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IGCSE BIOLOGY

REVISION 2016
Coordinated/Combined exams

Combined

Coordinated

Coordinated

6.1.B.1

http://www.funtrivia.com/playquiz/quiz139033fec8c0.
html

B2. 2.1

Whats Diffusion?

Selectively Permeable membrane

Importance

Giving Some examples

Factors Favouring Diffusion

Concentration Gradient

Osmosis continued

THE EARTHS
ATMOSPHERE

THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE


INTRODUCTION
This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students
understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements
of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards.

A guide for GCSE students

Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and
it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white
board.
Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry
topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY WEBSITE at...

www.knockhardy.org.uk

2010
KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

THE EARTHS ATMOSPHERE


CONTENTS
Preparatory work
Todays atmosphere
Fractional distillation of air
Composition of air laboratory experiment
How the atmosphere has changed over time
The Miller-Urey experiment
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

All diagrams, photographs and any animations in this Powerpoint are


original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be
obtained for their use in any work that is distributed for financial gain.

SPECIFICATIONS

THE ATMOSPHERE
PREPARATORY WORK

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

Arrange the following gases into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

ELEMENTS

COMPOUNDS

MIXTURES

NITROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

NITROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

OXYGEN

AMMONIA

ARGON

WATER (VAPOUR)

AIR

AMMONIA
OXYGEN

WATER (VAPOUR)

ARGON
AIR

HYDROGEN

HYDROGEN

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

PREPARATORY WORK

Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

Arrange the following into ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS and MIXTURES

ELEMENTS

COMPOUNDS

MIXTURES

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

PREPARATORY WORK

All these gases have been in the earths atmosphere.


How many of them were there originally / are there now?

All these gases have been in the earths atmosphere.


How many of them were there originally / are there now?

NITROGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

PRESENT

ORIGINAL
CARBON DIOXIDE

AMMONIA
WATER VAPOUR

OXYGEN
HELIUM

WATER VAPOUR

ARGON
HYDROGEN

OXYGEN

CARBON DIOXIDE

AMMONIA

OZONE

NITROGEN

HELIUM

METHANE

ARGON

WATER VAPOUR

METHANE

OZONE

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

PREPARATORY WORK

PREPARATORY WORK

Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants?

Which of the following gases are classed as atmospheric pollutants?

NITROGEN
CARBON DIOXIDE

CARBON MONOXIDE

NON-POLLUTANTS

POLLUTANTS

NITROGEN

CARBON MONOXIDE

OXYGEN

SULPHUR DIOXIDE

OXYGEN

ARGON

CARBON DIOXIDE
SULPHUR DIOXIDE

WATER VAPOUR

NITROGEN MONOXIDE

ARGON
WATER VAPOUR

NITROGEN MONOXIDE

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY


THE EARTH IS COVERED BY A THIN LAYER OF
ATMOSPHERE MADE UP OF A MIXTURE OF GASES

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY


THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

OXYGEN

NITROGEN

NITROGEN

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE ATMOSPHERE TODAY

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

THE MOST COMMON GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE ARE

OXYGEN

OTHER GASES
(MOSTLY ARGON)

OXYGEN

OTHER GASES
(MOSTLY ARGON)
1%

21%

78%

NITROGEN

NITROGEN

ESTIMATE THE
PERCENTAGES

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY


Air is a mixture of various gases

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY


Air is a mixture of various gases
Its composition can vary depending on the environment.
If one ignores

water vapour
pollutants

0% - 4%
(variable)

ATMOSPHERIC GASES - SUMMARY

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

Air is a mixture of various gases


Its composition can vary depending on the environment.
If one ignores

water vapour
pollutants

0% - 4%
(variable)

the main constituents are

nitrogen
oxygen
noble gases*
carbon dioxide

78%
21%
1%
0.03%

* mostly argon but with some helium, neon, krypton and xenon
The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of
Industrial processes.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR


The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR


The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR


The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR


The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

CO2

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

O2
N2

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION OF AIR

USES OF THE COMPONENTS OF AIR

The gases in air have different boiling points and can be fractionally
distilled to provide useful raw materials used in industrial processes.

