'

29

\
~~

,-1

'

..

Tnbtc l : Detcr miurn io n of :lnglc (A) of the pr

i\'I a i
.n
Seal
e

:.>

-c

C>

>

Vernie
r

II

lle:H.lings for second image


a1 T1
Mean ~ ,\ ):li
Vernie
Tota Me:l
(M,)
n
n
r
I
Seal
(M2)

Readings for first image

T,

:\I

Tot
al

i.111

Differcuc
c of the
mean
readings
for rhe

\lean
I he

of

diffrrc

nee
(2,.\)

hVO

(i\'J, IVJ,)

->

>

First

...

...

...

...

...

...

. ..

. ..

. ..

...

. ..

.. .

. ..

. ..

I
Seeon
cl

. ..

...

...

...

...

Table 2 : Determination of angle of minimum deviation (o,,.)

J. For Sodium Jigbt

Readings for minimum


<kviation
Main Vernie
Tot
Mean
Scale r
al
(R,)

Readings for direct rays


Mai
n

Vernie
r

Seal
~

Total

Mea

{R2)

AngJeof
the
minimum
deviation
(bm

=R2-R1)

Mean "~lue ]
of the Angle
of the

minimum

I
I

deviation
{5,.)

Firsr

Se-con cl

I
30

CA'

'11. For C-Hnes C rtd) of Hxdrogcn $pcctrnm

R~:)ding for minimum


deviation
Mnin Ver nie r ~ Tora Mc:in
Stale
I
(R,)

....
61
e

....u

>

nc:idings for c.Jirect roys


Main . Vernie
Scale r

Total
(R2)

J\Tean

Angle of
the
minimum
deviation
{om

-R2-R1)

.
First

...

... . ...

. ..

...

...

...

. ..

...

...
:

. ..

Second

'm.

if --

<>
c

. ..

...

...

...

...

...

...

Mean

Angle of
the
minimum
deviation
(Om =R2-R1)

...

Re:idings for minimum


deviation

Readings for direct rays

Main
Scale

Vernier

Tolal

Mean
(R,)

Main
Scale

Vernier

Fint

...

. ..

...

...

...

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

.. .

...

...

...

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

. ..

:>

Total
(R2)

~
~
~
~

...

For F-lines (bluish-green) of Hvdrogen spectrum

<>

I..

ivJt>an v1>J11r
of 1he 1\nglt
of1hc
rnlnlrnu m
t.lc\'l~lion
(5rn)

Mean value
of the Angle
of the
minimum
deviation
(5m)

~
~
I
~Second

'
-~

31

...

i --

1\l.

lJl~1\flON

Usmg cquotJon (2) rhc rcfmcuv uidrccs ''' Pr rand Jin of J llnd
-1111 of If ydio ''"
Sodn1m D hncs are re pecnvcly found out from rhe values of co1rcspond111 ~ "'~'
mmunum dcvia1ioo (~ ... ) ob1oincd. Then subs1i1u1ing
(I) the value oft~ dispersive power of the material

the value

of 1r 1r and 10

r1CI

11

'

of

q1rn11011

111 1

of 1h~ prism is determined

PRECAUTIONS
i)

In all

cases of focusing. the rmmrnurn

corresponding
there.
ii)

iii)

,a

10

each line has

10

de vint ion

position of the

pri:'m

be ascertained and the telescope rnusr be set

Sc"Cral independent settings of the cross-wire are 10 be made for each reading
avcding thereby any position errors in laking re.-.ding.s of the vernier.
The discharge tube should be held vertically in front of the slir properly, so lhar
the brighlest pan of the illumination remains in fronr of rhc slit

ERROR CALC1JLA TIONS

Hcnee , maximum percentage error in w


iJw

6F+Oc
F-c

oo
o-1

This is true when tbe errors in #lF. c and o are approximately equal and ID is small.

DISCUSSIONS

32

r,
I

,
~

J
J

M~. !-.U rr11c111 o: l'h rrnnl Co11cl11 ri 11y l>y l,c(',

111rlllod

Aim

T ckte1 mine thermal


Lee 's rn thod
Re'qu] ires:

conductivity

of a bad condu tor (glase) 111 forrn of :1 disc

"""'i~

>

..
~

>
>
>

.
~

9
~
~

9
9
~

...

( l) Lee's apparatus and the experimental specimen in the form of a disc

(2) Two thcnnometcrs, (3) Stop watch, (4) Weighing balance, (5) Special lamp stand
(6) Boiler and (7) Heater
Theory:

Thermal conductivity, k, is the property of a material that indicates its ability to conduct
heal Conduction will take place if there exists a temperature gradient in a solid (or stauonary
fluid) medium. Energy is transferred from more energetic to less energetic molecules when
neighboring molecules collide. Conductive heat flow occurs in direction of the decreasing
temperature because higher temperature is associated with higher molecular energy. Fourier's
Law expresses conductive heat transfer as
(I)
where H is the -steady state rate of heat
transfer, k is the thermaJ conductivity of
the sample, A is the cross sectional area
and (T 2 - T1) is the temperature difference
across the sample thickness 'x (see Fig.
I). assuming that the heat loss from the
sides of the sample is negligible, To keep
the loss from the-sides small. the sample is
H = kA (Tz - Ti)
made in form of a thin disk with a Jar,ge
x
cross sectional 31e3 compared to the area
exposed at the edge. Keeping 'A' large and
'x ' small produces a large rate of energy
transfer across the sample. Keeping x small
Fig. J
also means that the apparatus reaches a
steady state(when temperature T1 and T2 are constant) more quickly .
Generally speaking, there are a number of possibilities to measure thermal condocnvnv, each of
them being suitable for a limited range of materials, depending on the thermal properties and the
medium temperalure. The most commonly used methods are Searles method and Lee's disc
method, for good and bad conductors of heat, respectively. In the experiment, we will use Lee's
disc method to determine the thermal conductivity of a bad conductor, e.g Glass

.
"
"

".

