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Inception..

THE TRUST ROOP CHAND RAMJI LAL EDUCATIONAL TRUST HAS SET
UP A NEW EDUCATIONAL CAMPUS, COMPRISING OF GOEL INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT AND GOEL INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY &
SCIENCES, GOEL INSTITUTE OF HIGHER STUDIES & GOEL INSTITUTE OF HIGHER
STUDIES MAHAVIDALYA. BRINGING TOGETHER THE CREATIVE ZEAL OF RURAL
AND URBAN STUDENTS AND DEVELOP THEM TO BECOME SUCCESSFUL
PROFESSIONALS THROUGH IMPARTING WORLD CLASS QUALITY EDUCATION.
MOTIVATE THE STUDENTS TO REALIZE THEIR OWN POTENTIAL, ANALYTICAL
AND ETHICAL CAPABILITIES USING UP-TO-DATE INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITY
IN THE CAMPUS TO BECOME GLOBALLY COMPETITIVE ENGINEERS AND
WORTHY CITIZEN OF THIS GREAT COUNTRY, INDIA.
ESTABLISHMENT OF GOEL GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS IS THE FIRST STEP
TOWARDS OUR CONCERN TO SERVE THE SOCIETY BY IMPARTING MORAL
VALUES AND KNOWLEDGE USEFUL FOR THE SOCIETY AND COUNTRY AT LARGE.
IT IS OUR ENDEAVOR TO PROVIDE QUALITY EDUCATION TO YOUNG BOYS &
GIRLS WHO ARE ASPIRING FOR BRIGHT FUTURE. I ASSURE THAT THE INSTITUTE
WOULD FULFILL THE REQUIREMENT OF THE STUDENTS & MAKE THEM
SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONALS TO SERVE THE SOCIETY & COUNTRY AT LARGE.

Goel Group of Institutions, Lucknow

Chairman Message
Its a matter of great pleasure
that Pharmacists: Caring for
you is the theme of this years
World

Pharmacists

Day.

years

theme

chosen

reflect

the

was

important

This

role

to
of

pharmacists in providing care to


the public, and also to highlight
the emotional connection they

Mr. Ashok Kumar Agarwal


Chairman

have with their patients.


The role of pharmacists has evolved from that of a provider of
medicines to that of a provider of care. Pharmacists have a vital role
in the outcome of pharmacological therapies and ultimately strive to
improve patients quality of life. I am honored and delighted to
welcome you to participate in the first National conference of the
theme Pharmacists: Caring for you at Goel Institute of Pharmacy
& Sciences, Lucknow as dated on 25 September 2016.

Vice Chairman Message


I am please to here that Goel
Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, a
part of Goel group of Institutions,
Lucknow

is

going

National

to

organize

Conference

Pharmacists:

Caring

for

a
on

you.

Pharmacists, being the first point of

Mr. Murari Lal Goel


Vice Chairman

contact for the society for their health


needs, can positively help in achieving
the mission of Public Health.
I hope that this has created confidence amongst the Pharmacists for
the work done by the various Pharmacist associations fighting to
you the cause of Pharmacist.
I congratulate the organizer for the success of the
conference.
.

Managing Director Message...


I am very happy to
note that we are going to
organize a first National
Conference

entitled

theme on Pharmacists:
Caring for you by Goel
Institute of Pharmacy &
Sciences,

Lucknow

as

dated on 25 September

Er. Mahesh Goel


Managing Director

2016.
The major focus of first National Conference is to create awareness
amongst the public, other healthcare providers and the authorities,
about the world Pharmacist day theme in specific, and about the
Pharmacy profession and the role of the pharmacist in general.
Pharmacies are contributing to the improvement of public health by
creating awareness about TB and its early detection, referring the
TB suspects and by providing Governments free anti-TB medicines,
DOTS through the pharmacies. This could be a first step towards
improving the status of Pharmacists in public health care. There are
many more such milestones yet to be achieved. In years to come,
pharmacists will also be seen as an integral part of other National
Health Programme.

Director General, GIPS Message...


I am happy to know that
Goel Institute of Pharmacy &
Sciences Lucknow is organizing
the first national conference on
Pharmacists: Caring for you
as dated on 25 Sept 2016 on
the

occasion

Pharmacist day.
emerging

area

science.

of

of

world

This

is

the

Pharmaceutical

Dr. Satyawan Singh


Director General

I hope the deliberations will create awareness of the


profession in the society and thus upgrade the status of the
Pharmacist.
I wish your endeavor a success to achieve the objectives and
goal.

Director, GIPS Message...


I am Happy to know that
GIPS is organizing first
National Conference. I am
sure that the conference
will

facilitate

professional

overall

development

in the field of Pharmacy


and

the

derive

students

will

significance

benefits.

Dr. Neeraj Verma


Director In-charge, GIPS

The message, I would like to convey to my dear students in that you


as future Pharmacist and Pharmaceutical Scientist are in a very
privileged profession, which give you a great opportunity to serve
the society by promoting good health, fulfill this goal to the best of
your ability and you would have lived your life well. I on behalf of
GIPS extend greeting and good wishes for the success of National
Conference on Pharmacists: Caring for you to be held on 25
Sept 2016.
I wish the first National Conference great
success to achieve its aim.

Director, GITM Message...


Dear Pharmacist
I am pleased to know that Goel
Institute

of

Pharmacy

&

Sciences, Lucknow which is a


part

of

Goel

Group

of

Institutions

is

organizing

National

Conference

on

Pharmacists: Caring for you


as dated on 25 Sept 2016 on the

Dr. A. K. Bhardwaj
Director, GITM

occasion of world Pharmacist


day.
All over the world, on Sunday 25 September, pharmacists will
celebrate World Pharmacists Day. This special day, was established
by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP), the global
federation

of

national

associations

of

pharmacists

and

pharmaceutical scientists, which is in official relations with the


World Health Organization. The purpose of World Pharmacists Day
is to encourage activities that promote and advocate for the role of
the pharmacist in improving health in every corner of the world. I
hope the conference will light up the minds of Pharma educators
and Pharmacy professionals to fulfill the current need of the
county. I wish GIPS all the best and grand success of the
conference.

Principal, GIHS Message...


It gives me great pride to
welcome
National

you

at

Conference

the
on

Pharmacists: Caring for


you organized by GIPS
Lucknow on 25 Sept 2016
on the occasion of world
Pharmacist day.

Dr. Santosh Pandey


Principal, GIHS

This conference will be beneficial to pharmacist, teachers &


Students which provide appropriate platform to meet each other to
discuss and exchange their knowledge.
I convey my best wishes at this occasion and wish the conference a
grand success.

Message from Director Admin, GGI


It is indeed a matter of great
pleasure

and

honor

on

the

occasion of world Pharmacist day


I

convey

my

heartiest

congratulations and best wishes


to GIPS for organizing one day
National

Conference

on

Pharmacists: Caring for you


on 25 Sept 2016.

Mr. Arun Kumar Gakhar


Admin Director, GITM

I am sure the seminar will address all the issues in this area
including deliberation and result in appropriate field. I wish to all
success to this visionary conference and congratulate the organizers
for such an important topic of current interest.

Dean Message...
I am please to know
that

Goel

Pharmacy

institute
&

of

Sciences,

Lucknow is organizing one


day National Conference on
Pharmacists:

Caring

for

you as dated on 25 Sept


2016

on

the

occasion

of

Dr. Arun Kumar Singh


Dean, GGI

world Pharmacist day.


I am sure that the Conference will address the issues in
this area towards developing better course content which would
help the budding pharmacist to excel in their professional life.
I wish the program a grand success.

Message from Proctor


It gives me immense
pleasure and priviledge to
welcome
National

you

at

the

first

Conference

on

Pharmacists:

Caring

for

you at Goel Institute of


Pharmacy

&

Sciences,

Lucknow. This conference is


target

to

utilization

discuss

effective

of

Pharma

Resources in the Healthcare

Mr. Akash Ved


Proctor GGI

system of the nation.


During this conference, the learned speakers will share their rich
experience and expertise on various issues of Pharmaceutical
science. I would like to thanks organizing committee for putting
their hard work and sincere efforts.
I wish all the delegates will appreciate the arrangements and enjoy
their participation.

ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Dr. R. K. Khar (D.G. BSIP, Faridabad, Haryana)
Dr. (Prof.) Shailendra K. Saraf (Director BBDNIIT, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. (Prof.) Ranjeet Singh (Director, ISF College of Pharmacy, Punjab)
Dr. A.K.S. Rawat (Sr. Principal Scientist NBRI LKO, U.P.)
Dr. V.K. Khanna (Sr. Principal Scientist IITR LKO, U.P.)
Dr. N.P. Yadav (Sr. Principal Scientist, CIMAP, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. U. S. Sara (Director MCSCOP, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. Alok Mukherjee (Director, Allahabad, U.P.)
Dr. P. K. Tripathi (Director, RIP, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. Hemlata (Asso. Prof., BHU, Varanasi, U.P.)
Dr. K.C. Rastogi Director HIPER, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. Rajeev Gupta (Dean, BBD University, LKO, U.P.)
Dr S.K. Panda (Director SCOP, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. P.K. Shahu (Asso. Prof., SOA Uni. Orissa)
Dr. Swastika Ganguly (Prof., BIT Mesra, Ranchi Jharkhand))
Dr. P. Selvamani (Prof. Anna University, Chennai)
Dr. Anurag Mishra (Director, ACOP, Varanasi, U.P.)
Dr. Imtiyaz (Director AIPR, LKO, U.P.)
Dr. Zeshan Husain (Director M.G. I.P. LKO, U.P.)
Dr. Mahesh Prasad (Director KNIMT, Sultanpur, U.P.)
Dr. S. K. Prajapati (Director BU, Jhansi, U.P.)
Dr. Krishna Mohan (Director, SCOP, Hyderabad, A.P.)
Dr. M.K. Gupta (Asso. Prof, SKIP Jaipur, Rajasthan)
Dr. Vishal Dubey (Asso. Prof. ACP Kanpur, U.P.)
Dr. Vivek Tomar (Asso. Prof, IPS, Gwalior, M.P.)
Dr. Vishal Jain (Asst. Pro, Pt.RSU., C.G.)
Dr. Sanjay K. Baburao (HRPIPER, Naka, MAHARASTRA)
Dr. Mahendra Rana (Asso. Prof, Kumaun Uni. U.K.)
Mr. Vipin Agarwal (Asso. Prof., Invertis Uni. Bareli)
Mr. Dinesh Pal (Shreya Life Sciences, U.K.)
Mr. Devendra (Scientist Zydus Cadila, Gujarat)
Mr. Dhananjay Pandey (Lupin, Indore, M.P.)
Mr. Shashank Mishra (Naari Pharma, U.K.)

SCIENTIFIC
ABSTRACTS

DEVELOPMENT OF LIPID NANOPARTICLE IN DRUG


DELIVERY SYSTEM A NOVEL APPROACH: A REVIEW
Patel Dilip 1*, Kumar Vikas 1, Mazumdar Bhaskar 2
1
2

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SHIATS, Allahabad, U.P., India

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, Assam, India


*Corresponding author E-Mail: dilippatel87mph@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
It was in 1990 when the first experiments in the production of lipid nanoparticles
were performed in academic labs. The lipid nanoparticles were developed in
parallel by M. R. Gasco in Turin/Italy, and by R. H. Mller/Berlin and J. S.
Lucks, both at this time in Kiel/North Germany. The particle matrix of these
novel carriers consisted of a solid lipid, therefore, to clearly differentiate these
particles from nanoemulsions and fluid liposomes, they were called solid lipid
nanoparticles (SLN). This novel delivery system was then presented as alternative
to nanoemulsions, liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles, and attracted attention
by research groups all over the world. In 1999, the second generation of lipid
nanoparticles was developed, the so called nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC).
In these particles the matrix is composed not only of one solid lipid, but of a blend
of a solid and a liquid lipid (e.g. oil). Advantages of NLC when compared to SLN
are an increased loading capacity of actives. SLN and NLC are suited for the
incorporation of lipophilic actives, whereas the loading with hydrophilic
molecules is relatively low. This is because hydrophilic molecules can only be
solubilised in the lipid matrix. To overcome this obstacle, in 2001 the so called
lipid-drug-conjugates (LDC) were developed by Mller and Olbrich.
Keywords: SLN, NLC, LDC, Lipid Nanoparticle, Nanoparticle.

RECENT ADVANCES IN DOCKING AND SCORING


Singh Rohit, Mirza Beg Ahasan
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.)
Email: rohitsingh20485bitmesra@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This review is focused on recent advances and new aspects in the field of
molecular docking and scoring, and it covers multiple applications and case
studies. Basic requirements and different algorithms for docking are briefly
discussed. Moreover, parameters that influence docking results, combination of
different docking algorithms and scoring functions, performance of scoring
functions, docking using homology models, and ligand and protein flexibility are
examined to give an overview of the state-of-the-art methods and a survey of
innovative approaches in molecular docking and scoring. Regarding the enormous
amount of literature in this field we restrict ourselves on an overview of several
important advances in docking and scoring techniques published. The aim of a
docking procedure is often the discovery of new lead candidates. The
identification of an overall reliable and robust scoring function seems to be one of
the main challenges to be addressed in the near future. Yet, the combination of
scoring functions in a consensus score presents a well-established, however,
questionable approach to overcome this problem. Nevertheless, novel algorithms
will arise to find new solutions to the docking problem and overcome the
limitations of recently developed scoring functions. Especially the issue of protein
flexibility and induced-fit motions of the protein will gain in importance over the
coming years in the design and discovery of novel lead candidates by means of
protein-ligand docking and scoring.
Keywords: Molecular docking, virtual screening, docking, homology modeling.

NOVEL CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR NANO


PARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW
Kesharwani Roohi 1*, Sachan Anupam 2, Patel Dilip 3
1

Chandra Shekhar Singh College of Pharmacy, Kaushambi, Allahabad, U.P., India


2
Dayanand Dinanath College, Institute of Pharmacy, Kanpur, India.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, SHIATS, Allahabad, U.P., India
E-Mail: roohi4mail@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (DDS) have attracted a lot of attention
because of their size-dependent properties. Among the array of nanoparticles
being currently investigated by pharmaceutical scientists, lipid nanoparticles have
taken the lead because of obvious advantages of higher degree of biocompatibility
and versatility. Lipid nano formulations can be tailored to meet a wide range of
product requirements dictated by disease condition, route of administration and
considerations of cost, product stability, toxicity and efficacy. The proven safety
and efficacy of lipid-based carriers make them attractive candidates for the
formulation of pharmaceuticals, as well as vaccines, diagnostics and
nutraceuticals. The need to fine-tune different nanoparticle properties to make
them suitable for specific applications has sparked a large number of worldwide
research efforts aimed at their tailoring. However, full use of these structures in
these applications requires more detailed information and a feedback of data
coming from reliable characterization techniques. In general, most of these
techniques comprise local probes, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction, scanning
tunneling microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, with bulk-sensitive probes
such as optical absorption spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (Fourier
transform IR), and Raman scattering, and X-raybased techniques such as X-ray
diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption (X-ray
absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure) are
used to characterize nanoparticulate system.
Keywords: DDS, Lipid Nanoparticle, SEM, TEM, FTIR.

ROLE OF ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE (ANP) IN


CARDIOPROTECTION
Tiwari Arun Kumar 1*, Narayan, Yadav Harlokesh 2
1

Chandra Shekhar Singh College of Pharmacy, Pooramufti, Allahabad, (U.P.) India


2
All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: arun.tiwari2514@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a circulating hormone of cardiac origin that
plays an important role in the regulation of intravascular blood volume and
vascular tone. ANP mainly acts on natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) and
natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPRC) which are guanylyl cyclase-linked and uses
cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) as the intracellular messenger.
ANPANP is noted to regulate the pharmacologic action such as diuresis,
natriuresis, and vasodilation and give antihypertrophic effect. ANP is a stimulator
of particulate guanylate cyclase and has been found to protect against
reoxygenated-induced hypercontracture in isolated cardiomyocytes by increasing
cGMP synthesis. ANP exerts cardioprotective effect, possibly through the nitric
oxide (NO) production. ANP activates the eNOS and subsequently increases the
generation of NO. I/R injury after regional or global ischemia involves in damage
to the cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cell and when
administration of ANP at the time of reperfusion protects the myocardium from
I/R injury. ANP perfusion shows cardioprotective effect in various pathological
states by facilitating the release of NO and subsequently activation of eNOS with
the involvement of ischemic preconditioning cardioprotective phenomenon.
Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide, Nitric Oxide, Ischemic preconditioning.

SWINE FLU: HAVE WE FULLY EXPLORED THE HERBAL


OPTION?
Prakash Om*
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.)
Email: opverma2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Swine flu, caused by the H1N1 virus, is a fast spreading pandemic disease (as
declared by WHO) of the respiratory system. Earlier, swine flu was reported only
in pigs (Sus domestica), but of late, a considerable number of cases all over the
world has been reported in humans too. Though the most popular treatment
adopted by those suffering from swine flu is allopathic medication mainly
Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) by Roche and Relenza (Zanamivir) by Glaxo Smithkline.
There are numerous drugs of herbal origin with proven antiviral potential like
Ocimum, Ginger etc. with some of the marker compounds like Eugenol, luteolin,
ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 6-gingerol and Glabridin etc. which can provide
leads to prevent such fatalities. In earlier outbreak of Bird flu (Avian influenza)
herbal drugs like Garlic, Black elderberry, Echinacea, Curcuma, Astragalus etc.
attracted significant attention and prompted us to explore the herbal option for
swine flu. Based on the ancient knowledge of traditional medicine that our
country is having, Natural remedies for swine flu are equally justified treatment
options, as they are readily available, economically viable and also free of
harmful side effects that are generally caused by allopathic medicines. Various
herbal aspects dealing with swine flu has been taken up in this work.
Keywords: Swine Flu, Tamiflu, Herbal Drugs.

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A


DENSITOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF L DOPA IN SEEDS OF MUCUNA PRURIENS AND ITS HERBAL
DOSAGE FORM
Behera Anindita*
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan University, Campus II, Kalinga
Nagar, Bhubaneswar

ABSTRACT
A simple, sensitive, selective densitometric method was developed and validated
for the determination of L - dopa in seeds of Mucuna pruriens and its herbal
dosage form. Analysis of L - Dopa was carried out on TLC plates pre-coated with
silica gel 60F254 as stationary phase. The mobile phase consisted of n-butanol
glacial acetic acid water (5:1:4, v/v/v) at room temperature (25 2 C). Camag
TLC scanner III was used for densitometric scanning and analysis was done in
absorption mode at 280nm. The system gave spot for L - Dopa (Rf value of 0.39
0.04). The polynomial regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed
correlation coefficient R2 = 0.999 in concentration range 100 1000 ng/ spot with
respect to peak area. According to International Conference on Harmonization
(ICH) guidelines, the method was validated for precision, recovery, robustness
and ruggedness. The limits of detection and quantification were determined. The
statistical data analysis showed that the method is reproducible and selective for
estimation of L - Dopa.
Keywords: Mucuna pruriens, densitometric scanning, L - Dopa.

FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF KETOROLAC OCULAR PHTRIGGERED IN-SITU GEL


MIRZA BEG AHASAN*, KUGALUR GANESAN PARTHIBAN, RANGASAMY MANIVANNAN
AND SENTHIL KUMAR
Department of Pharmaceutics, Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Faizabad Road, Near Indira Canal,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.

ABSTRACT
The present study was aimed to prepare and characterise pH triggered in situ gel based
ophthalmic drug delivery system of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ketorolac.
Polyacrylic acid (carbopol 940) was used as a gelling agent in combination with hydroxy propyl
methyl cellulose (HPMC- K15M, K4M) as a viscosity enhancer. Benzalkonium chlorides at
suitable concentration were used as a preservative. The formulations were sterilized by moist
heat sterilization as per I.P. The prepared formulations were evaluated for clarity, pH
measurement, gelling capacity, drug content, and in vitro diffusion study. Under rheological
investigation both solution and gel was found to be in pseudo plastic behaviour. The selected
formulations showed sustained release over a period of 8hrs with increased resident time. Eye
irritation test using the Draize test protocol with cross over studies were preformed on selected
formulations. All studies shown favourable results thus in-situ gelling system is a valuable
alternative to counter the precorneal loss a major drawback in the ophthalmic preparation.
Keywords: Ketorolac, in situ gel, Differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro diffusion study.

PHARMACISTS: HEALTH CARE PROVIDER


Singh Arpita *
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.)
Email: arpitmohan2010@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The profession of pharmacy has passed several rounds of advancements over the
past few years, expanded in terms of professional services delivery now
recognized as an integral profession in the multidisciplinary sector of health care.
Pharmacists practice in a variety of health care zones and represents third-largest
health profession to achieve intended goals. Pharmacists have the professional
expertise to address key challenges facing the health care system, including the
prevalence of people who have multiple chronic conditions and increase use of
more complex medications to manage the diseases. Although they are most often
associated with dispensing medications in retail pharmacies, their role is evolving
to include providing direct care to patients as members of integrated health care
provider teams. It has changed the traditional positioning of pharmacists as
business people into patient-centered healthcare professionals. In contrast to the
situation in developed countries, pharmacists in developing countries are still
underutilized and their role as health care professionals is not deemed important
by either the community or other health care providers, the lack of recognition is
limited due to less interaction of pharmacists with the society. The main problem
faced is the shortage of pharmacists in pharmacies. Moreover, their services are
focused towards management more than towards customers. For these reasons,
the pharmacist's role as a health care professional is not familiar to the public. It
concludes that although the pharmacy profession is continuously evolving, the
health care system has yet to recognize the pharmacist's role as a professional in
the health care management system.
Keywords: Pharmacy practice, Pharmacist, health care provider.