CO2

Air is filtered to remove dust


Water vapour condenses, and is removed using absorbent filters
Carbon dioxide freezes at 79C, and is removed
The remaining air is cooled in stages to 200C where it is a liquid
The liquid is then allowed to warm up
Nitrogen boils off first at 196C
Argon boils off at -186C
Oxygen boils off at 183C

steel making
oxy-acetylene welding
breathing equipment
aerating sewage

NITROGEN

inert atmosphere for food stops it going off


liquid nitrogen is used for cooling medical tissue

ARGON

inert atmosphere for light bulbs

O2
N2

Air

OXYGEN

COMPOSITION OF AIR - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

COMPOSITION OF AIR - LABORATORY EXPERIMENT


Place copper turnings in a silica tube and fill one of the syringes with
air. Heat the copper and push the air repeatedly over it. Continue until
the volume is constant.

The pinkish solid turns black and the volume of air decreases.
THE ANIMATION WILL START SOON
The copper reacts with about 20% of air, OXYGEN, to produce a new
substance. The remaining, unreactive, 80% is mostly NITROGEN.

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

ORIGIN

ORIGIN
During the first billion years of the earths existence,
there was intense volcanic activity which released
GASES
WATER VAPOUR

- this formed the original atmosphere


- which eventually condensed to form oceans

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

ORIGIN
1
The earth was molten

During the first billion years of the earths existence,


there was intense volcanic activity which released
GASES
WATER VAPOUR

Any atmosphere
burned away

- this formed the original atmosphere


- which eventually condensed to form oceans

The atmosphere was probably...

mainly
some
small amounts of
small amounts of

CARBON DIOXIDE
WATER VAPOUR
METHANE
AMMONIA

Since then it has changed considerably

THE ATMOSPHERE
2
Volcanic activity

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

THE ATMOSPHERE
3
The earth cooled

CARBON DIOXIDE
plus STEAM and
a little METHANE and
AMMONIA

WATER VAPOUR
condensed to form
the oceans.

(A bit like Mars or Venus today)

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

THE ATMOSPHERE
4
Plants began to evolve;
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

CARBON DIOXIDE
levels went down

CO2 dissolved in oceans


forming carbonates and also
got locked up in sedimentary
rocks and fossils fuels

Atmosphere
became polluted
with OXYGEN

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

THE ATMOSPHERE

THE ATMOSPHERE

6
Methane and ammonia
reacted with oxygen

THE ATMOSPHERE

7
Ammonia converted to
nitrates by bacteria

NITROGEN and
CARBON DIOXIDE
were produced

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

More NITROGEN
produced and
ammonia levels
drop

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

THE ATMOSPHERE
8

9
Todays atmosphere

Small decrease in
OXYGEN; OZONE
layer formed

SOME OXYGEN TURNED INTO


TO OZONE WHICH FILTERED
OUT HARMFUL UV RAYS AND
ALLOWED MORE ORGANISMS
TO EVOLVE.

THE ATMOSPHERE

NITROGEN
OXYGEN
+

78% 4/5
21% 1/5

NOBLE GASES
CARBON DIOXIDE
WATER VAPOUR

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which
may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which
may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which
may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and
passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and
passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.
When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based
compounds had formed inside the flask.
Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT (1952)

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which
may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

Two scientists, Miller and Urey, tried to recreate the conditions which
may might have occurred around 3 billion years ago.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and
passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

They mixed water vapour with ammonia, methane and hydrogen and
passed electric sparks (to represent lightning) through the gases.

When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based
compounds had formed inside the flask.

When they analysed the mixture they found that many carbon-based
compounds had formed inside the flask.

Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

Some compounds were amino acids which can be built into proteins.