De o 1ption

of I cc'

apparatus:

TI1 opparatu

hown in Fig 2 con ists of two pails The lower part C rs circular metal
disc. The expcnmcntal specimen G, usually rubber, glass or ebonitc (here 11 is glass) is plac don
it The diameter of G is equal to that of C and thickness is uniform throughout A steam chamber
1
placed on C The lower part of the steam chamber, 13 is made of a thick metal plate of the arne
~1amcter as of C The upper part is a hollow chamber in which two side tubes are provided for
inflow and outflow of steam. Two thermometers T1 and T2 are inserted into two hotesin C and
B, respectively. There are three hooks attached to C. The complete setup is suspended from a
clamp stand by attaching threads to these hooks.

Steam in
Steam
Chest

-+

Steam Out

.a

Tz

Brass Base B

T,

Brass Disk C

-Glass disc (G)

-:.:I

,
,
,

J_
x

Fig.2

~
~
~

a
~
~
~

Photograph of thermal conductivity measurement setup

;,
~

,, ..

Wl~n steam no~


This

IS

th

ready

for omc tune, the temperatures recorded (T1a:id11)

Let at the steady state, temperature of C

Temperature of 0

Surface area of G

Conductivity

Thickness of G = x

~
~

'

= T1

= T2.

=A
of G = k

H=

4T

ms-ctc

.......

>

a
a
~
~
~

(2)

Equating ( 1) and (2) and simplifying. k can be determined as,

9
~

'"'"'Y

Hence amount of heat flowing through G per second. H is given by Eq. (I}. When the apparatus
is in steady state (temperatures- T1 and T2 constant}. the rate of heat conduction into the brass disc
C is equal to the rate of heat loss from the bottom of it, The rate of heat loss can be determined
by measuring how fast the disc C cools at the previous (steady state) temperature T, (with the top
of the brass disk covered with insulation). If the mass .and specific heat of the lower disc arc m
and s, respectively and the rate of cooling at T1 is dT/dt then the amount of heat radiated per
second is,

.a

radually remain

Si3lC

.........

(3)

Procedure:

J. Fill the boiler with water to nearly half and heat it to produce steam
2. In the mean time. take weight of C by a weighing balance. Note its specific heat from a
constant table. Measure the diameter of the specimen by a scale or slide calipers, if
possible. Calculate the surface ~
A=n
3. Measure the thickness of the specimen by screw-gauge. Take observations at 5 spots and
take the mean value .
4. Put the specimen. steam chamber etc. in position and suspend it from the clamp stand.
Insert the thermometer. Check if both of them are displaying readings at room
temperature. If not, note the difference 0, is to be added to (T2 - T1) later .
5 Now stem is ready. Connect the boiler outlet with the inlet of the steam chamber by a
rubber tube .
6. Temperatures recorded in the thermometers will show a rise and finally will be steady at
T1 and T2.
7. Wait for 1-0 minutes and note the steady temperature. Stop the inflow of steam.
8 Remove the steam chamber and the specimen G. C is still suspended Heat C directly by
the steam chamber till its temperature is about T, + 7.

r.

R move the steam chamber and wan for 2 - 3 minutes so that heat is uniformly
distributed over the disc C
l 0 Place the insulating material on C. Start recording the temperature at Y1 mi nut~ intervals.
Continue ttll tbe temperature falls by 10 from T1

Observations:

ti)

Details of the sample G


(a) Diameter: (using scale/slide calipers)

Table-I:
SI No.

Diameter (cm}

Mean Diameter (cm)

2
....

Surface area ofG =A=

Thickness:

Pitch=
SI No.

Initial
(m)

!~

,~
1
,~

(using screw-gauge)

Table- 2:

~
~

.
Reading

Least count= ......


I

Final Reading F (cm)

.)

1>

la

1-s
I~

l~

(11)

Details of the lower disc C


Mass of the disc. m =

~
4

Difference
(I - F) in
cm

Mean
(cm)

(Ill)

..
~

(IV)

Specific heat of the material, s= 380 J/kg C


Correction of Thermometers
Room temperature recorded T2 ;; .......
Room temperature recorded T 1 =
So correction of thermometers 0 = T2 -.T 1
Steady Temperature
Temperature of~=
: . ..
. .. .
.
Temperature of B =
.
Taking thermometer error in to account, the difference= (T2-T,+0)

>
~

(V)

Time (minute)

Tab!e-3: Time - Temperature record during cooling

Graph:

Using the data from Table - 3. plot


the cooling cwve (time versus
temperature) and determine the
slope dT/dt = llT/6t at the s&eady
temperature T1 (Fig. 3).

Calculation:

Temperature
(Celsius)

oT

k::: ...............

~
~

Discussion and conclusion:

ot
Time (Seconds)

9
~

Probable errors and precautions:

Fig. 3

Don't record T1 and T2


unless they have remained steady for at least 10 minutes.
2. The tangent to the cooling curve should be done very carefully. An error in dT/dt will
result in a wrong result fork.
I.

,~._
~.!L
1

I ..