ELECTRO SPUN: NANOFIBROUS MATS, A MODERN


WOUND DRESSING MATRIX WITH A POTENTIAL OF
DRUG DELIVERY AND THERAPEUTICS
Kori Yash Pal *, Verma Raejesh2
1

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kamla Nehru Institute of Management & Technology, Sultanpur


2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management Varanasi

ABSTRACT
Nanofibers have emerged as advanced fibers with broad use and potential in
biomedical fields in recent decades. The process of healing is an innate immune
response towards a pathophysiology such as wound. Ordinary time taken for
wound healing is approximately 2-3 days depending upon the chronic state. Air
moisture and microbes risk pathological manifestations leading to delayed or
incomplete palliate process. An external agent that can provide balanced moisture,
increasing cell proliferation with microbial infiltration or anti- bacterial activity,
aids to speed the healing process. Apart from these qualities, an ideal material
should be simple, cost effective, and repeatable. Nanofibers produced through
electro spinning have become a promising strategy in the treatment of wounds.
Apart from being simple in application, they are produced from natural or
synthetic polymers. Nanofibers exhibit high surface area, nanoporosity, with a
potential to load potent drugs or enzymes. Other biomedical applications include
use of nanofibers as tissue scaffolds and as masking agents in modern cosmetics.
Therefore nanofibers are excellent candidates for wound treatment and
management. The current review is an attempt to discuss and present literature
about different techniques, chemical materials, and entities used to produce
efficient electrospun nanofibers for use in pathological, medicinal, or treatment or
management of injury or laceration.
Keywords: Drug delivery, Electro spinning, Matrix, Nanofibers, Polymer,
Wound healing.

PHARMACEUTICAL NANOEMULSION AS POTENTIAL


VEHICLES FOR TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF DRUG
Singh Bhuwanesh Pratap
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
An advanced mode of drug delivery system has been developed to overcome the
major drawbacks associated with conventional drug delivery systems. This review
gives a detailed idea about a nanoemulsion system. Topical and transdermal drug
delivery systems are noninvasive and can be self-administered with the
minimization of side-effects, have received increased attention during the past
few years. Nanoemulsions, emulsions sized between 20-200 nm with narrow
distributions, offer several advantages for topical and transdermal delivery of
pharmaceutical agents including controlled droplet size, the ability to efficiently
dissolve lipophilic drugs, enhanced skin permeation and extended release of
lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. The efficacy of the nanoemulsion is enhanced by
the nature and type of surfactant and co-surfactant used. Thus in this article ability
of the nanoemulsion as a transdermal and topical delivery system is reviewed.
Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Transdernmal, Co-surfactant.

REVIEW ON TUBERCULOSIS
Singh Rajesh Kumar *
1

SRMS College of Engineering and Technology(Department of Pharmacy) Bareilly, U.P


Email: rajsinghg068@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Tuberculosis is

an

infectious

disease usually

caused

by

the

bacteria Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs,


but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms,
known as latent tuberculosis.The progression of the disease can have several
outcomes, determined largely by the response of the host immune system. The
efficacy of this response is affected by intrinsic factors such as the genetics of the
immune system as well as extrinsic factors, e.g., insults to the immune system and
the nutritional and physiological state of the host. About 10% of latent infections
eventually progresses to active disease which, if left untreated, kills about half of
those infected. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic with bloodtinged, sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. This weight loss gave rise to
the old term "consumption" for the disease. Infection of other organs can cause a
wide range of symptoms, Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) kills more young and
middle-aged adults than any other infectious disease (WHO, 1999). Though it is
curable and preventable, more than 5,000 people die of TB every day (2 to 3
million people per year) (WHO, 1999). To develop more rapid molecular tests for
identifying drug-resistant strains of MTB; meanwhile, efforts to discover antibody
or antigen targets to guide the development of point-of-care tests remain nascent
and underfunded.The most common medications used to treat tuberculosis are
Isoniazid, Rifampin, Ethambutol, and Pyrazinamide.
Keywords: Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Ethambutol, Immune
System.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF SEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY


A MYSTERY
Srivastava Shweta*
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.).

ABSTRACT
Every year, more cases of sepsis appear in intensive care units. Despite many
years of research, it is still not known at which stage of sepsis the first signs of
Septic encephalopathy appears. Numerous studies indicate that changes in the
brain involve free radicals, nitric oxide, increased synthesis of inflammatory
factors, disturbances in cerebral circulation, microthromboses, and ischemia,
which cause considerable neuronal destruction in different areas of the brain. The
breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered a focal point in the
development of sepsis-induced brain damage. It represents the severe end of
symptoms like weakness, anorexia, malaise and concentration deficits that are
commonly found in febrile patients. To date, we are far from fully understanding
the neuropathology that develops as a secondary remote organ injury as a
consequence of sepsis.
Keywords: Sepsis, Septic encephalopathy, Brain inflammation, Cognitive
dysfunction, seizures, Cytokines.

THE EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LEAVES ON


PLATELETS COUNT IN DENGU FEVER
Hassan Aziz 1, Singh Vishv Pratap, Chauhan Abhishek, Khan Raziuddin,
Hussain Zeashan
Department of Pharmaceutics , Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Pharmacy Junabganj-227101,
Lucknow - (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever is a common and serious complication.
However, no specific treatment is available for dengue fever induced
thrombocytopenia. In few countries (India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and
other Asian countries) the leaf extract of Carica papaya has been effectively used
for thrombocytopenia. So, the study is planned to access effect of Carica papaya
leaf extract on platelet count in dengue fever patients.
The results showed that CPLE had significant increase in the platelet count over
the therapy duration, in dengue fever patients, that it accelerates the increase in
platelet count. There were few adverse events related to GI disturbance like
nausea and vomiting. Thus this study concluded that Carica papaya leaf extract
(CPLE) does significantly increase the platelet count in patients with
thrombocytopenia associated with dengue with fewer side effects and good
tolerability.
Keywords: Carica, fever, thrombocytopenia, CPLE.

BIOSTATISTICS IN PHARMACY
Shukla Uma Shanker
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow (U.P.)
ussmlk@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Biostatistics is the term used when tools of statistics are applied to the data that is
derived from biological sciences such as medicine. Everything medicine be it
research, diagnosis or treatment, depends on counting .In nature blood pressure,
pulse rate, or any action of a drug or any other measurement varies not only from
person to person but also from group to group. The extent of this variability is an
attribute or a character, whether it by chance i.e. biological is learnt by studying
biostatistics. Comparison of variable in two or more groups is a great importance
in pharmacy. e. g. Rise in pulse rate noted after an injection of a drug may be by
chance or due to the effect of drug. Variation more than natural limits may be
pathological, i. e. abnormal due to the play of certain external factors. Hence,
biostatistics may also be called a science of variation. Health and vital statistics
are essential tools in pharmacy, public health, medical practice and community
services. Recording of vital events in birth and death registers and diseases in
hospitals is like book keeping of the community. Describing the incidence or
prevalence of disease, defects or deaths in a defined population .Such events
properly recorded from the eyes and ears of a public health or medical
administrator, otherwise it would be like sailing a ship without compass.
Thus biostatistics in pharmacy related to the study of defect, injury, disease,
efficiency of drug, serum and line of treatment, etc.
Keywords: Biostatistics, pharmacy, medicine.

CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE


AND ITS MULTIDISCIPLINARY TREATMENT
Verma Shailendra Kumar
Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology (Pharmacy), Bareilly (U.P) India

ABSTRACT
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in elderly people
worldwide. It is reported that the number of affected people is expected to double
in the next 20 years, and 2 in 100 people will be affected by 2050. This chronic,
degenerative, and terminal disease was first described by German psychiatrist
Alois Alzheimer in 1906 and was named after him. AD represents one of the most
common forms of neurodegenerative diseases, and is characterized by progressive
dementia. The pathological feature of an AD brain includes the appearance of
amyloid plaques, fibrillary tangles and the associated loss of neurons.
Neurophysiological and neurochemical examinations reveal the failures of
synaptic transmission (especially the cholinergic modulation), altered expression
of transmitter receptors and changes in the excitatory/inhibitory balance of
transmission. Alzheimers disease (AD) is manifested by deterioration in memory
and cognition, impairment in performing activities of daily living, and many
behavioral and neuropsychiatric illnesses.
In 2000, India had 3.5 million patients with Alzheimer disease as against US,
which had 4.5 million patients with Alzheimer disease. But with an increase in the
geriatric population in India, number of AD patients is growing at a phenomenal
rate. In 2010, the geriatric population was 10% of the whole population. By the
year 2021, every seventh Indian will be a senior citizen.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, Amyloid plaques, Neurichemical, India.

A BRIEF REVIEW ON ACETYLCHOLINE


Verma Umesh, Gautam Yashvant, Tripathi Sandeep, Verma Neeraj
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Faizabad Road, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
The present study examined whether aged rats with naturally occurring cognitive
deficits in spatial learning and memory would benefit from local chronic
supplementation of acetylcholine. Aged impaired and aged unimpaired rats were
pretested in the water maze to characterize the extent of age-induced cognitive
impairment. Groups were matched for extent of deficits. The animals
subsequently received implants of either acetylcholine-releasing cells or control
cells into the cortical and hippocampal target regions of the basal forebrain. One
week postgrafting, spatial learning and memory were retested using the same
behavioral procedure. All aged groups acquired the platform position more slowly
than young controls. However, aged impaired rats grafted with acetylcholinereleasing cells performed significantly better than aged impaired rats with control
grafts, and they did not differ from aged unimpaired groups. A spatial memory
probe test revealed that memory for the escape platform location of the
acetylcholine-grafted rats was significantly better than that of rats with control
grafts and matched the performance of young controls. In vitro, biochemical and
electrophysiological analyses of the engineered cells confirmed choline
acetyltransferase activity and showed quantal release of acetylcholine from the
transduced cells. In vivo, RT-PCR of microdissected grafts indicated that the
engineered cells expressed the choline acetyltransferase transgene for up to 40
days postgrafting.
Keywords: Acetylcholine, choline acetyltransferase, aging.

ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN DRUG INTERACTION


Bhagwani Vaishali* Maheshwari Shubhrat
Mahatama Gandhi Institute of pharmacy, Junabganj - 227101 , Lucknow (U.P.)
email id:stylovaishali198@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Many drug interactions can be avoided or managed safely if adequate time and
precautions are taken by a patients pharmacist. Having the pharmacist provide
patient counseling on the use of prescription and non-prescription medication,
disease state(s), and the safely of concurrent use of herbals products plays a major
role providing drug interactions. Preventing and/or managing drug interactions
will be more likely to occur when the pharmacist take time and utilizes an
adequate patient data base that includes the patients gender vital signs medical
diagnosis, drug allergies, relevant laboratory tests, and a complete listing of
medications being taken routinely or taken on an as needed basis. If the
pharmacist lacks essential patient data, he/she may contain it from the patient. In
addition, with the patients permission, the pharmacist may call the physician to
get essential monitoring information, such as results lab tests or a complete list of
medical diagnosis.
Keyword: Patients pharmacist , patient counselling , drug interactions, medical
diagnosis.

TDDS: MOLECULAR MODIFICATION OF VERAPAMIL TO


ENHANCE MEMBRANE PENETRATION
Rajvansh Roshani*, Kumar Saroj, Singh Satyawan, Verma Neeraj, Singh JP
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Near Indira Canal
Faizabad Road, Lucknow, 226010

ABSTRACT
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), also well-known as patches, are
the dosage forms designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug
across the skin. The quality attribute of the adhesives in TDDS is indispensible for
fabrication design and important to the safety, efficacy and quality evaluation of
the final product. The skin is the largest organ in the body; it protects against the
influx of toxins and the efflux of water and is largely impermeable to the
penetration of foreign molecules. Human skin consists of three main layers: the
epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. Verapamil belongs to the group of calcium
channel antagonists used in the management of essential hypertension, angina,
arrhythmia and migraine also now a day. It is mostly used in a conventional tablet
form from a minimal dose of 40 mg to a maximal dose of 180 mg. In a slow
release tablet, the doses are between 120 and 240 mg. About 80% of the orally
applied dose undergoes a first pass effect, mainly in the liver. Verapamil has a
short half-life and requires frequent dosing. The permeability characteristics of
verapamil show poor skin permeation properties in TDDS formulation of
verapamil. So to overcome this problem for TDDS formulation of verapamil by
mean of molecular modification of salt form of verpamil and convert into free
base.
Keywords: Transdermal Drug Delivery System (TDDS).

PROBIOTICS BASED APPROACHES HIV VACCINE


DEVELOPMENT
Singh Rahul Kumar *
SRMS College of Engineering and Technology (Department of Pharmacy)Bareilly U.P.
Email id: rs720877@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Its been 35 years since the first cases of AIDS were reported. Since then, we
have

witnessed

tremendous

advances

in

prevention,testing,

and

treatment.Although, biomedical interventions to reduce HIV-1 acquisition have


favorably influenced the trajectory of HIV-1 infections in several populations
throughout the worldwide, vaccine that prevents the virus from establishing
infection and the need for a globallyeffective HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine is more
compelling than everHIV enters through the mucosal surfaces by infecting the
CD4+ T cells present at these tissue surfaces initially and enters into the gastrointestinal (GI) tract where it replicates many folds before it disseminate into
multiple systemic compartments.Finally, vaccines eliciting high titres of nAb, or
high avidity nnAbs in mucosal tissue compartments are thus ideal for providing
protective immunity against HIV-1.Recently, in a proof of concept study, a live
probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), that transiently present in the
human small intestine, have been successfully utilized to deliver HIV-1 Gag
antigen. Finally, they demonstrated a critical role for the GAS pilus in the
activation of a specific subset (CD103+ or CD11b+) of mucosal dendritic cells
that may be important for the immunogenicity of Gag. These results demonstrated
that oral administration of probiotic L. lactis expressing the antigen on the tip of
the GAS pilus induces strong mucosal IgG and IgA antibody responses in the gut
of mice. Their results reveal a promising novel immunization strategy to elicit
strong humoral and cellular mucosal immunity against HIV.
Keywords: HIV, AIDS, CD4+ T cells, probiotic, Vaccine.

SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY SOLUBLE


DRUGS BY COCRYSTAL APPROACHES
Saraswat Pranit *, Poonam
SRMSCET, Pharmacy, Bareilly, U.P.
GHG Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Gurusar , Ludhiana,Punjab.

ABSTRACT
Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous
system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug
in systemic circulation for desired pharmacological response. Low aqueous
solubility is the major problem encountered with formulation development of new
chemical entities. More than 40% NCEs (new chemical entities) developed in
pharmaceutical industry are practically insoluble in water. Solubility is a major
challenge for formulation scientist. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the
form of solution at the site of absorption. Various techniques are used for the
enhancement of the solubility of poorly soluble drugs which include physical and
chemical modifications of drug and other methods like particle size reduction,
crystal engineering, salt formation, solid dispersion, use of surfactant,
complexation, and so forth. Selection of solubility improving method depends on
drug property, site of absorption, and required dosage form characteristics. In recent
years cocrystal formation has emerged as a viable strategy towards improving the
solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In this review the success of
numerous pharmaceutical cocrystals for the improvement of the solubility and
dissolution rates of poorly soluble drugs.
Keywords: Solubility, Crystal engineering, Cocrystal.

FORMULATION AND RELEASE BEHAVIORS OF MATRIX


TABLETS USING HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC
POLYMERS
Tiwari Ritesh Kumar
Department of pharmaceutics, Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering &Technology,
Bareilly

ABSTRACT
An appropriately designated controlled release drug delivery system can be are
major advance toward solving problems concerning targeting of a drug to a
specific organ or a tissue and controlling the rate of a drug delivery to the target
site. Matrix system are favored because of their simplicity, patient compliance etc,
than traditional drug delivery, which have many drawbacks like repeated
administration, fluctuation in blood concentration level etc. Most of drugs, if not
formulated properly, may readily release the drug at a faster rate, and are likely to
produce toxic concentration of the drug on oral administration. Matrix tablets may
be formulated by wet granulation or direct compression methods by dispersing
solid particles within a porous matrix formed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic
polymers. The use of different classes of polymers in controlling the release of
drugs has become the most important aspect in the formulation of matrix tablets.
The granules were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density,
bulkiness, compressibility index and Hausners ratio. The tablets were subjected to
weight variation, hardness, friability and drug content test. The drug release in
matrix drug delivery systems by both dissolution-controlled as well as diffusion
controlled mechanisms. Hydrophilic polymers have become product of choice as
an important ingredient for formulating sustained release formulations.
Keywords: Wet granulation, Direct compression, extended-release, hydrophilic
and hydrophobic polymers, matrix tablets.

CURRENT MANAGEMENT OF DENGUE: A REVIEW


Gautam Pratibha, Mishra Anjani, Singh Mohit, Gautam Shyamdev, Verma Neeraj
Goel institute of pharmacy and sciences, Lucknow
Email: pratibhabarby9991@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Dengue infection ranks highly among new and newly emerging arthropod-borne
viral diseases affecting humans. It affects a large proportion of the population,
mainly in tropical and sub-tropical countries, causing a high morbidity and
mortality due to rising incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The rapidly
expanding global footprint of dengue is a public health challenge with a high
economic burden. Appropriate management of the burden of dengue is hindered
by several issues, including lack of understanding of the exact path physiology of
the disease, failure to control the vector population effectively, lack of specific
treatment for the disease, and technical obstacles in developing a vaccine. This
review provides an overview on the epidemiology, natural history and
management strategies of adult dengue patients.
Knowledge on epidemic characteristics and Dengue Fever prevention (e.g., a brief
introduction to the pubic regarding Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever,
channels of infection, clinical symptoms, etc. Secondary prevention to construct a
system for monitoring the number of infections and a mechanism for responding
to the epidemic promptly 6 and to stop indigenous cases of dengue fever to
construct a mechanism for monitoring the number of infections When doctors and
medical personnel in this country discover suspected cases, they should report
within 24 hours.

ESSENTIAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENT FOR WOUND


HEALING AND RECOVERY: L-GLUTAMINE.
Maheshwari Shubhrat*; Mishra Devesh ; Bhagwani Vaishali; Khan Razziuddin
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatama Gandhi Institute of pharmacy, Junabganj - 227101 ,
Lucknow (U.P.)

Email Id:stylovaishali198@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The cells of connective tissue in the body use glutamine for protein& nucleic acid
synthesis & also 30% of energy needs. These cells are called fibroblasts.
Glutamine is required for their proliferation and is therefore critical in wound
metabolism & healing. The effect of oral l-glutamine on wound healing in two
groups of mice with superficial second- degree burns was evaluated. And it was
concluded that a significant & positive effect of oral glutamine on burn wound
healing was found. Further research in this way can be done to understand which
stage of the healing process glutamine supplementation affected. Several
researches have shown that glutamine helps maintain cell volume & hydration,
speeding up wound & burn healing and recovery. It has the ability to repair a
leaky gut by maintaining the structural integrity of the bowels. In many hospitals
glutamine powder is used for the treatment of burn & other trauma patients. In
times of severe physical stress, it is very important for maintaining sufficient
immune function& essential for wound healing, when the body is under severe
physical stress, it may not be able to produce enough l-glutamine to meet the
bodys need. In these situations it is helpful supplementation. Also it makes a
good clinical sense that if glutamine deficiency is observed over a short period of
stress, then we should replete this vital amino acid to provide our patient with the
best opportunity for survival & healing.
Keywords: Fibroblasts, Prolifiration, Metabolism, Wound healing, Recovery.

MEDICINAL PLANTS IN BIOPHARMACEUTICALS


Gautam Reena*, Kushwaha Rajesh Kr., Kumar Namrata, Kumar Hemant
Department of biotechnology, Goel institute of management and technology faizabad road
Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
The major application of biotechnology is regeration and genetic transformation
for enhancement of novel secondary metabolites production in-vitro from
medicinal plant. Cryopreservation is long-time conservation method in liquid
nitrogen and provides an opportunity for conservation of endangered medicinal
plants cell suspension cultures have been reported from various medicinal plants
by using bioreactor.Genetic transformation and DNA profiling techniques like
DNA microarrays serve as suitable tools for the simultaneous analysis of multiple
genes and analysis of gene expression that becomes necessary for providing clues
about regulatory mechanism, biochemical pathways and broader cellular
functions in medicinal plant. For the production of medicinal compound like
alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, phenolics, flavanoids and aminoacids we
cultured the cells of medicinal plant and produce wide variety of pharmaceuticals
products such as-(i)Taxol ( Plaxitaxol is a complex diterpene alkaloid .These
compounds are extracted commercially from bark of the Taxus tree, is one of the
most quantities of Catharanthus roseus and it is called plant promising anticancer
agents. (ii)Morphine and Codeine (Latex from the opium poppy, Papaver
somniferum is a commercial source of the, analgesics, morphine and codeine).(iii)
Berberine(Berberine is an isoquino line alkaloid found in the roots of Coptis
japonica and cortex of Phellondendron amurense.), (iv) Vinblastine and
Vincristine.

NANOPHARMACEUTICALS: THE PHARMA FUTURE IS


READY
Tiwari Salil*
Deparment of Pharmacy, Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Faizabad Road, Near Indira
Canal, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, 226028.
E-mail: s.salil21@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The world is coming to new era of multidisciplinary field of nanoscience which is
full of enormous excitement and expectations. Nanopharmaceutics is an growing
area where the sizes of the drug particle or delivery system work at the nano level.
Nanomaterials (nano size materials) that bring unique shapes, functionalities and
nanodevices

show

strategic

role

in

pharmaceutical

nanotechnology.