The first life forms (about 3 billion years ago) may have been bacteria
which were able to live on methane and ammonia.

The first life forms (about 3 billion years ago) may have been bacteria
which were able to live on methane and ammonia.

Primordial soup is a mixture of chemicals which may have given rise to


life on Earth. It can be used to explain how living organisms appeared
on Earth.

Primordial soup is a mixture of chemicals which may have given rise to


life on Earth. It can be used to explain how living organisms appeared
on Earth.
HOWEVER, IT IS JUST ONE OF MANY THEORIES

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT


GASES ARE ADDED
H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

WATER
VAPOUR
UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED

WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

WATER
VAPOUR

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED

UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

WATER
VAPOUR

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED
WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

WATER
VAPOUR
UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED

WATER
VAPOUR
UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED
WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

WATER
VAPOUR

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED

UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

WATER
VAPOUR

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED
WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

THE MILLER-UREY EXPERIMENT

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

GASES ARE ADDED


H2, CH4, NH3

A SPARK IS
APPLIED TO
THE MIXTURE
OF GASES

WATER
VAPOUR

THE GAS
MIXTURE IS
COOLED

UNREACTED
GASES ARE
RECYCLED

WATER IS
HEATED

ANY LIQUID IS
DRAWN OFF

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

THEN
Years ago carbon dioxide got locked up in limestone rock which had formed
from the remains of shellfish.

THEN
Years ago carbon dioxide got locked up in limestone rock which had formed
from the remains of shellfish.

The carbon dioxide also reacted with sea water to produce insoluble
carbonates which formed a sediment and soluble magnesium
hydrogencarbonate and calcium hydrogencarbonate.

The carbon dioxide also reacted with sea water to produce insoluble
carbonates which formed a sediment and soluble magnesium
hydrogencarbonate and calcium hydrogencarbonate

Carbon dioxide ended up as the carbon in fossil fuels.

Carbon dioxide ended up as the carbon in fossil fuels

NOW
Animals and humans produce carbon dioxide through respiration
Plants help in removing carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.
This process isnt enough to balance the extra carbon dioxide produced by the
burning of fossil fuels.
The extra carbon dioxide contributes to global warming as a greenhouse gas.

CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE

AIR
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

CO2

COMBUSTION

OCEANS
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

THE EARTHS
ATMOSPHERE
THE END

2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

Objectives
Discuss the water cycle
Understand the importance of water
treatment

Purifying Water
Unit 3 Air & Water

What happens to water on the


Earth's Surface?
The water on the Earth's surface is continually being recycled.
As it falls, rain water contains only dissolved gases but
once it reaches the ground water becomes contaminated in
various ways.

Water Treatment and pollution


We need a good supply of water suitable for
domestic consumption in homes, businesses, sewage
systems etc.
It is also a valuable cheap resource used in large
quantities in industry and power stations.
There are various undesirable materials that need to
be removed from water before it is fit for domestic
consumption.

Water treatment

What can you find in


contaminated water?
Colloidal clay, microscopic organisms, chemicals which cause
tastes or odours and acidic substances, dissolved salts,
minerals, microbes, insoluble materials, pollutants nitrate
and phosphate residues from fertilisers, lead compounds
from old lead pipes, pesticide residues, etc

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tuYB8
nMFxQA

Untreated biologically contaminated water in poor countries is


responsible potentially debilitating and fatal diseases such as
cholera and dysentery.
In developed countries the water gathered from groundwater,
rain, rivers, lakes etc. is closely monitored for pollution by
government agencies as well as the water companies themselves
who must design and operate systems to treat the water to make
it fit for use.