Nanopharmaceuticals provide nano scale properties and greater surface area,


therefore used as a hopeful tool for drug and gene delivery advancement. Merging
of nanotechnology with further technologies leads to emergence of innovative
hybrid technologies. Furthermore, nanopharmaceuticals are resistant to settling
and may possess superior saturation solubility, rapid dissolution and improved
adhesion to biological surfaces. These features make them therapeutically
effective and more bioavailable. The nanopharmaceuticals have broad scope that
includes intelligent tools for drug delivery aspects, diagnostics purpose, smart
material for tissue engineering aspects and many more. Existing claims of
nanotechnology in pharmaceutical area are development of bioactive surfaces,
advanced diagnostic, biomarker, biosensor, image enhancement device, implant
technology, nanocarrier, nanomedicine, nanorobots, tissue engineering, etc.
Nanopharmaceuticals are currently used in diverse applications including proteins
and

peptide

delivery,

drug

delivery,

cancer

treatment,

treatment

of

neurodegenerative disorders, etc. There are some drawbacks to this technology as


well which require to be addressed to achieve the full benefits of nanotechnology
for pharmaceuticals.
Keywords: Nanopharmaceuticals, nanomaterials.

ANTI-HYPERGLYCAEMIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACT OF


SWERTIA CHIRAYTA AND TRIGONELLA FOENUM
GREAECUM
Tomar Vivek
Department of Pharmacology,IPS-College of Pharmacy,Gwalior.(474001)

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this research work was to emphasize the anti-hyperglycaemic
activity of Swertia chirayta and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. These two
plants are widely used for the procurement of diabetes from the time immemorial.
The present study was to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Trigonella foenum
graecum seeds and whole plant of Swertia chirayta for anti-hyperglycaemic
activity in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats at the dose level of 250
mg/kg. The animals were safe up to 2000mg/kg confirmed by the acute and oral
toxicity studies. Both the extracts showed a significant reduction in blood glucose
concentration. On the other hand, combined suspension of extract of Trigonella
foenum graecum and Swertia chirayta showed minimum blood glucose level on
the seventh day.
Keywords: Trigonella foenum graecum, Swertia chirayta, Anti-hyperglycaemic
activity, Blood glucose.

RISK OF PURCHASING MEDICINES FROM ONLINE


PHARMACIES
Kumar Saroj, Singh Satyawan
Goel institute of Pharmacy & Sciences
Lucknow, U.P., INDIA.

ABSTRACT
Consumers turn to the internet to save money on almost everything because
online purchasing is normally convenient, provides various offers, but medicines
are different to other consumer products that you may purchase through internet.
So when it comes to purchasing medicine online, the convenience does not
outweigh the risks. Medicines have the potential to cause serious side effects and
health problems if not used and stored properly. Improper transportation poses
other risks as well. Extended exposure to weather extremes can leave medicine
ineffective.
According to the USFDA only 3 percent of online pharmacies in US are safe and
legal. The World Health Organization reports that half of medicines sold online
are counterfeit.
So patients who look to cut their health care costs by purchasing their medicine
online may contact to local pharmacies because a pharmacist present over there
may offer comparable prices and are more likely to substitute prescription with
lower-cost generic drugs. Pharmacists are there to discuss your medications face
to face. Your local pharmacist also monitors your medication patterns for
dangerous drug interactions, and works with your primary health care provider to
make sure that you obtain the medication that is right for you and your budget.
Keywords: USFDA, Pharmacist, Online Pharmacy.

REVIEW ON MUDTHERAPY
Bhatt Priyanka*1, Mittal Aman2
1

Shri Ram Murti Smarak Dept. of Pharmacy, Bareilly, U.P. India


Smt. Tarawati Institute of Biomedical and Allied Sciences, Dept. Of Pharmacy, Roorkee, U.K
India
Email: bhattpriyanka1130@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Mud is one of the most often used natural materials for preventive, healing and
cosmetic reasons. Mudpack therapy has a long history of use it consists of refined
granular organics and inorganics that are rich in minerals. Its therapeutic effects
are partially attributed to its thermal conductivity (transferring heat to the joints)
& on the other hand, the organics contained in the mud are probably the type of
factors that mediate the inflammatory response in the joints. When the mud comes
into contact with the human body, organic substances can be produced during the
metabolic processes of microorganisms. Sulfide glycolipids can be produced by
colonized microorganisms, which may be the effective anti-inflammatory
substances involved in the therapy. According to various studies the effect of mud
extracts were examined and it was found that mud extracts inhibited the
expression of VCAM-1 by endothelial cells and reduced monocyte adhesion to
activated endothelial cells, indicating a potent anti-inflammatory activity.
Furthermore, the mud extracts are also tested for their antimicrobial activity;
which showed significant increase in the expression of genes involved in cell
protection, longevity and hydration of human keratinocytes. Further various
studies reveals that mud exerts important beneficial effects including antiinflammatory and anti-aging activity as well as moisturizing effects, implicating
important cosmeceutical applications.
Keywords: Mud, anti-inflammatory, VCAM-, keratinocytes.

POISONOUS PLANTS IN TRADITIONAL INDIAN SYSTEMS


OF MEDICINE: A REVIEW
Kumar Akhilesh*, Singh Rahul, Gautam Kumar Rahul,
Kumar Amresh, Prakash Om, Singh J P, Ved Akash
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow
Email: aakhilesh6984@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
There are approximately 18-20 thousand plants present in India, that are used as
food, medicine and fibers among these, few plant species are poisonous in nature
often used for the mitigation of various diseases. The poisonous properties of
plants are due to the presence of toxic secondary metabolites such as alkaloids,
glycosides, flavanoids, saponins, amines, tannins, resins phenols and inorganic
metals etc. Plants that are recognized globally by people have reliable and
effective medicinal values which are commonly used in treatment and prevention
of specific ailments and diseases. The present study suggests that peoples are not
aware about such poisonous plants and their harmful effects, but judiciously they
are also used for treatment and prevention of various diseases.
Keywords: Toxic Plants, Indian medicinal Plants.

INTRODUCTION OF ZIKA VIRUS


Khan Razziuddin*, Verma Munna lal, Shukla Ankit, Trivedi Dhruva,
Hussain Zeashan
Department of pharmacologyMahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy Lucknow

ABSTRACT
Zika virus is a member of the virus family flaviviridae and the genus flavivirus
transmitted by daytime active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. Aegypti and A.
Albopictus. Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis,
Arrhythmia Joint disorder. The symptoms of ZIKA Joint pain, fever rash muscle
pain and headache. ZIKA fever in pregnant women can cause abnormal brain
development in their fetuses by mother to child transmission. This may result in
miscarriage a link has been established with neurological condition in infected
adults, including Guillain-Barre syndrome .To describe the temporal and
geographical distribution of ZIKA virus infection & associated neurological
disorder from 1947-September 2016. The United Nation World Health
Organization this week declared the Zika outbreak, which has been linked to a
rash of birth defects in Brazil a global public health emergency and the hunt is on
for ways due to check its spread and treat those who fall ill still possible Vaccines
have to pass through the rigorous screening for safety and efficacy. In 2015 Brazil
reported an association between Zika virus infection & microcephaly. In 8
February 2016 reports an increase Guillain-Barre syndrome beginning in 2015
10case of Guillain-Barre syndrome positive for Zika four Zika related deaths are
reported over the preceding 2 weeks with symptom of diarrhea or vomiting.
Keywords: Zika virus, guillain-barre syndrome, neurological disorder.

MATRIX TYPE OF TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM OF


SIMVASTATIN USING PERMEATION ENHANCERS
Umangi Somani*1
1

SRMS College of Engineering and Technology, Dept. of Pharmacy, Bareilly,U.P.


Email: Umangisomani96@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Transdermal drug delivery is defined as self contained discrete dosage forms
which, when applied to the intact skin, deliver the drug, through the skin at
controlled rate to the systemic circulation. Simvastatin is a lipid lowering-agent
and widely used to treat hypercholesterolemia and it is a potent inhibitor of HMGCoA reductase. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate transdermal
patches of simvastatin so as to prevent its first-pass metabolism and achieve
controlled release. The prepared patches were evaluated for different
physicochemical evaluations like thickness, weight variation, folding endurance,
tensile strength, percent flatness, swelling index, suface pH, water vapour
transmission etc. Surface pH of all the films exhibited uniformity in their values
and they were found to be 6, indicates that no irritation will occur on the skin after
applications of the patches. On the basis of in-vitro permeation and ex-vivo
studies have done using Franz diffusion cell with dialysis membrane and goat skin
respectively. The optimized batches were evaluated for permeation study by using
permeation enhancers like 5% DMSO, 5%Oleic acid, 5% Eugenol and 5%
Menthol. On the basis of in-vitro drug release and ex-vivo skin permeation study
formulation F12D4 with menthol as permeation enhancer was found to be better
than other formulation.The kinetic parameters among the formulations showed
that all the formulations provided 1st order kinetics. Based on the observations, it
is concluded that HPMC: Eudragit RL100 showed better release over other
polymer ratio for the development of TDDS for simvastatin.
Keywords: Transdermal, Matrix, HMG-CoA reductase, TDDS.

PHARMACIST IN INDIA: IS ONLY A DELIVERY BOY?


Yadav Shubhanshu*, Verma Anuradha, Chaudhary Manish, Vishwajit, Kumar
Saroj, Ved Akash
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Science,Lucknow, UP, India.

ABSTRACT
Today, pharmacist exists worldwide and plays an important role in healthcare
system of any country as they take responsibility for all needs related with the
medicines as well as patient care However, in India only the supply of medicines
remains the core activity of the pharmacist. Most pharmacists in the our country
still hardly offer patientoriented service as provided by the community
pharmacists in other parts of the world like in U.S., U.K, CHINA and JAPAN etc.
As per Pharmacy Practice Regulations (PPR) 2015 various patient related services
that can be provided by a pharmacist are:i.

Interpretation, evaluation and implementation of medical orders

ii.

Participation in drug and device selection, drug administration, drug


regimen reviews and drug or drug related research.

iii.

Patient counselling and the provision of those acts or services necessary to


provide pharmaceutical care in all areas of patient care including primary
care

iv.

Optimizing the use of medication to promotes health, wellness and disease


prevention.

v.

Compounding and labelling of drugs and devices

vi.

Pharmaceutical care

In nutshell, India faces massive challenges in providing health care for its
vast and growing population but by providing patient oriented services as per
the rights given in PPR 2015, a pharmacist can serve the society in better way
and will come out from the image of delivery boy.
Keywords: Community Pharmacist, India, Patient care, Pharmacist.

STUDY OF GUILLAIN- BARRE SYNDROME AND ITS


TREATMENT
Gandhi Lavika*
Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology (Pharmacy), Bareilly (U.P) India

ABSTRACT
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy
characterized by rapidly progressive symmetrical ascending weakness and
sensory loss. The disease can progress rapidly and be fatal if diagnosis and
treatment interventions are delayed. In most patients, the neuropathic symptoms
are preceded by an antecedent infection. The diagnosis relies heavily on the
clinical impression obtained from the history and examination, although
cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually provide evidence
supportive of the diagnosis. The disease is characterized by a rapid onset of
symmetrical limb weakness, which progresses over days to 4 weeks, and occurs in
patient of all ages. Most patients also have sensory disturbances (tingling or dull
feelings).In the majority of cases, an infectious disease; mostly Campylobacter
jejuni infection precedes the onset of limb weakness. Optimal general hospital
care providing intensive care facilities is most essential. Treatments with
intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasma exchange (PE) are shown to be
effective with physiotherapy and rehabilitation are important. Immune responses
against the triggering infectious agents are thought to be involved in the
pathogenesis of GBS by cross reaction with neural tissues.This abstract serves as
an example for a wide range of doctors such as orthopedic surgeons, pediatricians,
emergency room physicians or primary care physicians, because these are the first
line doctors who treat patients with a painful hip.
Keywords: Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute
irritable hip.

STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING PATIENT COMPLIANCE


Rawat Amit Kumar*, Rawat Ashutosh Kumar, Kumar Mahendra
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Patient noncompliance is a substantial obstacle to the achievement of therapeutic
goals. This paper reviews a number of practical interventions with demonstrated
efficacy in enhancing patient adherence, including improving patients' levels of
information concerning the specifics of their regimens, reinforcing essential
points with review, discussion, and written instruction, and emphasizing the
importance of the therapeutic plan, taking clinically appropriate steps to reduce
the cost, complexity, duration, and amount of behavioral change required by the
regimen and increasing the regimen's convenience through "tailoring" and other
approaches,

obtaining a compliance-oriented history of the patient's prior

experiences and present health beliefs and, where necessary, employing strategies
to modify those perceptions likely to inhibit compliance, improving levels of
patient satisfaction, particularly with the provider-patient relationship, arranging
for the continued monitoring of the patient's subsequent compliance to treatment,
increasing staff awareness of the magnitude and determinants of the
noncompliance phenomenon and attempting to develop an "active influence
orientation" in each member of the health care team, using such techniques as
patient-provider contracts to involve the patient in therapeutic decisions and in the
setting of treatment objectives and creating incentives (through rewards and
reinforcements) for achieving these objectives, arranging for as much continuity
of provider (and other staff) as possible, establishing methods of supervising the
patient, including involvement of the patient's social support network, and
involving fully the assistance of all available health care providers, assigning
specific roles and responsibilities for activities directed at improving adherence to
treatment.
Keywords: Patient Compliance, Patient noncompliance, Patient satisfaction.

DRUG DRUG COCRYSTAL


Srivastava Dipti 1*, Fatima Zeeshan 1, Kaur Chanchal Deep 2
1.

Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow Campus.


2.

SRS Institute of Pharmacy, Chattisgarh, Durg.

ABSTRACT
Cocrystal is defined as a crystalline complex of two or more neutral molecular
constituents bound together in the crystal lattice through non covalent
interactions. The pharmaceutical cocrystal can be explained as multi-component
solid-state assemblies of two or more compounds held together by any type or
combination of intermolecular interactions .This class of compound has gained
much interest over the past few years as they have the potential to amend
undesirable

physicochemical properties without covalent modification of the

API. This technique is being exhaustively studied for solubility enhancement.


However, in recent times, there has been a paradigm shift towards multi API
cocrystals formation for combination therapy. Some of the drug drug cocrystals
reported

in

the

literature

are

lamivudinezidovudinecocrystal,celecoxib

venlafaxine cocrystal and sidenafil asprin cocrystal.


Keywords: Cocrystal, Interation, lattice.

A REVIEW ON EBOLA VIRUS


Singh Pragti, Pandey Soniya, Verma Bimal, Tripathi Harshdeep,
Saroj Anshuman.
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow.
Vermabimal1996@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ebola virus is transmitted to people as a result of direct contact with body fluids
containing virus of an infected patient. The incubation period usually lasts 5 to 7 d
and approximately 95% of the patients appear signs within 21 d after exposure.
Typical features include fever, profound weakness, diarrhea, abdominal pain,
cramping, nausea and vomiting for 3-5 days and maybe persisting for up to a
week. Laboratory complications including elevated aminotransferase levels,
marked

lymphocytopenia,

and

thrombocytopenia

may

have

occurred.

Hemorrhagic fever occurs in less than half of patients and it takes place most
commonly in the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms progress over the time and
patients suffer from dehydration, stupor, confusion, hypotension, multi-organ
failure, leading to fulminant shock and eventually death. The most general assays
used for antibody detection are direct IgG and IgM ELISAs and IgM capture
ELISA. An IgM or rising IgG titer (four-fold) contributes to strong presumptive
diagnosis. Currently neither a licensed vaccine nor an approved treatment is
available for human use. Passive transfer of serum collected from survivors of
Junin virus or Lassa virus, equine IgG product from horses hypervaccinated with
Ebola virus, a cocktail of humanized-mouse antibodies (ZMapp), recombinant
inhibitor of factor VIIa/tissue factor, activated protein C, RNA-polymerase
inhibitors and small interfering RNA nano particles are among the therapies in
development.

COLLOIDOSOMES: THE EFFICIENT TOOL FOR


VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Mishra Devesh; Hashmi Afreen; Agarwal Kartikey; Verma Jagrati; Khan Wasim;
Hussain Zeashan
Department of Pharmaceutics , Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Pharmacy Junabganj-227101,
Lucknow - (U.P.)
e-mail ID imdkm@post.com

ABSTRACT
To provide an effective way of delivering drug directly to the site of action and
that too devoid of any toxicity or adverse side effects, Vesicular drug delivery
systems are now a days widely used. These systems provide the reduction in the
cost of treatment by improving bioavailability of medications as poorly soluble
drugs have less bioavailability. The several other vesicular drug delivery systems
were formulated from past some decades includes liposomes, transferosomes,
ethosomes, niosomes etc. These systems help to delay the drug elimination of
rapidly metabolize drugs so that it functioned as a sustained release drug delivery
system. These systems also help to counter several other problems in drug
delivery like instability, rapid degradation and have wide application in the
different drug delivery like gene delivery, protein delivery, brain targeting and
targeting of tumor. The several other novel technology has been show great
promises in the delivery of nutraceuticals and bioactives compounds. In this field
recently the colloidosomes is evolved as a advanced tool for encapsulation of
several materials like drugs, dyes, cosmetics, biomaterials as filler in the case of
catalysis along with waste material.
Keywords: Liposomes, encapsulation, bioavailability, nutraceuticals, vesicular
system.

NANOPARTICLES IN COSMECEUTICALS
Patel Manish, Kumar Saroj
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Near Indra Canal
Faizabad Road, Lucknow, 226010.

ABSTRACT
Nanoparticles can enter and penetrate the skin theoretically and could represent a
new delivery system for cosmeceuticals. Nanoparticles are used in an effort to
make sunscreens in visible on the skin. Also, cosmetics that are coloured with
Nanoparticles pigments can offer interesting camouflaging opportunities. There is
still international concern over the adverse effects of using these particles.
Nanoscience is a branch of engineering that has potential application in medicine
and dermatology. Nanoparticles applied unique properties of matter on the
nanoscale (1000nm and smaller) for the purposeful design of the new material
dermatology

has

been

exploring

the

benefits

of

nanotechnology

in

Cosmeceuticals, which are product that have both cosmetics and therapeutic
benefits claims. Cosmeceuticals usually are not supported by double blind
controlled clinical trial, and they are not regulated by the food and drug
administration. Therefore, manufacturers do not need to provide to evidence based support of claims as they do with medication. Nanotechnology applications
have been used in sunscreens and are beings developed disease. According to a
recent study, a large number of patents have been issued for nanotechnology in
the cosmetic arena as a means of enhancing topical delivery of a broad range of
over the counter product. Nanoparticles that are smaller than 10nm, known as
quantum dots, are being used in experiential imaging systems, but not in
dermatology.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, sunscreens, Cosmeceuticals.

NATUROPATHY BY COLOURS (CHROMOTHERAPY)


Khare Pragati 1*, Kishore Kamal 2, Sharma D.K. 3 and Khare Noopur 4
1

Shri Ram Murti Smarak, Dept. of Pharmacy, Bareilly, U.P, India.

Department of Pharmacy, M.J.P Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (U.P.)


3

Department of Pharmacy, Devsthali Vidyapeeth, Rudrapur (U.K)


4

G.C.R.G., Dept. of Biotechnology, Lucknow, U.P, India.


E-mail: pragatikhare10@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chromotherapy (color therapy) is included in Complementary and Alternative
Medicine System (CAMS) of treatment by utilizing electromagnetic radiations
with different frequencies which affects human neurohormonal pathways.
Chromotherapy targets specific points in our body and is useful in treating various
diseases. It has been reported in recent studies that the chromotherapy has shown
tremendous effects on diseases hematoma (red), hepatitis B (combination of
various lights), hypertension, neonatal jaundice (blue light), spondylosis, peptic
ulcer disease (yellow light), depression and stress, migraine (green light),
hyperthyroidism (violet/blue light), alopecia (violet), color blindness (blue/ green)
and various skin infections specially cutaneous leishmaniasis (blue and red).
Chromotherapy is an effective evolution of science in the field of electromagnetic
radiation/energy and it can be very useful in the discovery of new dimensions of
treatment.
Keywords: Chromotherapy, hematoma, spondylosis, colour, light.

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THALASSEMIA AND -THALASSEMIA IN INDIAN


POPULATIONS
Kushwaha Rajesh Kumar 1*, Rao Vachas Pati 2, Kumar Hemant 1
1

Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow.


2
Department of Biotechnology, Rama University, Kanpur.

ABSTRACT
Thalassemia is the name of a group of genetic blood disorders characterized by
anaemia due to enhanced red blood cell destruction. Haemoglobin, the oxygencarrying component of the red blood cells consists of two different proteins, an
alpha and a beta. If the body doesn't produce enough of either of these two
proteins, the red blood cells become defective and cannot carry sufficient oxygen.
The resulting anaemia is usually severe with several health problems like enlarged
spleen, bone deformities, fatigue and requires regular life-long transfusion,
therapy and medical supervision. Thalassemias can't be prevented because
they're inherited, "inherited" means they are passed on from parents to children.
However, these bleeding disorders can be found before birth through prenatal
tests. Thalassemia is a common inherited disease in the world. India accounts for
10% of the total world thalassemia population and approximately 1 in 30 in the
general population is carrier of the mutated gene and the cases may increase as it
is a hereditary disorder, so, it is important to take into consideration about this
disorder as it may prove deadly one and thus the intensity of this disorder can be
lowered by diagnosing and taking proper treatments. The presence of four types
of -thalassemia and two types of -thalassemia gene deletion in North Indian
population, In which were SEA deletion, SA, -3.7,-4.2 deletion and Types A and
Type B was detected by using multiplex GAP- PCR method. It has been noted
that alpha-thalassemia with 3.7 deletion is the most common type of thalassemia throughout the world.
Keywords: Haemoglobin SEA deletion -thalassemia Delta () thalassemia,
multiplex GAP- PCR, SA.