How water is treated

The process
1. Water is extracted from reservoirs and sent to be treated
2. The water is first passed through a filter to filter out large objects such as rocks or
mud.
3. Smaller particles in the water are removed by adding Aluminium Sulfate which causes
the smaller particles to stick together in large pieces and settle down the filter.
4. Water is now passed through sand and gravel filters which continue to filter off the
smaller particles and kills bacteria.
5. Now its time for chlorination

What is the water used for in


Industry and the Home?
Irrigation
Cooling
Recreation
Agricultural

6. Chlorine gas is first bubbled through the water to kill the bacteria that exists in the
water.

Industrial use

7. Sodium Hydroxide may be added in the water to prevent the water from being acidic
from the chlorine.

Shower

8. Water is delivered to the people that need them.

Water use in general

Industrial Uses UK 2006/2007

Plant Nutrient Deficiency


Quiz

Aims of the session:


Learn about fertilisers and their effects on the environment.
Be able to answer exam questions on the effects.
Learn about Pesticides and their effects
Summarise the key points about pesticides

Fertilisers and Pesticides

What is Eutrophication?

Fertilisers

The process by which a body of water acquires a high


concentration of
, especially phosphates and nitrates.
These typically promote excessive growth of algae. As the algae
die and decompose, high levels of organic matter and the
decomposing organisms deplete the water of available oxygen,
causing the death of other organisms, such as fish. Eutrophication
is a natural, slow-aging process for a water body, but human
activity greatly speeds up the process. - Art, 1993

The process of
Eutrophication

The process of Eutrophication cont.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD).


This measures the rate of oxygen consumption by a
sample of water, and therefore gives a good
indication of eutrophication. A high BOD means lots
of organic material and aerobic microbes, i.e.
eutrophication

The nitrate concentration falls during spring


and summer and rises during autumn and
winter
Less algal growth as autumn begins
Possibly all plants have died

Pesticides

Pesticides
Include:
Herbicides

Insecticides
Fungicides
Bactericides

Pesticides

Persistence
= Bioacculmulation
+ Lipid solubility

Bioaccumulation
E.g DDT

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Human impact on the environment

Population growth

How does human activity affect the environment?

There are about 6.6 billion people in the world and over 95
million babies are born per year that is an average of
three babies per second!

Has the rate of population growth always been the same?


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Exponential growth

The changing population

The human population is said to be growing exponentially.


This means that the larger the population, the faster it grows.
An increase in average life expectancy is largely
responsible for the rapid increase in population. Why do
people live longer than they did hundreds of years ago?
better healthcare (hospitals, medicines, vaccines)
more and better food
cleaner water
better sanitation
The biggest increase in population is in economically
developing nations, rather than economically developed
nations. Why do you think this is the case?
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Predicting future growth rate

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Using resources and producing pollution

Computer models can be used to make predictions about


population growth by using assumptions about birth rate.
Most analysts assume that birth rates will fall within the
next 50 years. Why do you think this might happen?

minerals
buildings, farms,
quarries and
dumps

use more
raw materials

fossil fuels

use
more land

more people

use
more energy

pesticides and
herbicides

produce
more waste
and pollution

sewage, fertilizer
and toxic waste

decreased fertility
lack of resources
disease
war
How important do you think predictions about climate
change and unsustainable development are in the analysts
calculations?

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CO2, SO2, CO and smoke

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What are pollutants?

What are indicator species?

One of the biggest problems of a rising population is an


increase in pollution.

Indicator species are organisms whose presence or


absence provides information on the environmental
conditions in a specific area.

A pollutant is a substance that contaminates air, water or


land. Some pollution is caused by natural events such as
volcanic eruptions, but the majority is caused by human
actions. Pollutants are either:
non-degradable (e.g. the pesticide DDT) these
decompose extremely slowly, allowing them to accumulate
to toxic levels as they are passed along food chains.
biodegradable (e.g. sewage) these are usually only
damaging when added to the environment more quickly
than they can decompose.