CHILDREN, PREGNANT WOMEN AND CANCER PATIENTS


NEED SAFE CARE IN LAXATIVE: MACROGOL 4000
Khan Razziuddin*,Verma Munna lal, Shukla Ankit , , Dr.Hussain Zeashan
*Assitant professor Department of pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy
Lucknow 227101 (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
Macrogol 4000 is one of the new generations osmotic laxatives. Polyethylene
glycol is the basis of a number of laxative such as macrogol containing products
includes movicol, glycolax etc. It is used in the chronic constipation. Macrogol
4000 has a low toxicity & is used in a varity of product. Macrogol 4000 may well
be more polatable than combined formulation (macrogol 3350 with electrolytes )
which could help improve adherence to the long tear treatment required for
chronic constipation. There is consistent evidence that a relatively low dose of
macrogol 4000 improves stool frequency and consistency in patients with chronic
constipation, as clearly shown in recent meta- analysis. In most of patiant
macrogol 4000 shows its efficacy in 48 hours from the beginning of treatment.
The effect of macrogol 4000 was assessd in 120 children affected by constipation
treated with theraputic dose of macrogol 4000. The child symptoms improvement
i.e. reduction of pain during defecation , daily spontaneous evacuation & better
stool consistence, were consider normal of the 120 patients , 89 returned to the
clinical follow-up , has been contected by telephone. To the final analysis, 103
patients (58% ) have had a normalization of the clinical symptoms , a patient
(7.5%) have refused macrogol 4000 for the unpleasant flavour, 8 patient (6.7%)
did not have any improvement from the treatment. The observational study
suggest the macrogol 4000, could be very useful to treat pediatric patients with
constipation also those affected by neuronal intestinal displasia (NID) type B.
Keywords: Osmotic laxative, chronic constipation.

PREFORMULATION STUDIES IN DESIGNING


FORMULATION FOR SUSTAINED RELEASE DOSAGE
FORMS
Prakash satya , Rawat sudhir kumar, Kumar shubham, Kumar vijay; Singh
Bhuwanesh Pratap, Mirza Beg Ahasan
Goel Institute of pharmacy & science near Indra canal faizabad road, Lucknow.

E-mail:- prakashsatya993.sp@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Recently sustained release dosage forms have become standards in the modern
pharmaceutical design and intensive research has been undertaken in achieving
much better drug product effectiveness. The sustained release product will
optimize therapeutic effect and safety of a drug at the same time improving
patient convenience and compliance. Prior to the development of these major
dosage forms, it is essential that pertain fundamental physical and chemical
properties of the drug molecule and other divided properties of the drug powder
are determined. Preformulation is to provide and understand information
regarding:1) the degradation process 2) any adverse conditions relevant to the
drug 3)bioavailability 4)pharmacokinetics and formulation of similar compounds.
It also gives directions for the development of formulation in choice of drug form,
excipients,

composition,

physical

structure,

helps

in

adjustment

of

pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutical properties, support for PAT (process


analytical technology). The overall objective of preformulation studies is to
generate information useful in developing stable and bioavailable and sustained
release dosage forms which can be mass produced.
Keywords: Preformulation study, Intrinsic Solubility, Partition Coefficient,
Compatibility study.

HYDROGENATED NAPHTHOL AND THEIR ISOSTERS CAN


BE A LEAD FOR ORAL TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT
DISORDER
Padma Charan Behera, Kamal Kant, Rohit Singh, Manik Ghosh*
Department of Pharmaceutical sciences and Technology, Mesra, Ranchi ,835215 ,India

ABSTRACT
Now a days, there is increased incidence of urinary tract disorder due to socioeconomic impact on the life status at the same time the kind of fortified foods that
we are consuming are also imparting very much in the accumulation process of
toxic metabolic by products in the urinary tract. The major reasons of deposition
of these toxic metabolites are due to the imbalance in the production and osmotic
pressure in the bowmans capsule. Generally alkaline metabolites are very easily
excreted through kidney easily but if any heavy metal complexed toxic acidic
metabolites are generally very difficult to excrete from the kidney.at the same
time accumulation of these metabolites gradually leads to the formation of solid
structure and causes blockage of the urinary tract. Naturopathy may be used as
premier agent for the treatment of this type of disorder. Researchers have already
documented so many articles on naturopathy treatment and they are in process of
developing natural leads and their isosters for treatment. Notably, scientific
finding of such type of molecule and their biology may give a platform for
treatment of these disorders without any invasive procedures. Naphthols are
mainly used as anti-infective agent for urinary tract disorders. Recently, the
molecules which are effective against treatment of urinary infection are isoster of
naphthols but they are not being used orally.
Keyword: Hydrogenated Naphthol, Naturopathy, Urinary Tract Disorder.

PROBIOTICS, PREBIOTICS, NUTRACEUTICALS AND


PHARMACEUTICALS: THE NEW FRONTIER
Asad Saeed*, Ajay Kumar Dubey
Azad Institute of Pharmacy & Research, Lucknow

ABSTRACT
Many food components have clearly established strong links with human health
and it is learnt that their deficiencies can provoke diseases. The epidemiological
evidences and modern research in nutrition during the last few decades elaborated
the molecular level of interactions between specific food constituents with cells to
control and prevent some diseases. It is nowadays acknowledged the critical role
of the forgotten organ. The beneficial interaction between the micro-biota and
humans is the way how bacteria contained within the gut talk to the immune
system. Into this landscape probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals play a major
role. Several human diseases have benefited from the use of probiotics. Prebiotics
promote the growth of good bacteria and variety of health benefits have been
attributed to their use. Nutraceuticals, the drugs for healthy people can prevent
and in some cases cure some pathological conditions, e.g., the ones related to the
metabolic syndrome. The bioactive constituents extracted and concentrated from
many foods mainly of vegetal origin (phytocomplexes) have been identified and
knowledge about their use in nutrition is expanding. They represent a frontier to
be explored at the interface between nutrition and pharmaceutics and a new
important tool to prevent the onset of heath condition and to limit the use of
pharmaceuticals in a preventive pro active approach.
Keywords: Forgotten organ, Probiotics, Nutraceuticals and enteric micro-biota.

IDENTIFICATION OF BEGOMOVIRUS IN JATROPHA


CURCAS L.
Kumar Hemant, Kushwaha Rajesh Kr.
Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow (U.P)

ABSTRACT
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a multipurpose and drought resistant large shrub
crop which can be raised in marginal lands with lesser input. Jatropha plants
natively occur in tropical areas of India, Africa, North America and Caribbean. It
is an efficient substitute fuel; for diesel engines and forms an essential ingredient
in various soaps, dye and wood industries. J. curcas has generated the interest of
many researchers in the field of bio-energy. Many excellent characteristics,
including high yield ability, high oil content, resistance to drought, and good
quality of the plant oil, have been attributed to this plant. The genus Jatropha has
476 species and distributed throughout the world, among them J. curcas, J.
gossypifolia, J. cuneata, J. integerrima, J. multifida L. and J. podagrica are
recorded in India. The Government of India has identified 4,00,000 square
kilometers (98 million acres) of land where Jatropha can be grown, and probably
will replace 20% of India's diesel consumption by 2011. The oil of Jatropha can
be extracted from over 80 known plant species. An average of about 5 tons of
seeds per hectare can be produced under optimum conditions. The oil content of
the seed is 55-60%, which can be converted into biodiesel by trans-esterification.
An annual yield of 0.75-2.0 tons of biodiesel could be expected per hectare from
the fifth year onwards. Jatropha stacks up nicely compared with other feed stocks,
as soybeans and rapeseed have a relatively low oil yield compared with
Jatropha375 kilograms per hectare for soybeans in the United States (280
gallons per acre) and 1,000 kilograms per hectare of rapeseed in Europe (740
gallons per acre) to 3,000 kilograms per hectare of Jatropha (2,226 gallons per
acre) in India. Good planning, quality planting material, standardized agronomy
practices and good crop management could increase yields. The tropical location
of Indian subcontinent with its diverse climatic conditions ranging from high
rainfall areas to deserts on one hand and snowcapped mountains to peninsula on
the other, provide a large number of viral disease to flourish thus affecting various
cropping systems.
Keywords: JMV, Begomovirus, Mosaic disease.

EVERY MEDICINE HAS AN ACTION ON BODY AND


EVERY BODY HAVE AN ACTION ON MEDICINE
Singh Aditya*, Singh Jyoti
Azad Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Today the hightech generation is totally based on the medicine due to lack of
time they cannot able to focus on health and physical exercises and suffering
from health issues so they preffer allophatic medicine which provide onset action
on body and fast relief due to slow action of ayurvedic drugs peoples dont want
to take. We all know that every coin has so side one good another bad so it leads
some side effects on human body so we can easily say that phamacodynamic and
phamacokinetics are related to each other if one cause action another cause
reaction like phamacokinetics are quantify drug action like absorption
distribution biotransformation and excreation and phamacodynamic quantify
body action on drug we can say every medicine has an action and body act as
reaction because every action has equal and opposite reactions.
Keywords: Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics.

THE TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT DISEASES BY USING


UMBILICAL CORD
Gupta vivek kumar*, Bharti virendra, kumar santosh ; Singh Bhuwanesh Pratap
Goel Institute of pharmacy & science near Indra canal faizabad road, Lucknow (U.P.)
E-mail:- vivekkumargupta533@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Since 1989, umbilical cord blood has been used successfully to treat children with
leukaemia, anaemias and other blood diseases. Stem cells that can be obtained
from cord blood, so that they can be used to treat adults routinely to Umbilical
cord blood contains haematopoietic (blood) stem cells. These cells are able to
make the different types of cell in the blood - red blood cells, white blood cells
and platelets. Haematopoietic stem cells, purified from bone marrow or blood,
have long been used in stem cell treatments for leukaemia, blood and bone
marrow disorders, cancer (when chemotherapy is used) and immune deficiencies
beyond these blood-related disorders, the therapeutic potential of umbilical cord
blood stem cells is unclear. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of
specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell
replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.
Keywords: Therapeutic potential, anti-inflammatory, effects umbilical, cord,
stem cells etc.

STEM-CELL THERAPIES: AN OVERVIEW


Kori Yash Pal*, Verma Raejesh 2
1

Faculty of Pharmacy, Kamla Nehru Institute of Management & Technology, Sultanpur


2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management Varanasi.

ABSTRACT
Stem cells are basic cells of all multi cellular organisms having the potency to
differentiate into wide range of adult cells. Stem cells are promising area of
science leading scientists to investigate the possibility of cell-based therapies to
treat disease, which is often referred to as regenerative or reparative medicine. In
the absence of effective endogenous repair mechanisms after cardiac injury, cellbased therapies have rapidly emerged as a potential novel therapeutic approach in
ischemic heart disease. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bone marrow-derived
cells (BMCs) have been extensively studied and characterized, and dramatic
advances have been made in the clinical application of BMCs in heart failure of
ischemic and no ischemic origin. A series of remarkable studies suggested that
adult stem cells undergo novel patterns of development by a process referred to as
Trans differentiation or plasticity. Recent meta-analyses have supported the
notion that administration of BM- derived cells may improve cardiac function on
top of standard therapy. At this stage, further optimization of cell-based therapy is
urgently needed, and finally, large-scale clinical trials are required to eventually
proof its clinical efficacy with respect to outcomes, i.e. morbidity and mortality.
Despite all promises, pending uncertainties and practical limitations attenuate the
therapeutic use of stem/progenitor cells for ischemic heart disease. In order to
predict benefit, influencing factors need to be identified with the aim to focus
resources and efforts.

Key words: Stem and progenitor cells, Meristem, Blastocyst, Ischemic heart
disease, myocardial infarction.

GENOMIC MEDICINE A BOON IN PHARMACEUTICAL


INDUSTRY
Gautam Deepa*,Kumar Namrata, Kushuwaha Rajesh Kr.,
Kumar Hemant
Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of technology and management Faizabad road
Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Genomic medicine can be defined as "an emerging medical discipline that
involves using genomic information about an individual as part of their clinical
care (e.g., for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making) and the health outcomes
and policy implications of that clinical use." Already, genomic medicine is
making an impact in the fields of oncology, pharmacology, rare and undiagnosed
diseases, and infectious disease It has often been estimated that it takes, on
average, 17 years to translate a novel research finding into routine clinical
practice. This time lag is due to a combination of factors, including the need to
validate research findings, the fact that clinical trials are complex and take time to
conduct and then analyze, and because disseminating information and educating
healthcare workers about a new advance is not an overnight process. Once
sufficient evidence has been generated to demonstrate a benefit to patients, or
"clinical utility," professional societies and clinical standards groups will use that
evidence to determine whether to incorporate the new test into clinical practice
guidelines. This determination will also factor in any potential ethical and legal
issues, as well economic factors such as cost-benefit ratios. Pharmacogenomics
involves using an individual's genome to determine whether or not a particular
therapy, or dose of therapy, will be effective. FDA has also cleared or
approved 45 human genetic tests, and more than 100 nucleic acid-based tests for
microbial pathogens.DNA sequencing is being used to investigate infectious
disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus, drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus
aureas

and

Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as food poisoning following

contamination with Escherichiacoli.

GENETIC ENGINEERING IN BIOPHARMACEUTICALS AND


THEIR THERAPEUTIC USES
Kushwaha Rajesh Kr. *, Rao Vachas Pati 1, Kumar Hemant 2,
Gupta Ravindra Kumar
Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow.
1
Department of Biotechnology, Rama University, Kanpur.
2
Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of Technology and Management, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Genetic engineering provides an alternative means for the production for the
production of therapeutic proteins through the use of bacteria, yeast, insect,
animal and plant cells. The compounds produced provide alternative therapies foe
serious life threatening diseases such as cancer, viral infection or hereditary
deficiencies and other untreatable diseases. The production of biopharmaceuticals
done via by recombinant technologies through engineering, these products are
manufactured by pharmaceuticals manufacturing industries under cGMP
guidelines. There are various therapeutics and biopharmaceuticals compounds
such as insulin, monoclonal antibodies, interferon or interleukins, have been
developed. Animal cells culture are being used for the production of monoclonal
antibodies via hybridoma technology and vaccines production such as yellow
fever via chick embryo culture, hepatitis.
Keywords: Hybridoma, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), cGMP, Insulin,
monoclonal antibodies, interferon, interleukin.

REPOSITIONING OF DRUGS AGAINST PARKINSONS


DISEASE USING 2D FINGERPRINT METHODS
Singh Jyoti*, Tripathi Avinash C., Saraf Shailendra K.
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das Northern
India Institute of Technology, Lucknow-226028, U.P., India
Email ID:rollysingh10@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Drug repurposing represents a potential strategy for cost saving and risk
mitigation in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons
disease (PD), where drug approval rates are low. These fingerprints were used as
query molecules to screen the Drug Bank Database containing around 2400 drugs
for various indications. The retrieved hits were ranked on the basis of their
fingerprint similarity with the query candidates, and drugs having a similarity
score 0.6, namely; Bromodiphenhydramine (0.75), Orphenadrine (0.75)
Tyrosine (0.67), Phenylalanine (0.67), Dyphylline (0.66), Theophylline (0.60)
were considered for further study. Molecular docking studies of selected hits
were evaluated against various anti-Parkinsonian drug targets (such as MAO-B,
AChE, and COMT) in order to predict their binding orientation and binding
affinity. The top ranked candidates obtained by these methods were submitted to
Bayes classification models, which were previously optimized and trained to
discriminate the anti-Parkinsonian agents from non anti-Parkinsonian drugs. The
combined results of computer aided drug repositioning concluded that
Orphenadrine showing best computational performances (fingerprint similarly,
binding characteristics and Bayes prediction results) can be a potential candidate
against PD. However, this drug needs to be tested in laboratory conditions in-vivo
and in-vitro to justify the predicted results.
Keywords: Parkinsons disease (PD), 2D fingerprints, Molecular docking.

TRANSGENIC PLANTS: TYPES, BENEFITS, PUBLIC


CONCERNS AND FUTURE
Yadav Monika*, Kori Rahul, Saroj Rabin, Khatoon Nazia, Kumar Ramashray.
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Genetic Engineering involves a manipulation of the genetic material towards a
desired end and predetermined way. This is alternately called recombinant DNA
technology. The alteration of crops to improve their production was performed
through the basis of selection before the creation of transgenics. This selection has
been going on for thousands of years. By the year 2050, world population may
reach nine billions. Food production will need to increase at the same rate or more
in order to satisfy the needs of such an enormous number of people in some older
centuries. So, there is a need to use the genetic techniques to improve crops over
the recent decades. Through the use of transgenics, one can produce plants with
desired traits and even increased yields. The transgenics would allow for more
crops that last longer and withstand pests and diseases. Transgenic plant
production will allow us to feed the growing population and to produce more
desirable products. The future of GM crops remains a vital debate, as its
applications have several advantages and disadvantages.
Keywords: Transgenics, Recombinant DNA, GM Crops.

ANIMAL MODELS OF MEMORY IMPAIRMENT


Awasthi Himani*
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
A vital component of the development of drugs targeted attreating complex
disorders is a reliable animal model that canpredict efficacy in clinical trials.
Animal models of cognitive impairment are critically important for determining
the neural bases of learning and memory. These cognitive functions are complex
phenomenon requiring the coordinated interaction of multiple brain structures
therefore cannot be well studied by using simple in vitro methods. In the field of
learning and memory animals models have been instrumental in shaping our
understanding of how the normal and damaged brain processes information.
Animal research has taught us that there are multiple memory systems that
interact: competitively, cooperatively or in parallel-depending on the cognitive
demands and psychological nature of the task. Animal models of cognitive
impairment are used for a variety of purposes: as screening tests to discover and
develop novel antidementic drug therapies; as simulations for investigating
aspects of the neurobiology of neurodegenerative disorders like AD; and as
experimental models within which the neuropharmacological mechanisms
associated with antidementic drug treatments may be investigated. These models
are also useful to test neurocognitive toxicity of environmental contaminants and
drugs of abuse.
Keywords: Targeted drugs, Animal model, psychological task.

DIET AND NUTRITION IMPLICATIONS FOR ORAL


HEALTH
Singh Pratap Jeetendra*
Goel Institute of Pharmacy and Sciences, Lucknow

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of oral health is acquired by oral hygiene instructions and basic
nutrition information. Many clients may not be aware of the effects of diet and
nutritional status on the development and maintenance of a healthy oral cavity
with tooth enamel without cavities. It is vitally important to perform basic
nutrition screening to assess clients dietary habits for potential risk factors for
dental carries and periodontal diseases and to look for potential signs of
nutritional deficiencies or nutrition related problems in clients with chronic
diseases or conditions. Collaboration between dieticians, oral health care
professionals and pharmacists is essential in identifying, educating and treating
the community for problems related to nutrition. Such partnerships will encourage
improved levels of oral health care. The purposes of this discussion are to review
the link between nutrition and oral health.

RECENT ADVANCEMENT IN CHRONOPHARMACOLOGY


Khare Noopur1*, Khare Pragati2
1

G.C.R.G, Dept. of Biotechnology, Lucknow, U.P, India.

Shri Ram Murti Smarak, Dept. of Pharmacy, Bareilly, U.P, India.


E-mail: noopur.khare2009@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chronopharmacology includes the investigation of drug effects as a function of
biologic timing and investigation of drug effects upon rhythm characteristics.
Rhythmicity has been detected in a number of physiological variables such as
pulse, temperature, blood pressure and hormonal secretions like diurnal variation
insulin effects on blood glucose. The aim of chronopharmacology is to optimize
the therapeutic effect and control or reduce the adverse effects without altering the
functioning of the drug in the body. Chronopharmacology involves both the
investigation of drug effects as a function of biologic timing and the investigation
of drug effects upon rhythm characteristics. Asthma attacks predominatly occur
around 4 o'clock in early morning. Blood pressure and heart rate in normotensives
and essential (primary) hypertensive patients display highest values during
daytime followed by a nightly drop and an early morning rise. These observations
call for a circadian time-specified drug treatment. Circadian rhythm and its effects
are very much observed in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic of drugs
given to the patients. Chronopharmacology can definitely create a favorable
condition for drug effects and improves the treatment of many diseases.
Keywords: Chronopharmacology, rhythmicity, asthma.

EVALUATION OF GARDENIA FLORIDA ROOT EXTRACT


FOR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY
Kundu Priyanka*, Sonar Pankaj, K., Saraf Shailendra, K.
Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology,
Lucknow- 226028, U.P., India
Email: 11222priyankakundu@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of
Gardenia florida root extract. The different concentrations of 25 mg/ml, 12.5
mg/ml, 6.25 mg/ ml, 3.12 mg/ml and 1.56 mg/ml were prepared from the stock
solution of 50 mg/ml ethanolic root extract of Gardenia florida. The in-vitro
antimicrobial activity was studied against B.subtilis, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus,
E.coli and P.chrysogenum by cup-plate method. The in-vitro antimicrobial
activity results revealed that ethanolic extract of Gardenia florida root was
effective against B.subtilis, P.aeruginosa, S.aureus, E.coli and P.chrysogenum.
Thus, the present study concludes that the ethanolic extract of Gardenia florida
root possesses antimicrobial activity and could be incorporated into an
antimicrobial formulation for topical use.
Keywords: Gardenia florida, root extract, anti-microbial.

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND VACCINES: APPLICATION OF


FUNCTIONAL GENOME
Singh Meenika* Kumar Namrata; Kushwaha Rajesh Kr.; Kumar Hemant
Department of Biotectnology , Goel institute of technology and management , Faizabad road ,
Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
The introduction of vaccinology has been very effective in preventing infectious
diseases. However, in several cases, the conventional approach to identify
protective antigens, based on biochemical, immunological and microbiological
methods, has failed to deliver successful vaccine candidates against major
bacterial pathogens. The recent development of powerful biotechnological tools
applied to genome-based approaches has revolutionized vaccine development,
biological research and clinical diagnostics. The availability of a genome provides
an inclusive virtual catalogue of all the potential antigens from which it is
possible to select the molecules that are likely to be more effective. Preparation of
vaccine is not so easy now. It needs to know some fundamental matters such as
virulence determination, antigenic variation, response against viral antigens etc. In
the primitive stage of vaccine application, antigens from the causing agents are
directly injected into the host body. It was very harmful for human body. Now we
are living in the time of genetic engineering where safe and secured life is ensured
to everybody as much as possible. So vaccines are now prepared in the simplest
and safe way by genetic engineering. Businessmen are now trying to improve and
manipulate vaccines in a better way so they introduce new innovation in the field
of vaccines.

STEPS FOR QSAR DEVELOPMENT


Fatima Zeeshan*
Amity Institute of Pharmacy Amity University, Uttar Pradesh.

ABSTRACT
QSAR quantitative structure activity relationship aims at developing statistically
significant mathematical models that attempt to relate the structure-derived
features of a compound to its biological or physicochemical activity.
Development of QSAR models starts with data collection. The data collected
should be of high quality so that a good statistical model can be generated. The
congeneric series having wide range of pharmacological activity is consider .The
physicochemical descriptors that defines the chemical structure are consider .The
unwanted and redundant molecular descriptor should be discarded before model
preparation. The data set is then divided into training and test set. The model is
build taking the training set into consideration and it is validated using a test set.
Various modeling methods like multiple linear regression, logistic regression, and
machine learning methods are used to build models that describe the empirical
relationship between the structure and property of interest.

Keywords: QSAR, Chemical structure, congeneric, molecular descriptors.

AUTISM: AN EARLY-ONSET NEURODEVELOPMENTAL


DISORDER
Mishra Ankita, Verma Neeraj, Singh B. P.
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Near Indira Canal
Faizabad Road, Lucknow, 226010.

ABSTRACT
Autism is an early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by
difficulties in social interaction and communication, and the repetitive interests or
restricted interests and behaviors. Approximately 67 million people are affected
by autism around the world. It has increased to epidemic proportions, affecting
four times as many males and females.. Autism is well known as a complex
developmental disorder with a seemingly confusing and uncertain pathogenesis.
The serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, GABA, cytokinin thought to contribute to
the pathophysiology of autism.
Autism is classified as complex neuro developmental disabilities, which is
characterized by significant difficulties in social, communicative, and behavioral
functioning. Given the consequence of autism for understanding of normative
and unusual development of social behavior, investigation in autism has the
potential to crucially update awareness in biological, medical, social and
behavioral sciences.
Key words: Autism, neurodevelopment, GABA, cytokinin.

COMMUNITY PHARMACY: IMPORTANCE & NEED IN


PRESENT SCENARIO
Pujari Neelkanth M*1, Kumar Anurag1, Sachan Anupam K1,
Giri Ishwar Chandra2
1

Dayanand Dinanath College, Institute of Pharmacy, Kanpur (U.P.).

Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr. M.C. Saxena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow (U.P.).

ABSTRACT
Community pharmacy is a pharmacy that deals directly with people in the local
area. It has responsibilities including compounding, counseling, checking and
dispensing of prescription drugs to the patients with care, accuracy, and legality.
A community pharmacy has appropriate procurement, storage, dispensing and
documentation of medicines. It is an important branch of the pharmacy profession
and involves a registered pharmacist with the education, skills and competence to
deliver the professional service to the community. In compliance with the vision
of the community pharmacy section of the International Pharmaceutical
Federation, community pharmacists should be experts in pharmaceutical
care, pharmacotherapy, and health promotion, be professional communicators
with patients, other healthcare providers, and decision makers, deliver good
quality in products, services, and communication and document their actions and
make descriptions and publications. Pharmacists play a vital role connecting
patients and medical professionals. They are specially trained to help manage side
effects and counsel patients on taking multiple medications effectively and safely,
and they are also more easily accessible than physicians. Community pharmacists
offer a trusted environment in which to reduce medication errors and improve
safety, while reducing costs and improving the quality of care.
Keywords: Dispensing, Medication, Healthcare, Safety.

A REVIEW ON ROLE OF INFLUENZA TYPE A H1N1 VIRUS


FOR THE SWINE FLU DISEASE
Shukla Avinash*, Rawat Dhiraj, Srivastava Amit Kishor,
Kumar Saroj
Goel Institute of pharmacy & sciences, Lucknow.
E-mail: a.shukla0501096@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. The classical swine flu virus (an
influenza type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from a pig in 1930. However,
Human infection with swine flu has occurred in persons with direct exposure to
pig. In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine
flu. Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pig caused by type A
influenza virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pig. Swine flu
viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pig. When influenza
virus from different species infect pig, the viruses can reassert (i.e. swap genes)
and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can
emerge. At this time, there are four main influenza types A virus subtypes that
have been isolated in pigs i.e. H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of
the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.
Keywords: Swine flu, H1N1 influenza Virus, Swaps genes, Common flu etc.

HOSPITAL PHARMACY: FUNCTIONS & OBJECTIVES


Kumar Anurag*1, Pujari Neelkanth M1, Kumar Shailesh2, Namrata Singh2,
Kumar Vineet2
1

Department of Pharmacology, Dayanand Dinanath College, Institute of Pharmacy, Kanpur


(U.P.)
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Dayanand Dinanath College, Institute of Pharmacy,
Kanpur (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
The practice of pharmacy within the hospital under the supervision of a
professional pharmacist is known as hospital pharmacy. Hospital pharmacy is also
responsible for monitoring of the drug therapy management. It is also responsible
for ensuring safe and rational drug use. Functions of a hospital pharmacy are
Forecast of demand, Selection of reliable suppliers, Prescribing specifications of
the required medicament, Purchasing and inventory control, Patient counseling,
Drug information source in the hospital, Distribution of medicament in the wards,
Dispensing of medicaments to out patients, Maintenance of manufacturing
records, Manufacturing of sterile or non sterile preparation, Centre for drug
utilization studies, Quality control of purchased or manufactured products and
Maintaining liaison between medical, nursing and the patients. Objectives of a
Hospital Pharmacy are to professionalize the working of the hospital pharmacy so
as to effectively meet the objectives of the hospitals, to ensure availability of the
required medication at an affordable cost at the time it is required and without
compromising with the quality and/or the efficacy of the medicament, to serve as
a source of information on drug utilization, to participate in and implement the
decision of the pharmacy and therapeutic committee, to plan, organize and
implement the policies of the pharmacy which are in accordance with those of the
hospital, to engage in public health activities to improve the well-being of the
population , to interact, cooperate and coordinate with various other departments
of the hospital.
Keywords: Rational use of medication, reliable & affordable services, Improve
public health.

ANTI-HIV ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL HERBS: USAGE AND


POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENT
Kumar Abhisek*, Saini Harsh, Prakash Om
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Faizabad road Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Email: meabhi37@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a result of human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which subsequently leads to significant
suppression of immune functions. AIDS is a significant threat to the health of
mankind, and the search for effective therapies to treat AIDS is of paramount
importance. Several chemical anti-HIV agents have been developed. However,
besides the high cost, there are adverse effects and limitations associated with
using chemotherapy for the treatment of HIV infection. Phyllanthus niruri
commonly known as bhoomi Amla or break-stone reveals that its antiviral activity
extends to human immunodeficiency virus. A Japanese research group discovered
Phyllanthus niruri HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibition properties in 1992 with
a simple water extract of the plant. Scientists from Bristol-Myers Squibbs
Pharmaceutical Research Institute isolated a novel compound Niruside which are
responsible for anti-HIV activity. Thus, herbal medicines have frequently been
used as an alternative medical therapy by HIV positive individuals and AIDS
patients. The aim of this review is to summarize research findings for Phyllanthus
niruri, which are endowed with the ability to inhibit HIV.
Keywords: Phyllanthus niruri, Indian Medicinal Plants, HIV, AIDS.

ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN HEALTH CARE SYSTEM


Pujari Neelkanth M*, Kumar Anurag, Kumar Shailesh, Singh Namrata, Sachan
Anupam K, Giri Ishwar Chandra1
*

Department of Pharmacology, Dayanand Dinanath College, Institute of Pharmacy, Kanpur


(U.P.)
1
Department of Pharmaceutics, Dr. M.C. Saxena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow (U.P.)

ABSTRACT
Pharmacists play a vital role in the health care system through the medicine and
information they provide. Pharmacist responsibilities include a range of care for
patients, from dispensing medications to monitoring patient health and progress to
maximize their response to the medication. Pharmacists also educate consumers
and patients on the use of prescriptions and over-the-counter medications, and
advice physicians, nurses, and other health professionals on drug decisions.
Pharmacists also provide expertise about the composition of drugs, including their
chemical, biological, and physical properties and their manufacture and use. They
ensure drug purity and strength and make sure that drugs do not interact in a
harmful way. Pharmacists are drug experts ultimately concerned about their
patients' health and wellness. The principal goal of pharmaceutical care is to
achieve positive outcomes from the use of medication which improves patients'
quality of life with minimum risk. Pharmacists strive to Cure disease, Eliminate or
reduce symptoms, Arrest or slow a disease process, Prevent disease, diagnose
disease and Alter physiological processes for desirable result in the patient's
health.

Keywords: Pharmacist, Medication, Patient-Health.

ACTINIDIA CHINESIS: A PRIMARY REMEDY FOR DENGUE


FEVER
Kumar Krishna*, Siddique Nadim, Prakash Om
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Faizabad road Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

ABSTRACT
Actinidia chinesis is commonly known by Hayward or kiwifruit belonging to
family Actinidiaceae. It is indigenous to China, south Asia, Southeast and it had
been developed into a new fruit crop in New Zealand. Kiwifruit is a good source
of several vitamins and minerals and dietary fibre, and contains a number of
phytochemicals; so kiwifruit potentially provides health benefits beyond basic
nutrition. Consumption of green kiwifruit can have positive effects on
cardiovascular health through antioxidant activity, inhibition of platelet
aggregation and lowered TAG levels, and gut health through improving laxation,
aiding digestion and promoting a healthy gut microflora. The importance of
nutrition on immune function is well recognised, with deficiencies in vitamins A,
C, E, B6 and B12, folic acid, Zn, Cu, Fe and Se being associated with impaired
immune function and increased susceptibility to diseases. The objective of current
study is that Actinidia chinesis reduced ADP and collagen-induced platelet
aggregation. Concomitant use with other agents that inhibit normal platelet
function could theoretically potentiate bleeding risks and causes rapid increase of
blood platelets. In human research, consumption of kiwifruit decreased platelet
aggregation.
Keywords: Kiwifruit, Dengue Fever, Platelets.

FAST DISSOLVING TABLET


Kushwaha Kamna, Saxena Preeti, Rathaur Shivam, Dubey Vishal
Advance Institute of Biotech & Paramedical Sciences, Naramau, Kanpur

ABSTRACT
Fast dissolving tablet follows first order kinetics. Oral route is the most
preferable and convenient route of administration as it offers advantages like ease
of administration, highly versatile, patient compliance and accurate dosing. The
most popular solid dosage forms are being tablets and capsules. One important
drawback of these dosage forms for some patients, is the difficulty to swallow and
readily access to water for easy swallowing dosage. Difficulty in swallowing
(dysphasia) is also a common problem of all age groups, especially the elderly
and paediatrics, because of physiological changes associated with these groups.
Fast dissolving drug delivery is rapidly gaining acceptance as an important new
drug delivery technology which aims to enhance safety and efficacy of drug
molecule by formulating a convenient dosage form for administration and to
achieve better patient compliance. The fast dissolving tablet (FDT) has
remarkable disintegration properties and it can rapidly disintegrate without water
in the mouth within few seconds. When an FDT is placed in the oral cavity, The
formulated tablets were evaluated for various physical tests like weight variation,
friability, hardness and results complied with the limits. Fast dissolving tablet are
also called as mouth dissloving tablet. FDT have rapid drug therapy intervention.
In present review the formulation technique and different technologies. These
tablets manufactured by conventional processing and packaging equipments.
Keywords: Mouth dissolving tablet, Rapid drug therapy.

INHIBITORY EFFECT OF TRADITIONALLY USED


HERBAL DRUG EXTRACTS ON DOPAMINERGIC
NEURONS IN THE MPTP RAT MODEL OF PARKINSON
DISEASE
Srivastava Amit kishor, Kashyap Monu, Mahima
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Faizabad road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh

ABSTRACT
Parkinsons disease (PD) is one of the most common degenerative disorders of the
central nervous system among the elderly. The disease is caused by the slow
deterioration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Treatment
strategies to protect dopaminergic neurons from progressive damage have
received much attention.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is
known to cause parkinsonism in humans and this fact is a major incentive for
using this toxin as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of Parkinsons
disease (PD). Although the monkey MPTP model remains the best, most studies
have been performed in mice. The so-called acute and sub-acute regimens are
commonly used. Both induce tissue striatal dopamine (DA) depletion and nigral
neuron death. here we discuss their possible mechanisms of action in MPTP
models of PD. Traditional medicinal herbs, with their low toxicity and sideeffects, have become the potential therapeutic interventions for prevention and
treatment of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, a new approach
in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is to develop drugs which might prevent or
retard the disease progression.
Keywords: Parkinsons disease, neuroprotection, substantia nigra, dopamine.

ORALLY DISSOLVING STRIPS: A NEW APPROACH TO


ORAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Khare Shruti ,Tiwari Astha, Kumar Dharmender, Dwivedi Manu,Patel Nitin Kant
Advance Institute Of Biotech And Paramedical Science, Kanpur.

ABSTRACT
Recently, fast dissolving films are gaining interest as an alternative of fast
dissolving tablets. The films are designed to dissolve upon contact with a wet
surface, such as the tongue, within a few seconds, meaning the consumer can take
the product without need for additional liquid. This convenience provides both a
marketing advantage and increased patient compliance. As the drug is directly
absorbed into systemic circulation, degradation in gastrointestinal tract and first
pass effect can be avoided. These points make this formulation most popular and
acceptable among pediatric and geriatric patients and patients with fear of
choking. Over-the-counter films for pain management and motion sickness are
commercialized in the US markets. Many companies are utilizing transdermal
drug delivery technology to develop thin film formats. In the present review,
recent advancements regarding fast dissolving buccal film formulation and their
evaluation parameters are compiled.
Keywords: Fast dissolving films, oral mucosa, permeability, solvent casting,
solvent casting and disintegration.

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF


SOME NOVEL N-P-METHYLBENZOYL-N-AROMATIC
HETEROCYCLIC AMINES THIOUREA DERIVATIVES
Nigam.A.K
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
In our present study, a group of N-p-methylbenzoyl-N-substituted aromatic
amines thiourea derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antimicrobial
activity. There are two steps involve for the synthesis of various derivatives of Np-methylbenzoyl-N- substituted aromatic amines thiourea. The structures of new
compounds were supported by IR and 1HNMR spectral data. These compounds
were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli. Among
the synthesized. Among number of compounds, N-(4-methylbenzoyl)-N-(4chloro-2-nitrophenyl) thiourea & N- (4-methylbenzoyl)-N-(4-methylphenyl)
thiourea were found to be most active antimicrobial compounds.

OPTIZORB: A UNIQUE TECHNIQUE FOR BURST


RELEASE
Srivastava Akash, Singh Ankit, Singh Shraddha, Dubey Vishal, Khare Shruti
Advance Institute of Biotech & Paramedical Sciences, Kanpur.

ABSTRACT
Optizorb technology is a combination of ingredients which together speed up the
rate at which the paracetamol tablet disintegrates and dissolves in the stomach.
Dispersible tablets are uncoated or film-coated tablets that can be dispersed in
liquid before administration giving a homogenous dispersion. Technology which
allows the tablet to start disintegrating in as little as 5 minutes is called Optizorb.
Advance tablet that contain optizorb technology were shown to start relieving
pain in just 15 minutes. OptiZorb disintegration technology is five times faster
and thus gets to work much more quickly. It is easily dispersed in stomach and
work faster, relief faster. OptiZorb technology is based on the use of superdisintegrants. OptiZorb technology is based on the use of excipients of Alginic
acid and calcium carbonate as disintegrants in different concentrations. Alginic
acid absorbs lot of water, swells and leads to decay effect brought about.
Calcium carbonate reacts with the stomach acid, within 3 minutes it releases
90% of the active ingredient. OptiZorb technology is five times faster and thus
gets to work much more quickly. FT-IR study reveals that there is no interaction
between drug and excipients and can be used for preparation of OptiZorb
dispersible tablets.
Keywords: Optizorb, Alginic Acid, Dispersible tablets.

ZIZIPHUS OENOPLIA (L.) MILL: HEPATOPROTECTIVE


ROOT
Shrivastav Mohit1, Shukla Avinash1, Singh Satyawan1, Rao ChV 2, Singh
Arpita1*
1. Goel Institute of Pharmacy &Sciences, Faizabad Road, Lucknow (U.P)-226028
2. Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute
(Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Rana Pratap Marg, P.O. Box No. 436, Lucknow
226001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
E-mail:- arpitmohan2010@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines are the ancient medical practice present in India. It is getting
popularized owing to its natural origin and lesser side effects. The liver is the
most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various
physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and
is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ.
Liver cell injury caused by various toxic chemicals (anti-biotic, chemotherapeutic
agents, CCl4, thioacetamide, excessive alcohol consumption and microbes) is
prevailed. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders cause further
damage to the liver. Hence herbal drugs have become increasingly popular.
Hepatoprotective natural products such as Andrographic paniculata, Silybum
marianum, Coccinia grandis, Wedelia calendulacea, Annona squamosa, Ficus
carica, Solanum nigrum, Phyllanthus emblica, Picrorhiza kurroa, Azadirachta
indica, Aegle marmelos, Jatropha curcas, Foeniculum vulgare, Eclipta alba,
Garcinia mangostana Linn., Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill.are widely used. This
review focuses on the detailed phytochemical composition, medicinal uses, along
with pharmacological properties of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill. (makai in Hindi).
Ziziphus oenoplia a straggling shrub is found throughout the hotter parts of India,
Ceylon, Tropical Asia and Australia, well-known for its therapeutic efficiency in
different diseases globally.
Keywords: Ziziphus oenoplia, Hepatoprotective, extracts.

MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF NOVEL


BENZIMIDAZOLE ANALOGS AS HIV-1-RT INHIBITORS
Singh Rohit *, Mahima, Kashyap Monu, Singh Shubham, Nilesh
Goel institute of pharmacy & sciences, Lucknow, U.P, India.
rohitsingh20485bitmesra@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The urgent need for novel HIV-1-RT inhibitors with broad spectrum
chemotherapeutic properties has provided an impetus for understanding the
structural requisites of HIV-1-RT inhibitors at the molecular level. Toward this
objective, binding mode analysis of 100 benzimidazole analogs was performed.
Molecular docking studies were performed on novel benzimidazoles by Glide
program in the active site of four different enzymes namely HIV-1 reverse
transcriptase (PDB code 1RT2), peptide deformylase (PDB code 1G2A),
Mycobacterium tuberculosis-CYP51 (PDB code 1EA1) and Candida albicans
(CACYP51) (PDB code chimeric-1EA1) to study the binding mode of these
analogs. Results generated from this study indicate that most of the compounds
dock into the active site of different enzymes such as 1RT2, 1G2A, 1EA1 and
chimeric-1EA1 enzymes showing good docking scores comparable to the
standard compounds. The docking analysis of the highest active compound
revealed significant interaction along with H-bond interactions into the active site
amino acid residues of 1RT2, 1G2A, 1EA1 and chimeric1EA1.
Keywords: Reverse transcriptase; Docking; Benzimidazoles; HIV; Peptide
deformylase.

HEART-TARGETED NANOSCALE DRUG DELIVERY


SYSTEMS (NANO TECHNOLOGY)
Rawat Deepak*, Shrivastav Mohit, Saroj Deepak, Ved Akash
Goel institute of pharmacy & science near Indra canal faizabad raod, Lucknow (U.P.)
E-mail: mohitkumar0603095@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The efficacious delivery of drugs to the heart is an important treatment strategy
for various heart diseases. Nanocarriers have shown increasing promise in
targeted drug delivery systems. The success of nanocarriers for delivering drugs
to therapeutic sites in the heart mainly depends on specific target sites,
appropriate drug delivery carriers and effective targeting ligands. Successful
targeted drug delivery suggests the specific deposition of a drug in the heart with
minimal effects on other organs after administration. This review discusses the
pathological manifestations, pathogenesis, therapeutic limitations and new
therapeutic advances in various heart diseases. In particular, we summarize the
recent advances in heart-targeted nanoscale drug delivery systems, including
dendrimers, liposomes, polymer-drug conjugates, microparticles, nanostents,
nanoparticles, micelles and microbubbles. The oncoming generations of nanoscale
biomedical/pharmaceutical products will have object specificity, carry multiple
drugs, and potentially release the payloads at desired unreliable time periods.
Nanotechnology is also opening up new opportunities in implantable delivery
systems, which are often preferable to the use of injectable drugs, for the reason
that the latter frequently show first order kinetics that may ground toxicity and
decreased drug ability. The presented data displays that these systems can be used
excellently for continued release applications.
Keywords: Nanocarriers, drug delivery, myocardial ischemia, Nanotechnology
Biotechnology, nanomedicine etc.