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Lichen is commonly
used as an indicator
species because it is
sensitive to sulfur
dioxide.
What type of
pollution could be
present in areas
where there is not
much lichen?
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Air pollution
Human activity produces two main types of air pollutant:
noxious gases These include carbon dioxide (CO2),
sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx).
particulates These are tiny particles suspended in air
(e.g. smoke), which are usually produced by the
combustion of fossil fuels.
Air pollution has been a major problem since the Industrial
Revolution of the late 18th Century, and has been made
worse by humans reliance on burning fossil fuels for energy.
Air pollution, global warming, acid rain, damage to the ozone
layer and smog. Each of these has serious implications for
the environment and human health.
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Global warming and greenhouse gases

The greenhouse effect

One of the greatest threats caused by air pollution is


global warming. Global warming is caused by a build-up
of greenhouses gases, which leads to an increase in the
Earths temperature.
A greenhouse gas is an atmospheric
gas that absorbs infrared light.
Key greenhouses gases include:
carbon dioxide (CO2)
methane (CH4)
water vapour (H2O)
nitrous oxide (N2O)
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Atmospheric carbon dioxide

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Carbon dioxide levels


Carbon dioxide is one of the most important greenhouse
gases because atmospheric concentrations have risen
dramatically over the past century. Why do you think this is?
Burning fossil fuels, deforestation and
flooding land for the construction of
hydroelectric dams have all contributed
to rising levels of carbon dioxide.

How many examples of burning


fossil fuels can you think of? Are
there any alternatives?

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What is the carbon sink?

The carbon sink

Before the industrial revolution, carbon dioxide levels were


usually kept in check by the carbon sink forests and
oceans that capture and store carbon.
forests All green plants absorb
carbon dioxide as part of
photosynthesis. The absorbed carbon
is only released back into the atmosphere
when the plant dies and rots, or is burned.
oceans Carbon dioxide dissolves in
sea water, depending on the temperature
and pressure. Tiny marine animals called
phytoplankton extract carbon from the carbon dioxide to
make their skeletons and shells.
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Acid rain

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What damages the ozone layer?


The ozone layer is a protective part of the atmosphere that
absorbs some of the Suns damaging ultraviolet (UV) rays.
Damage to the ozone layer means that more UV rays
reach Earth, increasing the risk of skin cancer.
The ozone layer is damaged by chemicals called
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which contain the elements
carbon, hydrogen, chlorine and fluorine.
CFCs are used in fridges and freezers, aerosol sprays and
packaging materials such as polystyrene. The production
and use of CFCs is now banned in many countries and could
be worldwide in a few years.

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What is smog?
Smog is a mixture of air pollutants and particulates that is
sometimes found in the lower levels of the atmosphere. It
has a distinctive brownish haze.
Smog can reach
dangerous levels in builtup areas, causing irritation
to the eyes and lungs.
A large part of smog is
ground-level ozone, a
highly toxic gas.
Ozone is formed when nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons
react with oxygen, in a reaction catalyzed by sunlight.
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Water pollution

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Eutrophication

Sewage, industrial waste, oil, pesticides and fertilizers all


pollute water.
Fertilizers and sewage can easily be washed into rivers,
streams and lakes. The nutrients, phosphates and nitrates in
these substances cause eutrophication.
Eutrophication is the
accumulation of
nutrients in water, which
causes excessive algal
growth. This leads to a
reduction in oxygen
levels and the death of
aquatic life.
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Eutrophication

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Land pollution

How much waste?

Land and soil can be polluted by two main types of


substance:

Every year, billions of tonnes of paper, plastics, synthetic


materials, metal and wood are thrown away.

solid waste such as plastic,


metal, paper and other manmade substances

On average, each UK
household produces
over 1 tonne of rubbish
each year.

chemicals such as
herbicides and pesticides,
crude oil and waste from
industrial processes.

How could you estimate


the amount of rubbish
you throw away each
year?

Land pollution often leads to


water pollution, as chemicals are
washed into rivers and lakes.
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What are the options?

What is the best solution?

What methods are there for disposing of waste materials?

The best way to deal with waste is to produce less of it!