INDIANS, BEST SUITED POPULATION FOR IRRATIONAL


DRUG IN RATIONAL FORM
Gupta Saumya*, Singh Sagar, Kori Preeti, Mr Singh.Yatendra
Advance Institue of Biotech & Paramedical Sciences, Naramau, Kanpur

ABSTRACT
Several branded formulations are available in India which is either single or fixed
dose combination drugs. No doubt all the formulations are meant for prevention
or treatment of ailments and diseases, out of which only a few drugs are lifesaving
and essential; rest of the drugs are substitutes for each other. There was alarming
increase in irrational FDCs in recent years and pharmaceutical companies
manufacturing these FDCs are luring physicians to prescribe by unethical means.
The total number of essential drugs mentioned in the 14th list of essential
medicines by WHO is 312, out of which only 18 are fixed dose combinations2 .
But many of the irrational combinations are popular and widely prescribed by
physicians in our country. Manufacturers' main motive behind mixing drugs is, of
course, to generate prescriptions and make profits. One can hardly expect
anything else if there are over 17,000 pharmaceutical manufacturers, some 40,000
brands but only around 450 basic medicines. When atenolol does not generate
enough sales, it is mixed with alprazolam to create an expensive 'novel' product.
In the absence of research, the pharmaceutical industry in India has been reduced
to a purely commercial activity in which marketing is the name of the game. It is
no wonder that the basic principles of pharmacology get pushed to the
background.
Keywords:

FDCs

Organization).

(Fixed

Drug

Combination),

WHO

(World

Health

MICRO - PARTICULATE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN


EXCELLENT WAY TO IMPROVE
PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY
Rajvansh Roshani *, Mishra Ankita, Kumar Saroj
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Near Indra Canal
Faizabad Road, Lucknow, 226010.

ABSTRACT
Microparticulate drug delivery system is one of the processes to provide the
sustained & controlled delivery of drug to long periods of time. Micro particles
are also a beneficial way of delivering APIs which are pharmacologically active
but are difficult to deliver due to limited solubility in water. Solubility is an
essential factor for drug effectiveness, independent of the route of administration.
Poorly soluble drugs are often a challenging task for formulators in the industry.
By mean of micro particulate system we could improve the pharmaco therapeutic
activity of many APIs which is less soluble as well as less permeable. Micro
particles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a size in the
range of 1m -1000m. Generally 2m - 5m range consider to formulating
micro particulate inhalable dosing. This microencapsulation technology allows
protection of drug from the environment, stabilization of sensitive drug
substances, elimination of incompatibilities, or masking of unpleasant taste and
allows delivering drug by various routes of administration like oral, parenteral,
ocular and deep pulmonary route. Micro particles-based formulations can be
formulated to provide a constant drug concentration in the blood or to target drugs
to specific cells or organs. Now days microparticulate system play vital role in
treatment of tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes etc by mean of dry inhalable powder
formulation. In recent years, biodegradable polymeric microparticles, particularly
those coated with hydrophilic polymer such as polyethylene glycol known as
long-circulating. Various pharmaceutically acceptable techniques for the
preparation of microparticles have been given. Some of the methods include
EmulsionSpray drying (most used technique), Emulsion extraction process, and
Jet milling technique, Fluidization & solvent precipitation method.
Keywords: Microparticulate system, improve solubility.

THE PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTICS COMMITTEE


Singh Chandan K*, Trivedi Nikhil,Chauhan Akansha S, Shukla Shreya
Dr.M.C.Saxena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
The Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee is an important medical staff
advisory group. As the primary, formal communication link between the
pharmacy and medical staff, the P&T Committee is of particular importance to
the department of pharmacy services. All matters pertaining to the use of
medications within the institution, including pharmacy programs, must be
reviewed and approved through the committee. In addition, medication formulary
data is reviewed through the committee and recommendations are offered to the
medical staff. Such a wide diversification of involvement and activity necessitates
the effective communication between all committee members. An active
involvement in the committee by the department of pharmacy services is vital in
order to develop a contemporary and progressive institutional pharmacy program.
This series of four articles will address several important aspects of the
committees operation, including committee formation, mechanics, operation, and
problem solving. The goals and function of a productive and effective hospital
P&T Committee are described. The primary responsibilities of the P&T
Committee are to ensure high-quality drug therapy for hospital patients, provide
liaison between medical staff and the department of pharmacy services. To meet
its responsibilities, the P&T Committee maintains a formulary of medications
approved for routine patient care, reviews drug use and adverse drug reactions,
and establishes procedures for prescribing, dispending, and administered drugs in
the hospital. The P&T Committee acts on behalf of the medical board of the
hospital, and actions of the Committee are subject to the boards approval.
Keywords: Pharmaceutical Therapeutic Committee, Pharmacy services, Medical
straff.

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DISEASE BURDEN OF BURULI


ULCER: A REVIEW
Kumar Devendra*, Yadav Jaikee, Singh Abhishek, Kumar Jitendra, Prakash Om
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow
Email: kumardevendra689@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by Mycobacterium
ulcerans. Infection foci occur mainly in remote, rural areas of Central and West

Africa, but also in Australia and Papua New Guinea. In addition, infections
caused by M. ulcerans strains of a different lineage are sporadically reported from
scattered foci in Asia and the Americas. While in the past decade more than
42,000 BU cases have been reported worldwide, an assessment of the actual
global disease burden is complicated by the remoteness of affected populations
and a lack of data on the incidence of BU in a number of countries, from which
cases have been historically reported. Moreover, as BU patients present with
diverse clinical manifestations ranging from relatively unspecific nodules,
plaques, or edema to necrotic, ulcerative lesions, differential diagnosis is manifold
and thus clinical misclassification may occur. Since to date reservoirs and
transmission pathways of M. ulcerans remain equivocal, early diagnosis and
treatment of patients are key determinants to control the disease. Particularly in
view of the apparent decline in BU incidence in regions of West Africa,
awareness and knowledge of BU in endemic regions must be retained to ensure a
continuous monitoring and control. An integrated approach for the control of
tropical skin diseases should be considered to cope with this difficult task. This
review article aims at providing an overview of the current global burden of BU
and summarizes the state of knowledge on the various epidemiological aspects of
this enigmatic disease.
Key words: Neglected tropical disease, chronic skin ulcers.

DEVELOPMENT OF NANOCRYTSALS OF CEFPODOXIME


PROXETIL WITH IMPROVED ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY
Kapoor Archita*, Maurya Priyanka, Datt Neelam, Saraf Shailendra K.
Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology, Lucknow-226028 U.P., India

ABSTRACT
Cefpodoxime Proxetil (CP) is a third generation Cephalosporin ester prodrug
classified as BCS class IV drug, having poor solubility and poor permeability.
The aim of the present study was to improve the antibacterial activity of CP by
preparing its nanocrystals. A comparative antibacterial study of pure CP,
marketed tablets of CP and its nanocrystals was performed at different
concentrations by cup-plate method on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia
coli.
The dilutions were prepared in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The in-vitro
antibacterial activity revealed that the nanocrystals were more effective against
Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in comparison to pure drug and its
marketed formulation. The study also determined that the drug is more effective
against Staphylococcus aureus than Escherichia coli. The results were confirmed
by comparing the zone of inhibition on both the bacterial strains.
Keywords: Cefpodoxime Proxetil, Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), nanocrystals.

THE STUDY OF CHICKEN POX (VARICELLA ZOSTER


VIRUS) DISEASE
Patel Pradeep1*, kumar Madhaw2, Mishra Richa2,Shrivastava sweta1,
Dr.Verma Neeraj2
Goel Institute of pharmacy & science near Indra canal faizabad road, Lucknow (U.P.)
E-mail:-pradeepkumarpate46@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Most people in the UK get chickenpox in childhood, when it is usually a mild
infection causing a rash. Once you have had chickenpox, you cannot catch it a
second time, because your body produces antibodies to prevent you getting it
again. This usually affects people with low immunity especially new born, children
and pregnant women. It is usually seen in children under the age of 10 year.
Chickenpox is not a serious condition, but its complete recovery may take some time.
Also the body develops immunity once it recovers from this medical condition
meaning, a person is immune from it for his lifetime. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)
causes Chickenpox. A healthy person may also contract chickenpox by touching
fluids from the blister/s of an infected person. person suffering from chickenpox may
show the following symptoms .Itchy red rash, Painful blisters, Sore throat, High
fever (100F to 103F), Tiredness and lethargy, Loss of appetite, Headache,
Vomiting etc.

The period of acquiring Chickenpox virus and appearance of

symptoms may take 3 days. MMRV vaccine has been associated with rash and

higher rates of fever than MMR and Varicella vaccines given separately. MMRV
. These usually occur 5-12 days after the first dose.
Keywords: Varicella Zoster Virus, immune, pregnant women, antibodies etc.

CAMPOTHECIN IS BETTER FOR THE TREATMENT OF


CANCER
Singh Amita*, Soni Anjali, Rao Arpita, Khan Raziuddin, Hussain Zeashan
Mahatma Gandhi Institute Of Pharmacy Junabganj-227101, Lucknow - (U.P.).

ABSTRACT
The camptothecins are a new class of chemotherapeutic agents which have a
novel mechanism of action targeting the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase I.
Knowledge of the structure activity relationships of the parent compound
camptothecin has led to the development of effective solubleanalogues with
manageable toxicities.
Camptothecin is a naturally occurring, pentacyclicquinoline alkaloid that
possesses high cytotoxic activity in a variety of cell lines. Major limitations of the
drug, including poor solubility and inactivity at physiological conditions, prevent
full clinical utilization. Camptothecin remains at equilibrium in an active lactone
form and inactive hydrolyzed carboxylate form. The active lactone binds to DNA
topoisomerase I cleavage complex, believed to be the single site of activity
inhibiting DNA religation, resulting in apoptosis.. The goal of this review is to
summarize the relevant literature for others interested in the field of
camptothecin-based therapeutics.
Keywords: Camptothecins, topoisomerase I inhibitors, cancer therapy.

THE COMMUNITY PHARMACIST HIS SPECIAL


RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE PRESENT ERA
Singh Shivangi*, Bajpai Priyanka
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.

ABSTRACT
Today, community pharmacists play an important role in any country as they take
responsibility for patients medicine related needs for access to healthcare.
However, in India only the supply of medicines remains the core activity of the
community pharmacist. Most community pharmacists in the country still hardly
offer patientoriented service. The role of the pharmacists in the community, and
with it their medicine management, may change in the wake of the rapid growth
of domestic medicine output and national healthcare expenditure. Pharmacists
have progressively undertaken the additional task of ensuring the quality of the
products they supply. The pharmacist verifies the legality, safety and
appropriateness of the prescription order, checks the patient medication record
before dispensing the prescription (when such records are kept in the pharmacy),
ensures that the quantities of medication are dispensed accurately, and decides
whether the medication should be handed to the patient, with appropriate
counseling, by a pharmacist. In many countries, the community pharmacist is in a
unique position to be fully aware of the patients past and current drug history
and, consequently, can provide essential advice to the prescriber. This article
seeks to discuss the genesis of Indian community pharmacy, the majority of
which are privately owned, and sketches its education, training and future
prospects.
Keywords: Community Pharmacist, Responsibility, Patient counseling.

DEVELOPMENT OF GARCINIA CAMBOGIATOPICAL


EMULGEL FOR WOUND MANAGEMENT
Yadav Surabhi*, Koshy Mary, Saraf Shailendra K
Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology, Lucknow- 226028, U.P., India.
Corresponding E-mail: surabhiy037@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The growing popularity of herbal medications and paucity of reported adverse
reaction prompted the formulation of a herbal topical preparation for wound
management.Garciniacambogia is an alternative plant, having rich sources for
investigations,is reported to have significant anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and anti-oxidant activities, which are complementary to wound healing
process. The o/w emulsion was required to be formulated for the incorporation of
the hydrophobic leaf extract of Garciniacambogia into the hydrogel.
The o/w emulsion was prepared by primary homogenization technique. The
optimized batch of the emulsion was evaluatedfor its type, colour, average
globule size, stability and viscosity. Based upon the consistency, the optimized
batches of emulgel were formulated with a 1:10 ratio of emulsion and gel.The
evaluation

parametersfor

the

emulgel

were

consistency,

pH,

grittiness,spreadability, gel strength, viscosity and in-vitro release study.


Formulation and development of o/w emulsion containing Garciniacambogiain a
gel topical delivery system (emulgel) was successfully carried out and could be a
promising approach for the treatment of topical lesions.
Keywords: Garciniacambogiain, herbal medication,anti-oxitant.

NEED OF PHARMACOECONOMICS IN INDIAN HEALTH


CARE SYSTEM
Mishra Pragya *, Khan Samiya
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
E-mail: shivammishra14nov@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The rising cost of healthcare delivery systems is a major concern to all patients,
healthcare professionals, and the government. The demand for and the cost of
health care are increasing in all countries as the improvement in and
sophistication of health technologies. The increase in health care spending is
mainly because of increased life expectance, increased technology, increased
standard of living and increased demand in health care quality and services.
Medicines form a small but significant proportion of total health care cost. As the
affordability of new medical technologies continues to be the subject of heated
debate, attention is also increasingly focused on providing quality and cost
effective healthcare. Economic evaluation of pharmaceutical products, or
pharmacoeconomics, is a rapidly growing area of research. Pharmacoeconomic
evaluation is important in helping clinicians and decision makers to make choices
about new pharmaceutical products and in helping patients obtain access to new
medicines. Over the last few years, the scientific rigor of this field has increased.
As a consequence of limited financial resources, health economics, and
particularly pharmacoeconomic analyses, are becoming a frequently used
criterion for decision making in modern health care policy. The purpose of this
article is to provide an introduction of pharmacoeconomics, its various methods of
evaluations such as cost minimization analysis, cost benefit analysis, cost utility
analysis, cost effectiveness analysis and also discuss challenges, limitations and
applications of pharmacoeconomics.
Keywords: Pharmacoeconomics. Health Economics, Cost Effective Healthcare.

ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN PHARMACEUTICAL IN


DRUG DESIGNING
Shahab Anam* , Kumar Namrata , Kushwaha kr. Rajesh , Kumar Hemant
Department of Biotechnology, Goel Institute of technology and management, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Biotechnological methods have become an important tool in pharmaceutical drug
research and development. Today approximately 15% of drug revenues are
derived from biopharmaceutical. The most relevant indications are oncology,
metabolic disorders and disorder of musculoskeletal system. Currently, the share
of substance in preclinical testing that relies on biotechnology is more than 25%
of all substances in preclinical testing. New therapeutic approaches such as
RNA interference only play a minor role in current in current commercial drug
research and development with 1.5% of all biological preclinical substances.
Biotechnology helps the pharmaceutical industry to develop new product, new
processes, methods and services and to improve existing ones. Biotechnology is
the integration of number of scientific disciplines including microbiology,
genetics, biochemistry and chemical engineering. It uses living organisms, or
systems or products from these organisms to make or modify useful products.
New biotechnology comprises genetic engineering, protoplast fusion and
monoclonal antibody techniques, powerful new tools designed to generate
efficient bioprocesses and products for the pharmaceutical industry. The
following areas of biotechnology are highlighted: human insulin, interferon, and
other growth factors, neuroactives peptides, blood products, antibiotics,
enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, vaccines and oncogens.
Keywords: RNA: ribose nucleic acid.

THE ROLE OF GLUTAMATE NMDA RECEPTORS


ANTAGONISTS IN EPILEPSY AND OTHER CNS
DISORDERS
Fatima Tatheer*, Yadav Meena, Hussain Zeashan
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and, as such, it
inevitably plays a role in the initiation and spread of seizure activity. It also plays
a critical role in epileptogenesis. The process of "kindling" limbic seizures in
rodents by repeated electrical stimulation is dependent on activation of N-methylD-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The function of these receptors is enhanced in the
hippocampus of kindled rats and in the cerebral cortex of patients with focal
epilepsy. Glutamate antagonists selective for NMDA or non-NMDA receptors are
potent anticonvulsants when given systemically in a wide variety of animal
models of epilepsy. NMDA antagonists. Glutamate receptor antagonists provide
significant protection against brain damage following global or focal cerebral
ischemia or acute traumatic injury in rodent models. Anticonvulsant compounds
of the lamotrigine type, which act on sodium channels and reduce ischemiainduced glutamate release, are cerebroprotective in rodent ischemia models. More
recently, research has focused on the therapeutic potential of blocking excitatory
amino acids, the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor of the EAA is
considered the one of most interest in epilepsy and competitive NMDA receptor
antagonists are proposed as potential anti-epileptic drugs. Development of ideas
on the mechanisms of seizures and epileptic drugs reflects the progress in our
understanding of the central nervous system physiology, particularly of
neurotransmission. Therefore, elucidation of the basic mechanism of seizure and
search for new antiepileptic in order to treat the drug resistant form of epilepsy
and to improve the efficacy of current therapies seem justified.

Keywords: Epilepsy, antiepileptic (AEDs), NMDA receptors, excitatory amino


acids (EAA), Glutamate antagonists, lamotrigine.

TRANSGENIC PLANT FOR EDIBLE VACCINE


Yogendra*, kumar namrata, Kushwaha rajesh kumar, kumar Hemant.
Department of Biotechnology, Goel institute of technology and management, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
There is growing acceptance of transgenic crops in both industrial and developing
countries to genetically modified foods may affect the future of edible vaccines.
Various Edible plant-derived vaccines may lead to a future of safer and more
effective immunization.
Edible vaccines have many advantages such as, cost-effective, easy-to-administer,
easy-to-store, fail-safe and socio culturally readily acceptable vaccine delivery
system, especially for the poor developing countries. It is useful only for
preventing infectious diseases; it has also found application in prevention of
autoimmune diseases, birth control, cancer therapy, etc. Edible vaccines are
currently being developed for a number of human and animal diseases. This
review creating edible vaccines involves introduction of selected desired genes
into plants and then inducing these altered plants to manufacture the encoded
proteins. This process is known as "transformation," and the altered plants are
called "transgenic plants." Like conventional subunit vaccines, edible vaccines are
composed of antigenic proteins and are devoid of pathogenic genes attempts to
discuss the current status and future of this new preventive modality. Edible plantderived vaccine may lead to a future of safer and more effective immunization.
Edible vaccines activate for both mucosal and systemic immunity, as they come
in contact with the digestive tract lining. This dual effect would provide first-line
defense against pathogens invading through mucosa, like Mycobacterium
tuberculosis and agents causing diarrhea, pneumonia, STDs, HIV, etc.
Keywords: Immunization, autoimmune-disease ,cancer-therapy, transgenic-plant.

GREEN COFFEE AND ITS IMPACT ON OBESITY


. Mishra Arun K*, Mishra Amrita
Central Facility of Instrumentation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University,
Moradabad, 244102, India.

ABSTRACT
A green coffee extract is an extract of unroasted, green coffee beans, used as a
weight-loss supplement and as an ingredient in other weight-loss products. It
contains a substance called Chlorogenic Acid, responsible for the weight loss
effects. Unfortunately, most of the chlorogenic acid is degraded when coffee
when it is roasted. Some human studies suggest that it can reduce the absorption
of carbohydrates from the digestive tract, which lowers blood sugar and insulin
spikes. Other studies (in mice and rats) have shown that chlorogenic acid can
reduce body weight, reduce fat absorbed from the diet, reduce fat stored in the
liver and improve the function of the fat burning hormone adiponectin. In the
present poster, various researches on current and past studies as well as possible
opportunities in area of antiobesity are picturized.
Keywords: Green coffee, obesity, adiponectin.

A BRIEF REVIEW ON SCOPE OF PHARMACIST IN


HEALTH CARE
Singh Sneha*, Baranwal Shailja*, Ummul Wara*, Tiwari Ankur*, Singh B. P1*
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences , Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacist plays a vital role in the health care system through the medicine and
information they provide. Pharmacy profession entered in India almost
simultaneously with US but the growth in India remained very slow. For almost
half a century not much progress was noticed until B.Pharm course was started in
1937.Pharmacist is an integral part of health care team without pharmacist no
others members like doctors , nurses, can perform well but in India pharmacist
are not given proper respect , recognisation ,only pharmacy book says what they
are and whats its scope in health care field, but in real its different
.Pharmaceutical science is a professional subject like medicine, engineering and
architecture, apart from other basic subjects like agriculture, veterinary,
engineering and medicine are included in the curriculum of civil services
examination but pharmaceutical science is not included. It is infact, a kind of
discrimination towards this noble profession and the subject by the government
of India. In foreign countries the responsibilities of pharmacist includes a range
of care for patient from dispensing medication, to monitoring patient health and
progress to maximize their response to the medication. In this survey the
pharmacist was not taken care of patient and they will not give proper guidelines
to the patient. As per the rule and guidelines given by the FDA & IPC was not
followed by the pharmacist. So to overcome this problem pharmacist must be
given proper attention, respect, recognisation for the welfare of nation.