Landfill is the cheapest solution, but sites quickly


become full and the waste contaminates the surrounding
air, soil and water.

It takes 100 kg of resources to make 10 kg of shopping,


and most of that ends up in the bin.

Incinerating waste reduces volume, but often produces


toxic chemicals.

If products were
redesigned to be
biodegradable or easier
to recycle, the amount
of waste and disposal
costs would be
significantly reduced.

Recycling materials allows them to be useful again, and


reduces the need to use more raw materials.
Composting uses natural biological processes to
decompose organic materials, but cannot be used to
dispose of non-biodegradable waste.

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How could you reduce the amount of waste you produce?

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Recycling rates

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Glossary (1/2)

Glossary (2/2)

biodiversity The number of different species within a


specific habitat.

indicator species An organism whose presence or


absence provides information on environmental conditions.

chlorofluorocarbon A chemical that damages the


ozone layer.

ozone A gas that is toxic at ground level but which forms


a protective layer higher in the Earths atmosphere.

eutrophication Over-enrichment of water with nutrients,


causing excessive algal growth and reduced oxygen levels.

global warming The rise in the Earths temperature


caused by an increase in greenhouse gases from human
activity.

greenhouse gas A gas that traps the Suns infrared

particulate A type of pollution consisting of tiny particles,


such as smoke.

pollutant A substance that contaminates air, water or


land.

smog A hazardous type of air pollution containing ozone


and particulates.

radiation in the Earths atmosphere.

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Anagrams

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Multiple-choice quiz

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Deforestation
B11- The Human
Impact on the
Ecosystem

Deforestation is the removal of large areas of forest to


provide land for farming and roads, and to provide
timber (wood) for building, furniture and fuel.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hllU9NEcJyg

Deforestation and its Effects on


the Environment

So what?

What are the effects of Deforestation?

Extinctions
Reduction of habitats or food sources for animals, which can result in their extinction.

More Extinctions

Animal and plant diversity is reduced, and food chains are disrupted.

Soil Erosion (erosin del terreno)

The unique biodiversity of various geographical areas is being lost on a scale that is quite

Flooding (inundaciones)

unprecedented.

Leaching (filtraciones/disoluciones)

Even though tropical rainforests make up just 6 percent of the surface area of the Earth, about 80-

Greenhouse Effect (efecto invernadero)

Aunque

90 percent of the entire species of the world exist here.


Due to massive deforestation, about 50 to 100 species of animals are being lost each day. The
outcome of which is the extinction of animals and plants on a massive scale.
resultado
Extinction: The coming to an end of a species
Biodiversity: is the term given to the variety of life on Earth. It is the variety within and between all species of plants, animals and
micro-organisms and the ecosystems within which they live and interact.

Erosion of soil

Flooding

Removal of trees means there are no roots to hold soil, which can result in soil erosion and

Lack of roots and soil flooding and mudslides. Lakes can become silted up. One of the vital

leaching of minerals. Desertification can eventually occur.

functions of forests is to absorb and store great amounts of water quickly when there are heavy
rains. When forests are cut down, this regulation of the flow of water is disrupted, which leads to

When forest areas are cleared, it results in exposing the soil to the sun, making it very dry and eventually, infertile, due to

alternating periods of flood and then drought in the affected area.

volatile nutrients such as nitrogen being lost. In addition, when there is rainfall, it washes away the rest of the nutrients,
which flow with the rainwater into waterways. Because of this, merely replanting trees may not help in solving the problems
caused by deforestation, for by the time the trees mature, the soil will be totally devoid of essential nutrients. Ultimately,
cultivation in this land will also become impossible, resulting in the land becoming useless. Large tracts of land will be
rendered permanently impoverished due to soil erosion.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fObjWotlONY

Greenhouse Effect
Less CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere, more CO2 build up increases the greenhouse effect.
It is well known that global warming is being caused largely due to emissions of greenhouse gases
like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
However, what is not known quite as well is that deforestation has a direct association with carbon
dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.
Trees act as a major storage deposit for carbon, since they absorb carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere, which is then used to produce carbohydrates, fats, and proteins that make up trees.
When deforestation occurs, many of the trees are burnt or they are allowed to rot, which results in
releasing the carbon that is stored in them as carbon dioxide.
This, in turn, leads to greater concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. So deforestation
has a double whammy - releases stored CO2 and then is unable to absorb any more.