GUAR GUM MICROSPHERES FOR COLONIC DELIVERY


OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM
Soni Vinay Kumar*, Chaudhri Sanjiv K., Saraf Shailendra K
Faculty of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology,
Lucknow- 226028, U.P., India..
Corresponding E-mail: vinaysoni5171@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of
gastrointestinal tract. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the principal types
of inflammatory bowel diseases. The problem associated with the conventional
oral dosage forms in treatment of IBD is the poor bioavailability of a drug due to
degradation in upper gastro intestinal tract. Thus, to prevent drug degradation and
to achieve effective colon delivery of drug, atorvastatin loaded guar gum
microspheres were prepared. The preformulation studies were performed to
investigate physico-chemical properties of atorvastatin calcium. The emulsion
cross-linking method was used for the preparation of atorvastatin loaded guar
gum microspheres. Different batches of microspheres were prepared for selection
of optimized batch using 32 full factorial design. The prepared microspheres were
evaluated for the particle size, polydispersity index, entrapment efficiency, drug
loading and in-vitro release. Scanning electron microscopy was performed for
surface characterization and the captured images conformed the spherical shape of
the microspheres. In-vitro drug release study was performed up to 24 hours at 37
C 0.5 C, at different gastrointestinal pH. The maximum release of drug from
microspheres was found in simulated colonic fluid, indicating suitability of guar
gum microspheres for colonic delivery of atorvastatin. Thus, colon targeted drug
delivery using guar gum microspheres is a promising approach to deliver drug at
the desired site, with controlled rate, for effective treatment of diseases.

Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), guar gum microspheres,


atorvastatin calcium.

COMMUNITY HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: PROMOTING


ANALYSIS AND ACTION FOR SOCIAL CHANGE
Gupta Nidhi1*,Kumari Shweta2, Singh B.P1.
Goel institute of pharmacy & sciences, Lucknow, U.P, India.
e-mail:- krishna.pankaj101097@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Community health psychology is concerned with the theory and method of
working with communities to combat disease and to promote health. There is a
need to widen the practice of health psychologists to include the theories and
methods of community psychology and an awareness of contemporary issues in
community health. The aim of such a community health psychology would be
both to deepen our understanding of the etiology of health and illness in society
and to development in addition to ensuring an accurate supply of appropriate
products, their professional activities also cover counseling of patients at the time
of dispensing of prescription and non-prescription drugs, drug information to
health professionals, patients and the general public, and participation in healthpromotion programmes. The pharmacist can take part in health promotion
campaigns, locally and nationally, on a wide range of health-related topics, and
particularly on drug-related topics (e.g., rational use of drugs, alcohol abuse,
tobacco use, discouragement of drug use during pregnancy, organic solvent abuse,
poison prevention) or topics concerned with other health problems (diarrhoeal
diseases, tuberculosis, leprosy, HIV-infection/AIDS) and family planning. They
may also take part in the education of local community groups in health
promotion, and in campaigns on disease prevention, such as the Expanded
Programme on Immunization, and malaria and blindness programmes.
Keywords: Community psychology, Health psychology Immunization, community

health.

HOSPITAL PHARMACY
Singh Ankit*, I.C. Giri, Srivastva Shobhit Prakash
Dr.M. C. Sxaena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
These are all welded together in the common purpose of restoration and
maintenance of good health Hospital Pharmacy The department or service in a
hospital which is under the direction of a professionally competent, legally
qualified pharmacist, and from which all medications are supplied to the nursing
units and other services, where special prescriptions are filled for patients in the
hospital, where prescriptions are filled for ambulatory patients and out-patients,
where pharmaceuticals are manufactured in bulk, where narcotic and other
prescribed drugs are dispensed, where injectable preparations should be prepared
and sterilized, and where professional supplies are often stocked and dispensed.
The computerization of the pharmacy department makes it possible for the staff
to participate in patient education programs, poison control center activities,
preparation of patient drug use profiles, parenteral nutrition program
participation, cooperating in the teaching and research programs of the hospital,
communicating new product information to nursing service and other hospital
personnel and dispensing radiopharmaceuticals. Hospital Pharmacy GOALS
FOR HOSPITAL PHARMACY Just as any organization must have long-range
goals toward which its daily activities are directed, so must a profession, its
members, and their representative societies. To provide the benefits of a
qualified hospital pharmacist to patients and health care institutions, to the allied
health professions, and to the profession of pharmacy. To assist in providing an
adequate supply of such qualified hospital pharmacists. The assure a high quality
of professional practice through the establishment and maintenance of standards
of professional ethics, education, and attainments and through the promotion of
economic welfare.
Keywords: Hospital Pharmacy, GOALS, pharmacist.

ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS
Shukla Amar1, Tripathi N.N2, Singh Arpita1*
1

Goel Institute of Pharmacy &Sciences, Near Indira Canal, Faizabad Road, Lucknow (U.P)226028.
2
Balrampur Hospital, Barudkhana, Lal Masjid, Golaganj, Lucknow (U.P)- 226018.
arpitmohan2010@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ankylosing spondylitis(AS) is the most frequent and severe subtype of
spondyloarthritis, an outcome of any of the other spondyloarthritis subtype. It
primarily affects the axial joints mostly the sacroiliac joints. Other sites of
involvement include the spine, peripheral joints and enthuses (capsules, ligament
and tendons). Inflammatory enthesopathy progressing to ossification and
ankylosis is the pathologic basis for the disease. Extra articular manifestation
vary widely in terms of both frequency and severity. The most common extraarticular manifestations are represented by uveitis, bowel disease, heart, lung,
skin, bone and kidney involvement. This review focuses on prevalence and
clinical characteristics of the most common extra-articular manifestations in AS
and discusses the diagnosis and therapeutic difficulties faced by rheumatologists
while dealing with such manifestations. The advantages of treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on continuous use is envisaged
should be weighted against possible gastrointestinal and cardiovascular disorders.
In the presence of history of gastrointestinal complaints or high cardiovascular
risk, NSAIDs should be used with caution. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
inhibition has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of AS symptoms and
all currently available anti-TNF agents appear to have similar efficacy. However,
the efficacy of anti-TNF agents varies in the presence of extra articular
manifestations. Disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) such as
methotrexate can be used when NSAIDs alone are not enough to reduce the
inflammation, stiffness & pain. More than 1 million cases per year in India are
reported.
Keywords: Ankylosing Spondylitis, Extra-Articular Manifestations, Disease
Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs, Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

PHARMACOVIGILANCE GUIDELINES
*Srivastva Shobhit Prakash, I.C.Giri, Singh Ankit
Dr.M.C. Saxena college of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacovigilance is defined as the science and activities concerned with the
detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse reactions to
medicines (i.e. adverse drug reactions or ADRs). The ultimate goal of this activity
is to improve the safe and rational use of medicines, thereby improving patient
care and public health. The {Drug Regulatory Authority} defines an Adverse
Drug Reactions (ADR) or adverse reaction as a response to a medicine used in
humans or animals, which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy,
and which occurs at any dosage and can also result from overdose, misuse or
abuse of a medicine. When a medicine is released onto the market there is still a
great deal that is unknown about the safety of the product. Once marketed the
medicines are used by patients who have many different diseases, who are using
several other drugs and who have different traditions and diets which may affect
the way in which they react to a medicine. The adverse drug reactions and
poisonings associated with traditional and herbal remedies also need to be
monitored in each country. In order to prevent unnecessary suffering by patients
and to decrease the financial loss sustained by the patient due to the inappropriate
or unsafe use of medicines, it is essential that a monitoring system for the safety
of medicines in {Country}is supported by doctors, pharmacists, nurses and other
health professionals in the country. The {Drug Regulatory Authority} and the
Department of Healths Essential Drug Programmed are committed to improving
drug safety through adverse drug reaction monitoring in {Country}.
Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, Adverse Drug Reactions, Drug Regulatory
Authority.

PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS


EXTRACT OF ALLAMANDA CATHARTICA FOR IN- VIVO
NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY AND IN-VITRO
ANTICHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY
Prajapati Priyanka, Kaur Awaneet, Mishra Vishwambhar, Saraf Shailendra K.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology, Lucknow226028, U. P., India.

ABSTRACT
Allamanda cathartica, commonly known as Yellow Bell or Golden Trumpet,
Family- Apocynaceae, has been used in various pharmacological folkloric uses to
treat a wide range of ailments. In this study, memory enhancing activity of
aqueous extract of Allamanda cathartica was evaluated using scopolamine
induced amnesia in rats, and in-vitro anticholinesterase activity was performed
using chicken ileum. The aqueous extract of Allamanda cathartica, at the doses of
200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, was evaluated for in-vivo nootropic activity with the
help of Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Y- Maze models using rats. The anticholinesterase activity was determined by Ellmans assay, using acetylcholine as
the substrate. The aqueous extract of plant was found to be effective and
significant, in both in-vivo nootropic activity and in- vitro anticholinesterase
activity, at both the doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) and the dose 400 mg/kg
was more potent than the dose 200 mg/kg. These results suggested that the doses
(200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of Allamanda cathartica enhanced
the memory due to facilitation of cholinergic-transmission. Thus, on the basis of
the results obtained in the study, it may be concluded that the aqueous extract of
Allamanda cathartica exhibits convincing memory enhancing effect and it would
be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of impaired
learning and memory.

Keywords: Allamanda cathartica, anticholinesterase, Yellow Bell, Golden


Trumpet.

ANTIPSYCHOTIC ACTIVITY OF HERBAL EXTRACTS OF


EMBELICA OFFICINALIS IN AMPHETAMINE INDUCED
HYPERACTIVITY MICE MODEL
Srivastava Amit kishor
Goel Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Embelica officinalis is reported to have CNS active Principle and is used for the
treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence the effect of herbal extracts of
Embelica officinalis was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using
amphetamine challenged mice model. haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) was administered
acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10%DMSO).
The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the
antipsychotic activity of the extracts with its capacity to bind to the DAD2
receptor. The result in SLA showed that the herbal extracts of Embelica
Officinalis at a dose of 25 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in
amphetamine induced hyperactivity mice when compared to standard. The plant
extracts increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent Manner in
mice compared to the control group.
Keywords: Embelica officinalis, amphetamine, locomotar activity.

HOSPITAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACIST PRESENT AND


FUTURE ROLES
Singh Ankit*, I.C. Giri, Tripathi Ankur, Asad Mohd
Dr.M. C. Sxaena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Hospital pharmacy is the health care service, which comprises the art, practice,
and profession of choosing, preparing, storing, compounding, and dispensing
medicines and medical devices, advising healthcare professionals and patients on
their safe, effective and efficient use. Hospital pharmacy is a specialised field of
pharmacy which forms an integrated part of patient health care in a health facility.
Hospital pharmacy is the profession that strives to continuously maintain and
improve the medication management and pharmaceutical care of patients to the
highest standards in a hospital setting. Hospital pharmacists provide services to
patients and health care professionals in hospitals. The missions of the hospital
pharmacist

to be part of the medication management in hospitals, which

encompasses the entire way in which medicines are selected, procured, delivered,
prescribed, administered and reviewed to optimise the contribution that medicines
make to producing informed and desired outcomes to enhance the safety and
quality of all medicine related processes affecting patients of the hospital to
ensure the 7 rights are respected: right patient, right dose, right route, right time,
right drug with the right information and documentation. Clinical Pharmacy is a
health specialty, which describes the activities and services of the clinical
pharmacist to develop and promote the rational and appropriate use of medicinal
products and devices. Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services performed by
pharmacists practising in hospitals, community pharmacies, nursing homes,
home-based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines are
prescribed and used. The term clinical does not necessarily imply an activity
implemented in a hospital setting. A community pharmacist may perform clinical
activities as well as a hospital practitioner.

Keywords: Hospital pharmacy, medication, pharmacists practicing.

THE STUDY OF YOGA AND NATUROPATHY


Mishra Ashutosh1*, Dwivedi Pankaj1, Patel Akash1, GuptaPrasant2,
Goel Institute of Pharmacy &Sciences, Near Indira Canal, Faizabad Road,
Lucknow (U.P)-226028.
E-mail: email2ashutoshmishra.786@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The study was designed to investigate the effects of yoga practices and
naturopathy treatments on selected blood sugar & blood pressure variables of
diabetic patients. For this 45 diabetic patients were selected randomly from Annai
Sakunthala Nature Cure Hospital & Yoga Centre, Karaikudi. Their age ranged
from 35 to 55 years. The treatment was given during the working days (except
Saturdays and Sundays). The experimental group 1 underwent naturopathy
treatment, experimental group 2 underwent yogic practices and control group was
not given any specific training. The following criterion variables were chosen
namely, blood sugar, blood pressure and were assessed before and after the
training period of 12 weeks. The analysis of co-variance and Scheffes Post_Hoc
test were used to test the adjusted posttest mean difference among the
experimental groups. The study revealed that the selected blood sugar and blood
pressure were significantly reduced due to the influence of yogic practices and
naturopathy treatments in diabetic patients. Types of Mud and chemical
composition, various types of Mud, Natural Mud baths, Mud packs, Dry bath,
Sand bath.
Keywords: Yogic Practices, Naturopathy Treatments, Blood Sugar, Blood
Pressure.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TRANSFEROSOMES AND


ETHOSOMES FOR TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF
SERTRALINE AS ANTIDEPRESSANT
Krishna Mishra*, Vaibhav Kr, Upadhyay Savita, Saraf Shailendra K.
Babu Banarasi Das Northern India Institute of Technology, Lucknow (U.P.) 226028.
E-mail: krishnna916@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sertraline, a
poorly water-soluble drug, employing conventional ethosomes and transfersomes.
The prepared formulations were characterized for the loaded drug amount and
vesicle size. The cumulative amount of drug permeated after 24 h, flux, and
permeability coefficient were assessed. Stability studies were performed for three
months. The size of vesicles ranged from 100 to 375 nm, and the encapsulation
efficiency of the sertraline obtained was between 77.104% and 94.26%. The
prepared vesicular systems were incorporated into 1% Carbopol 914 gel, and a
survey of in-vitro drug release and drug retention into dialysis membrane 10000
(molecular weight) was done on them using a modified Keshary- Chein cell. The
ethosomes provided a significantly higher amount of cumulative permeation,
steady state flux, permeability coefficient, and residual drug into skin compared to
the conventional transferosomes and conventional gel. The in-vitro release data of
all vesicular systems were well fit into Hix Crow Model. Vesicle shape was
confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

Ethosomes enhanced skin

delivery of sertraline because of the excellent release and permeation of the drug.
Also, no skin irritation was observed when the gel the formulation was applied.
These studies have shown promising feasibility of delivering sertraline through an
ethosomal transdermal gel. Stability tests indicated that the vesicular formulations
were stable over three months. Results revealed that both ethosome and
transferosome formulations could act as drug reservoirs in skin and extend the
pharmacological effects of Sertraline.
Keywords: Transdermal permeation, Sertraline, Ethosomes.

LIPOSOMAL GEL OF MICONAZOLE:


CHARACTERIZATION AND STABILITY STUDY
Singh Amit
R.V. Northland Institute of Pharmacy
Dadri, Greator Noida phase, Gautam Budh Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India-203207.
Email: amit21may@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim our study was to develop a liposomal carrier system for the local
treatment of fungal vaginosis capable to efficiently deliver entrapped drug during
an extended period of time. Miconazole was entrapped in liposomes composed of
soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in ratio (7:3, w/w) and
prepared by proliposomes method. Liposomes preparation were characterized for
particle size, polydispersity, entrapment efficiency and tested for in vitro release
and stability, in media that simulate human vaginal conditions (buffer pH 4.5 and
vaginal fluid simulant). To achieve application viscosity of liposomes and to
further improve their stability, liposomes prepared by the proliposomes method
were incorporated in the bioadhesive gel made of carbopol-974PNF. In vitro
release studies of liposomes incorporated in the gel have shown a prolonged
release of entrapped miconazole compared to control gel. Even after 24 hours of
incubation in the vaginal fluid simulant, more than 45% of the originally
entrapped drug was still retained in the gel. Storage stability studies have proven
the ability of the carbopol-974PNF gel to preserve the original size distribution of
incorporated liposomes. All the performed experiments confirm the applicability
of liposomes as a novel drug carrier system for the local treatment of fungal
vaginosis.
Keywords: Miconazole, carbopol-974PNF, in vitro release.

LOCAL MARKET SURVEY FOR ANTIFUNGAL DRUG


Yadav P. Ajay*, Kumar Deepchand, Yadav p. Abhay, yadav bhavana
R.K.Pharmacy Collage Azamgarh (U.P)

ABSTRACT
Fungal infection can occurs on the superficial and deep skin, mucous
membranes, subcutaneous tissues or deep seated organs. Fungal infection are
also called mycoses .There are three types of mycoses; Superficial mycoses,
Subcutaneous mycoses, Systemic mycoses. Some antifungal drugs can bind with
the ergosterol of cell membrane of fungus (but not with the cholesterol of human
cell) and damage the fungal cell membrane.

Drugs for antifungal are

Amphotericin B, 5- Flurocytosine, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole, Terbinafine.


This report is an invaluable tool for planners, acquisitions specialists, licensing
strategists, product managers, market research analysts, investor consultants, and
anyone interested in the current and emerging antifungals market, its products,
its industry participants, and its future. The antifungal drugs market is considered
to be a very popular over-the-counter drug segment particularly for dermal
infections. The global antifungal drugs market can be segmented on the basis of
type of treatment, application and therapeutic indications. Depending on the line
of treatment, antifungal agents are divided into azoles, echinocandins, and
ployenes. Antifungal drugs are available in various drug formations such as
cream, tablet, suppository, capsule, and powders. Our survey reveals that
fluconazole, and clotrimazole are widely used as compare to itraconazole and
other anti-fungal drug and in case of dosage form cream are widely used than
tablet, capsule and powder in our area. the Glen mark products marketed more
as compare to other companies due to availability and economic level. This
report provides an analysis of the prescription market for systemic and topical
antifungals, as well as the OTC market for topical antifungal agents.
Keywords: OTC, Anti-fungal, Topical.

PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FLAX SEEDS: A


REVIEW
Kumar Akash*, Yadav K. Pawan, Yadav P. Abhay, Yadav Bhavana
R. K. Pharmacy College, Azamgarh.

ABSTRACT
Linum usitatissimum, commonly known as flaxseed or linseed belongs to the
family Linaceae. It is native to West Asia and the Mediterranean. Flax is a small,
herbaceous, annual plant, growing to 1, 2 meters tall. It has erect, smooth stem
and glaucous green, linear leaves. Flowers are small, five-petalled, pale blue or
bright red in color. Fruits are round, dry capsules filled with brown seeds.
Flaxseed has been playing a major role in the field of disease research due to its
chemical constituent like - Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), unsaturated fatty acids
(linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid). Flaxseed is also an good source of
protein and dietary fibre, accounting for 20% and 28% of the flax seed. Brown
and yellow varieties of flax are virtually identical in their nutrient content but
Protein, Saturated fatty acid, Monounsaturated fatty acid & Linoleic acid are more
in Yellow flax as compare to Brown flax while Oil/fat & Alpha-linolenic acid are
more in brown flax as compare to yellow flax. The nutritional differences
between them are small and likely result from differences in growing conditions.
It is used as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antilipimic effect, antineoplastic,
hormonal effect, anticoagulant & antipletlet effect due to presence of alphalinolenic acid (ALA), cyanogenic glycosides (linamarin, linustatin, neolinustin),
unsaturated fattyacids (linolenic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid), soluble flaxseed
fiber mucilage (d-Xylose, L-Galactose, L-Rhamnose,d-galacturonic acid), lignans
(secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG)), monoglycerides,triglycerides, free
sterols, sterol esters, hydrocarbons (protein), balast, phenylpropane derivatives.
Finally it is concluded that Flaxseed is extremely health valuable plant.
Keywords: Linum usitatissimum, Alpha-linolenic acid, Cyanogenic glycosides.

A REVIEW ON ANTI-PYRETIC HERBAL PLANTS


Yadav Arati *, Gupta Juhi, Yadav Archana, Yadav Bhavana, Roshan Asha,
R.K.Pharmacy Collage Azamgarh (U.P.).

ABSTRACT
The role of traditional medicines in the remedy of health problems is invaluable
on a global level. A large number of antipyretic plants such as Tulsi, Neem,
Dhaniya, Amla, Apamarg, Brahmi etc. are used traditionally to cure pyrexia in
India and other parts of the world. The practice continues today because of
biomedical benefits for herbal products rising worldwide. Elevations in body
temperature occurs when concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increase
within certain areas of the brain and is commonly suppressed with antipyretic
medication such as aspirin. Antipyretic acts by inhibiting the enzyme
cyclooxygenase and reducing the levels of PGE2 in the hypothalamus. In this
review we have enlisted around 50 medicinal plants which are used as an
antipyretic agent which can be one of the good alternatives for the traditional
allopathic antipyretic agents. A number of plant extract have rosmarinic acid that
inhibit leukotriene and prostaglandins synthesis. COX-1 and COX-2 were
inhibited by cirsilineol, cirsimaritin,aligning,rosmarinic acid and eugenol of
similar to ibuprofen, naproxen and aspirin. The medicinal plants with folklore
uses, having antipyretics or any other pharmacological activity should be
subjected to clinical investigation. Proper regulatory mechanism is recommended
to ensure safety and efficacy of herbal products.
Keywords: Herbal drugs, COX, PGE2.

A MARKET SURVEY OF NON STEROID ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS IN LOCAL AREA


Chauhan Kr. Santosh*,Yadav Gopal, Yadav Kamlesh, Yadav Bhavana
R.K.Pharmacy Collage Azamgarh(U.P).