What are the solutions to the problem?

B11 - HUMAN INFLUENCE IN THE ECOSYSTEM


1. UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION
1. Species extinction through habitat loss:

Reduction of habitats or food sources for animals can result in their extinction;
Loss of forest habitat also reduces plant & animal diversity & disrupts the food chains.

2. Loss of soil by soil erosion:

Removal of trees means there are no roots to hold soil, thus the thin top layer of soil is washed away
during rain;
This causes soil erosion and leaching of minerals;
Desertification can eventually result.

3. Flooding;

Soil from erosion is washed into rivers, silting it and causing flooding;
When forest is removed there are no plant roots to take up rainwater, which instead flows into
streams and rivers, causing further flooding.

4. Carbon dioxide build up:

Forests have high rates of photosynthesis so absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide from the
atmosphere;
Removal of forests therefore contributes to increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.

2. UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF OVERUSE OF FERTILISERS

To increase crop yields, farmers use excess of fertilisers;


A high concentration of fertilizer around plant roots can cause the roots to lose water by osmosis
resulting in the wilting and death of plants;
Another effect is eutrophication of rivers and lakes as follows:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Fertilisers (very soluble) are easily leached out of the soil and washed into rivers and lakes;
Algae absorb fertilizer and grow rapidly (algal bloom);
Algae form a blanket on the surface of water, blocking sunlight from algae below;
Algae and other plants below the surface die without light;
Bacteria decompose the dead algae and plants, using up oxygen in the water for respiration;
Animals in water die due to lack of oxygen.

3. UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF POLLUTION


1. Effects of water pollution:
i.

Pollution by chemical waste

ii.

Pollution by sewage:

Sewage (urine and faeces) contains high levels of nutrients such as phosphates, organic matter
and bacteria;
Phosphates act as fertilisers for algae, thus resulting in algal bloom;
Sewage contains organic matter which bacteria break down, causing them to multiply and
deoxygenate the water through aerobic respiration;

Furthermore sewage may contain disease-causing bacteria, which could get into drinking water
supplies, causing cholera and typhoid.

2. Effects of air pollution:

Carbon dioxide is produced by burning of fossil fuels;


Methane is produced from the decay of organic matter and as a waste gas from digestive
processes in cattle;
Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases;
They are called greenhouse gases as they trap heat in the earths atmosphere in the same way a
greenhouse traps heat;
As the concentration of these gases increase in the atmosphere more heat is trapped, making the
atmosphere warmer. This is called enhanced greenhouse effect;
It is causing global warming Earths average temperature is rising;

4. CAUSES AND EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF ACID RAIN, AND THE MEASURES THAT MIGHT BE
TAKEN TO REDUCE ITS INCIDENCE.

CAUSES

MAIN SOURCES

Sulphur dioxide,
Oxides of
nitrogen

Burning of fossil
fuels
Combustion of
petrol in car
engines.

EFFECTS

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

1. Damage to leaves, killing plants;


2. Acidification of lakes, killing
animals;
3. Increased risk of asthma attacks
and bronchitis in humans;
4. Corrosion of stonework on
buildings;
5. Release of aluminium from the
soil into lakes that are toxic to
fish.

1. Changing the power stations


from coal and oil to renewable
energy sources.
2. Using scrubbers in power
station chimneys sulphur
dioxide.
3. Using catalytic converters in
car exhausts to convert oxides
of nitrogen to harmless
nitrogen.

5. EXPLAIN HOW INCREASES IN GREENHOUSE GASES (carbon dioxide and methane) ARE THOUGHT
TO CAUSE GLOBAL WARMING.

Explanation is above (number 3)


Global warming is causing the following problems:
a.
b.
c.

Melt polar ice caps, causing flooding of low-lying land;


Change weather conditions in some countries by increasing flooding or reducing rainfall;
Cause the extinction of some species that cannot survive at higher temperatures.

6. NEED FOR CONSERVATION OF SPECIES AND THEIR HABITATS, NATURAL RESOURCES (limited to
water and non-renewable materials including fossil fuels).
Reasons for conserving species include the following:

Many species are in the danger of extinction due to habitat destruction, introduction of other
species, international trade and pollution;
Loss of species also means that its genes are lost, these may be important in future for genetic
engineering;
The presence of rare species can be an important source of money for poor communities, through
tourism;
The species may play an important role in a food chain and thus its loss could endanger other
species.

A habitat can be conserved by:

Using laws to protect the habitat;


Using wardens to protect the habitat;
Reducing or controlling public access to the habitat;
Controlling factors, such as water drainage and grazing, that may otherwise contribute to
destruction of the habitat.

Conservation of natural resources:

Natural resources are non-renewable and therefore need to be conserved in the following ways;
a. By increasing the use of renewable energy (wind energy, solar energy, hydroelectric power);
b. By improving the efficiency of energy use (better insulation, smaller car engines, more public
transport);
c. Trees can be grown for fuel, then replanted as they are cut down., in this way the greenhouse
effect is not increased and habitats can be maintained.

B2b Topic 3: Energy Flow


Photosynthesis and what affects the rate
The carbon cycle
Minerals and plants
The nitrogen cycle
Life on mars
Climate change
Food production
Lesson Objectives:
Describe the movement of carbon in the carbon cycle
Produce a poster of the carbon cycle

Why is carbon important?


A 4000 year old corpse
preserved in ice.
Why hasnt it
decomposed?

AQA Science Nelson


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Carbon is the main constituent of all living


cells (biochemistry, organic chemistry)
Carbon can form long chained-molecules
which are the basis for fats,
carbohydrates, nucleic acids (DNA and
RNA) and proteins.
Component of fuel (coal and gas)
Use in nanotubes for computers

Respiration

Respiration,
burning and decay

Decay (microorganisms and


bacteria)
Excrement and
death

The Carbon Cycle


Plants take in CO2 because they need carbon
and oxygen to use in photosynthesis
Through photosynthesis plants make
glucose (carbohydrate) and other substances
e.g. protein
When animals eat plants they use some of
the carbon containing compounds to grow
Some carbon-containing compounds are
used to release energy by respiration.

Your task drama time


In groups of 3 4 you need to act out the
carbon cycle
You can use mini white boards as props
One person to be nominated the narrator
This will be peer marked top groups get
stickers and sweets

The carbon cycle


True or false?

AQA Science Nelson


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Green plants use carbon


dioxide in photosynthesis.

True

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Combustion removes carbon


from the atmosphere

False combustion releases carbon


dioxide gas

AQA Science Nelson


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The largest store of carbon is


the atmosphere

False more is found in marine


organisms and limestone rock deposits

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Respiration adds carbon dioxide


to the atmosphere

True

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Respiration only occurs in


animals

Decomposers remove carbon


dioxide from the atmosphere

False both animals and plants respire

False they respire and release carbon


dioxide

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Fossil fuels represent a huge


(but decreasing) store of
carbon
True

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Energy is transferred from


plants to animals to
decomposers
True

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Increasing carbon dioxide may


cause global cooling

False scientists think it will cause global


warming

AQA Science Nelson


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Respiration releases energy


to the environment in the form
of heat
True

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Key word bingo


leaf

chloroplasts
decay
respiration

dissolved
photosynthesis

burning

potato
Light
intensity
glucose

combustion

deforestation
xylem

trees