ABSTRACT
Analgesic-antipyretics are drugs which produce relief of pain and lowering of
body temperature. These drugs relieve pain of lesser intensity like tooth-ache and
muscle pain but visceral pain relieved by opioid analgesics. The NSAIDs are
COX inhibitors and they inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2. Most widely used
NSAIDs are Asprin, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, Nimesulide, Celecoxib, Diclofenac
etc. The NSAIDs drugs market is considered to be a very popular over-thecounter drug. This report provides an analysis of the prescription and OTC
market for systemic and topical NSAIDs. This report is a precious tool for
planners, specialists, licensing strategists, product managers, market research
analysts, investor consultants and anyone interested in the current and emerging
NSAIDs market. This report focuses on marketed NSAIDs with their mechanism
of action. NSAIDs drugs are used to eliminate temperature, inflammation and
pain with minimal side effects to the body. The global NSAIDs drugs market can
be segmented on the basis of type of treatment, application and therapeutic
indications. There are different dosage forms are available in our local market like
tablets,syrup,injection, and gel. Our survey reveals that

paracetamol

and

nimuslide are widely used as compare to diclofinac and other NSAIDs drug and
in case of dosage form tablet are widely used than syrups, gel and injection in our
area the Glaxo smith kline (gsk) products are most marketed as compared to
other companies due to availability and economic level. This report provides an
analysis of the prescription market for systemic NSAIDs as well as the OTC
market for NSAIDs drugs.
Keywords: NSAIDs, OTC, COX inhibitors.

THE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL


APPROACH VIA GASTRIC RETENTION
Kumar Utpal*, Maurya K. Virendra
R.K Pharmacy College, Azamgarh.

ABSTRACT
Floating drug delivery system (FDDS) is an approach to design single and
multiple unit floating system which affect physiological and formulation
variables. The drugs which can be retained in stomach are called gastro retentive
drug (GRD). Gastro retentive drug delivery system can improve controlled
delivery of the drug that have an absorption window by continually releasing the
drug for a prolonged period of the time thus ensuring its optimal bioavailability.
The absorption is taken place in upper left part of stomach .The FDD tablet have
bulk density less than gastric fluid, so the tablet remain buoyant in the stomach
without affecting the gastric emptying rate for a pronged period of time and the
drug is slowly released at a desired rate. The residual system is emptied from the
stomach by which gastro retention time increases and a better control of
fluctuations in plasma drug concentration these maximizes their absorption and
improve their absolute bioavailability. FDDS used for gastric and duodenal cancer
treatment, particularly for acid soluble drugs. In the evaluation of floating drug
delivery system the several in-vitro parameters may perform like hardness,
friability, weight variation, floating time, dissolution, disintegration etc. Finally it
is concluded that FDDS is a superior method as compared to other conventional
systems.
Keywords: Floating drug delivery system (FDDS), Gastro retentive.

MULTI BENEFICIAL AYURVEDIC PLANT: PICRORHIZA


KURROA (KUTKI)
Jayswal Ashutosh*, Yadav Jay Prakash, Kumar Ajay, Yadav Harikesh,
Kumar Pankaj
R.K.Pharmacy College, Azamgarh.

ABSTRACT
The current aim of our study is to explore antioxidant activity of Picrorhiza kurroa
leaves. P. kurroa leaves is well known herb in Ayurvedic field and it shows anti
inflammatory immunomodulator and hepatoprotective activities also. The
compounds extracted from the leave with the help of butanol and ethyl acetate
showed better antioxidant activity as compared to ethanol extract. Picrorhiza
kurroa (kutki) belongs to the family scrophulariaceae. It is found in Himalaya
region from Kashmir to Sikkim it is even found in Nepal. Leaves are 5-15 cm
long, flowers are 8 mm long, fruits are 1.3cm long and rhizomes are 15-25 cm
long. Its colour is purplish blue and taste is bitter and pungent. It plays a major
role in the field of medicine research due to kitin, Picrorrhizin cucurbitacin ,
benetic acid, vannilac acid , kutkisterol, Apocynine and D mannitol. It is used as
antioxidant, for liver health, for elevated blood sugar, for clear skin,for parasites,
antibiotics and anti parasitical to treat fever. Due to the intense bitterness and
powerful healing properties of Kutki, it has been used in many traditional
Ayurvedic formulations such as Tikta Ghrita (Bitter Ghee).

Keywords: Picrorhiza kurroa, leaves, antioxidant activity.

A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF ANTIBIOTICS IN OUR AREA


Kumar Manoj*, Kushwaha S Ram, Yadav Bhavana
R.K. Pharmacy College Azamgarh

ABSTRACT
Antibiotics used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infection by either
killing or inhibit the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics are not effective against
viruses such as the common cold or influenza. In 1928 penicillin is identified as
the first chemical compound having antibiotics properties. There are different
route of administration for antibiotics like capsules, tablets, syrups, intravenous
and intramuscular injection. The most commonly used antibiotics are penicillin
(phenoxy methyl penicillin, amoxicillin ), cephalosporin (cefixime, cefadroxil ),
quinolin (ciprofloxacin, norflaxacin ), tetracycllin (tetracycllin, doxycycllin). The
antibiotics have many side effects such as the diarrhea, vaginal itching, vomiting,
and swelling in the lips, face and tongue. On the basis of marketing decreasing
order of Antibiotics are: Ofloxacine, Cefexime, levofloxacine, Ceftriaxon and
Norfloxacine. The marketing of FDC is much more than mankind, Aristo and
Lupin due to availability and cost effective.
Keywords: Anti-biotics, FDC, Penicillin, lupin.

IMPORTANCE OF CLINICAL TRAILS IN DRUG


DEVELOPMENT
Pandey Shubham, Nayak Abhishek Kumar, Raj Sristi, Kapoor Kashish,
Deep Prakash
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Clinical trials are the gold standard for understanding the effect and effectiveness
of medical interventions understanding what works and what does not work.
Clinical

trials

are

research

studies

that

explore

whether

medical

strategy, treatment, or device is safe and effective for humans. These studies also
may show which medical approaches work best for certain illnesses or groups of
people. Clinical trials produce the best data available for health care decision
making the purpose of clinical trials is research, so the studies follow strict
scientific standards. These standards protect patients and help produce reliable
study results. Clinical trials are one of the final stages of a long and careful
research process. The process often begins in a laboratory, where scientists first
develop and test new ideas. The result from clinical trials helps to fulfill societys
responsibility to those individual who volunteered in these studies with an
understanding that their participation will contribute in advancing medical
knowledge. In clinical trials, there are four phases. This study provides an
overview of the clinical trials, its phase and designing, regulatory bodies, status of
clinical trials in India, job opportunities, observations and results.
Keywords: Clinical trials, health care, volunteered.

PHARMACEUTICAL CARE: NEEDS AND CHALLENGES


Yadav Rohit*, Gupta Rishabh, Gupta Vishal, Kumari Anjali, Srivastava Vivek
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Pharmaceutical care is the direct, responsible provision of medication-related care
for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve patients quality of
life. It involves not only medication therapy but also decisions about medication
use for individual patients like selection of dosage form, routes and method of
administration, medication therapy monitoring and provision of medication
related information and counselling to individual patients. For achieving better
outcomes in pharmaceutical care; identification of potential and medication
related problems, resolving actual medication problems and prevention of
potential medication related problems is very much necessary. Patient should be
involved in an informed way in establishing the quality of life goals for their
therapies. The patient should grant authority to the provider and the provider
gives competence and commitment to the patient. Responsibility involves both
moral trust worthiness and accountability. The provision of pharmaceutical care is
not limited to pharmacist in inpatient, outpatient or community settings nor to
pharmacist with certain degrees, residencies or other credentials, it is a matter of
direct personal professional, responsible relationship with a patient to ensure that
patients use of medication is optimal and leads to improvement to patients
quality of life. Use of polypharmacy must be avoided to minimize cost and
enhance compliance. Always treat disease not just only symptoms and try to treat
disease with non drug alternatives like physical therapy, counselling and
relaxation techniques.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical care, polypharmacy, counselling.

DENGUE: A RECENT PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY


Deep Prakash*, Srivastava Vivek
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Dengue is a vector borne disease which is caused by Dengue Virus (DENV) i.e. a
mosquito-borne flavivirus. It is distributed in most tropical and subtropical areas,
where Aedes aegypti and/or Aedes albopictus are abundant. DENV is a single
stranded RNA positive-strand virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus.
There are four antigenically different serotypes of the virus (although there is
report of 2013 that a fifth serotype has been found): DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV3, DENV-4. Infection with DENV can cause The virus uncoats intracellularly via
a specific process. In the infectious form of the virus, the envelope protein lays
flat on the surface of the virus, forming a smooth coat with icosahedral symmetry.
However, when the virus is carried into the cell and into lysozomes, the acidic
environment causes the protein to snap into a different shape, assembling into
trimeric spike. Several hydrophobic amino acids at the tip of this spike insert into
the lysozomal membrane and cause the virus membrane to fuse with lysozome.
This releases the RNA into the cell and infection starts.
Yet there is no vaccines to prevent infection with Dengue virus and the most
effective protective measures are those that avoid mosquito bites. When infected,
early recognition and prompt supportive treatment can substantially lower the risk
of medical complications and death. Some studies have reported that use of some
natural drugs is very effective in dengu like papaya (Carica papaya), giloy
(Tinospora cordifolia), pomegranate (Punica granatum), aloe (Aloe barbadensis),
wheat grass (Triticum aestivum), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) etc.
Keywords: Dengue, RNA, DENV.

FOR ORAL PRESENTATION ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN


PEPTIC ULCER
Kulshreshtha Mayank*, Singh Majul Pratap
School of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
The pharmacist plays a important role in case of peptic ulcer. Perfect knowledge
about peptic ulcer play a important part in our life so maintain hygiene, avoid
alcohol, smoking and spicy foods an live healthy. Pharmacist can help for
prevention of ulcer by patient counseling and giving some important advises to
the community. Peptic ulcer disease includes both gastric and duodenal ulcers
which posed a major threat to the world's population over the past two centuries
with a high morbidity and mortality. The management of peptic ulcer disease and
its complications remain a challenge. In addition, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs), low-dose aspirin, smoking, excessive alcohol use, emotional
stress and psychosocial factors are increasingly important causes of ulcers and
their complications even in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) negative patients.
Other rare causes of peptic ulcer disease in the absence of H. pylori, NSAIDs, and
aspirin also exist. Approximately 500,000 persons develop peptic ulcer disease in
the United States each year. In 70 percent of patients it occurs between the ages of
25 and 64 years. The annual direct and indirect health care costs of the disease are
estimated at about 10 billion. However, the incidence of peptic ulcers is declining,
possibly as a result of the increasing use of proton pump inhibitors and decreasing
rates of infection.
Key points: Peptic ulcer, H. pylori, Pharmacist.

THIAZOLIDIEDIONE AND ITS ANALOGUES AS


INHIBITORS OF MAO-A & MAO-B
Shukla Karuna*, Monika1,Pandey Shailendra2,Chawla Pooja3
1

School of Pharmacy, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow.


2
Sarojani Naidu Medical College, Agra.
3
Gyani Inder Singh Institute of Professional Studies, Uttarakhand.
E-mail: Karunaforyou06@gamil.com

ABSTRACT
MAO-B is a mitochondrial protein located in the outer mitochondrial layer and
catalyzes the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. MAO-B has
therefore been of interest in the development of therapeutic agents for the
treatment of Parkinsons disease (PD). In Parkinsons disease there is loss of
dopaminergic neurons of the stratum leading to the characteristic associated
symptoms. Inhibition of MAO-Bleads to increased levels of dopamine and
therefore provide symptomatic relief of these patients. Additional interest in
MAO-B has been due to the promise of neuroprotection resulting from the
inhibition of this enzyme.Considering the importance of MAO-B inhibition in
neuroprotection against Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease, the activity
of several thiazolidine-2,4-dione analogues as MAO-B inhibitors as well as its
isoform, MAO-A. The compounds showed some selectivity between the two
isomers of MAO favoring MAO-B over MAO-A. Thiazolidine-2.4-dione and its
analogues may be useful in developing potential therapies for diseases such as
Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers disease.
Keywords: MAO, Parkinsons disease, thiazolidinedione.

THE REGULATORY AFFAIRS PROFESSION IN INDIA


Giri Ishwar Chandra*
Dr M C Saxena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow.

ABSTRACT
Globally the pharmaceutical and medical device regulatory affairs profession has
undergone tremendous change in past decade. The profession has gone from
having a liasing and documenting function to a profession which has an important
strategic and decision-making role within companies. In India, the drug industry
has grown from API manufacturing through reverse engineering to pure research
and development. Regulatory Authority of India issued guideline for Fixed Dose
Combination, Implementation of Common Technical Dossier (CTD), Clinical
Trial Registry of India (CTRI) as well as Pharmacovigilance cell. The goal of the
regulatory affairs professional is protection of human health, ensuring safety,
efficacy, and quality of drugs, ensuring appropriateness and accuracy of product
information. Regulatory affairs professionals are the link between pharmaceutical
industries and worldwide regulatory agencies. They are required to be well versed
in the laws, regulations, guidelines and guidance of the regulatory agencies. There
is a growing need to incorporate the current requirements of pharmaceutical
industries in the standard curriculum of pharmacy colleges to prepare the students
with the latest developments to serve the industries Under Drug Regulatory
Affairs section, we have studied the link of Global, Regional as well as National
Regulatory Network. We have learnt that Regulatory Affairs professionals are
very critical and important for the national and international business of
pharmaceutical industry. Regulatory network in pharmaceutical industry indicates
that communication and advice to various departments in industry is very
essential. He /she play an active role in defining guidelines nationally and
internationally.
Keywords: Common Technical Dossier (CTD), Pharmacovigilance, Clinical
Trial Registry of India (CTRI).

ANTIBIOTIC DE-ESCALATION IN THE INTENSIVE


THERAPY
Singh Pradeep*, Mishra Prayag, Singh Shalini, Kumar Pragyesh
Institute.of Pharmaceutical sciences& Research (IPSR) Sohramau Unnao, -209859.

ABSTRACT
An antibiotic may be defined as a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the
growth of, bacteria. Antibiotics belong to the broader group of antimicrobial
compounds, used to treat infections caused by microorganisms, including fungi
and protozoa, viruses. Antibiotic de-escalation is a mechanism whereby the
provision of effective initial antibiotic treatment is achieved while avoiding
unnecessary antibiotic use that would promote the development of resistance. The
embodiment of de-escalation is that based on microbiology results around the day
3 therapy point; the empiric antibiotic(s) that were started are stopped or reduced
in number and/or narrowed in spectrum.
Keywords: ITU (Intensive Therapy Unit), MDR (Multi Drug Resistant),
Antibiotics,
(Procalcitonin).

MRSA

("methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

aureus) PCT:

ORGANIC FARMING, A CHANGE NEEDED FOR BETTER


HUMAN HEALTH
Kasera Saurabh*, Saravanan S., Singh Sandeep
Department of Horticulture,
Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology and Sciences, (Deemed to be
University), Allahabad-211007, (U.P.) India

ABSTRACT
Organic farming is expanding their importance globally by making healthy food,
healthy soils, healthy plants and healthy environments a priority along with crop
productivity. Organic farming is an agricultural system of crop production that
gives priority to human health with increased productivity. It is a method of
growing food without the use of toxic substances which means organically. The
use of chemicals in agriculture has been linked to several diseases (like cancer) in
many parts of the body including the brain and central nervous system, pancreas,
kidneys and stomach etc. Organic farmers use biological fertilizer inputs and
management practices such as cover cropping and crop rotation to improve soil
quality and build soil organic matter. Organic farming practices maintain water
quality, support biodiversity, and have potential to mitigate global climate change
while supporting an economic bright spot. The benefits of organic farming are
widespread and important to multiple sectors of society. Organic products are
important in protecting and enhancing the health of a family and their children.
Young bodies in particular are more susceptible to the impacts of pesticides,
fungicides and other synthetic chemicals used in non- organically grown fruits
and vegetables. Eating a healthy diet rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants is
a solid investment in preventative care. Preventing disease is much costlier than
treating disease. Organic foods can play an important role in keeping people
healthy.
Keywords: Organic farming, biological fertilizers, toxic substances.

CLINICAL PHARMACY AND ROLE IN RATIONAL USE OF


MEDICINES
Fatima Tatheer, Yadav Meena, Hussain Zeashan
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Pharmacy, Lucknow

ABSTRACT
WHO estimates that medicines are prescribed dispensed or sold inappropriately
and that half of all patients fail to take them correctly, which causes irrational
used and effect of drugs.Irrational use of medicines like antibiotics is a major
problem and needs to be taken a serious note. The overuse, underuse or misuse of
medicines result in wastage of scarce resource and widespread health hazards.
Hence, as a pharmacist, we monitor adherence to this as gatekeeper of the
drugs, by asking to plan development in clinical pharmacy service to improve the
prudent use & monitoring of medicines in their hospitals. Clinical pharmacy is a
practice and/or a branch of pharmacy in which pharmacist provide patients
medication and promote health, wellness and diseases prevention that overcome
the irrational use of medicines and on the other hand, prudent medicines use also
can be the best supported by a combination of educating the junior doctors about
empirical treatment & maintaining a restricted list.
Keywords: Pharmacist, Clinical pharmacy, rational, WHO, medicines.

ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN CLINICAL PHARMACY: AN


OVERVIEW
Srivastava Mansi*, Srivastava Shobhit Prakash, Giri I. C.
Dr. M.C. Saxena College of Pharmacy, Lucknow (U.P.).

ABSTRACT
Clinical Pharmacy is a health specialty, which describes the activities and services
of the clinical pharmacist to develop and promote the rational and appropriate use
of medicinal products and devices. Clinical Pharmacy includes all the services
performed by pharmacists practising in hospitals,community pharmacies, nursing
homes, home-based care services, clinics and any other setting where medicines
are prescribed and used. The term clinical does not necessarily imply an activity
implemented in a hospital setting. A community pharmacist may perform clinical
activities as well as a hospital practitioner.The goal of clinical pharmacy activities
is to promote the correct and appropriate use of medicinal products and devices.
Assuring safe, accurate, rational and cost-effective use of medications .To achieve
desired therapeutic goals, the clinical pharmacist applies evidence-based
therapeutic guidelines, evolving sciences, emerging technologies, and relevant
legal, ethical, social, cultural, economic and professional principles. Assume
responsibility and accountability for managing medication therapy in direct
patient

care

settings,

whether

practicing

independently

or

in

consultation/collaboration with other health care professionals. Within the system


of health care, clinical pharmacists are experts in the therapeutic use of
medications.
Keywords: Clinical Pharmacy, Community pharmacies, Hospital practitioner.

THE ROLE OF TRANSPORTERS IN NEPHROTOXICITY


Kumar Sokindra*, Parihar Lalit, Saba Noorus, Gupta Ramji
R V Northland Institute, Dadri, G B Nagar, UP-203207.

ABSTARCT
A variety of pathogenic mechanisms play a role in drug-induced nephrotoxicity,
including hemodynamic changes, glomerular disease, interstitial nephritis, direct
cytotoxicity which may result in tubular cell death, and intratubular precipitation
of drugs leading to obstructive nephropathy. High delivery of blood-borne
substances, as well as concentration of xenobiotics entering the tubular lumen in
the course of their tubular passage, in particular under conditions of dehydration,
contribute to the particular vulnerability of the kidneys to injury by clinically
relevant drugs, as well as environmental toxins. Organic anion transporters play
an essential role in the distribution and excretion of numerous endogenous
metabolic products and exogenous organic anions, including a host of widely
prescribed drugs. The expression and activity of these transporters is influenced
by several conditions, including transcriptional regulation, gender-dependent
regulation, and genetic variation. Drug transporters in tubular cells are the first
fundamental stage in the development of the nephrotoxic process. Several
examples can be given of organic substances that are nephrotoxic only after being
transported into the cells. Recent advances in molecular cloning have identified
several families of multispecific drug transporters: organic anion and cation
transporter (OAT/OCT) family, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)
family, type I sodium-phosphate transporters (NPTs) and ATP-dependent organic
ion transporters such as MDR1/ P-glycoprotein ABCB and the multidrug
resistance-associated protein (MRP) family ABCC.
Keywords: Nephrotoxicity, Intratubular, type I sodium-phosphate transporters
(NPTs).

A FOCUS ON PHARMACOVIGILANCE WITH SPECIAL


VIEWS ON PAIN MANAGEMENT NEED FOR PUBLIC
HEALTH CARE
Pandey Anurag*, Agrawal Vipin Kumar, Joshi Abhishek Raj
Invertis Institute of Pharmacy, Invertis University, NH-24, Lucknow Bareilly Highway, Bareilly,
India, Pin- 243123.

ABSTRACT
Pharmacovigilance (pv or phv), also known as drug safety is the pharmacological
science relating to the collection, detection, assesment, monitoring and prevention
of adverse effect with pharmaceutical products. It plays a key role in the health
care system through the assesment, monitoring and discovery of intreaction
amongst drug and their effect in human.
For safety medication adrs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its
life during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of
drug design, clinical trials & post marketing periods. Different person shows
different response because of variation in human DNA. PV team obtain valuable
information for making required scientific data fulfilled in the real report to make
it more effective. It helps to improve the condition of public health care.
Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, DNA, Pharmaceutical.

PHYTOTHERAPY: A NOVEL TREATMENT FOR DENGUE


Varshney Yash*, Rahul, Kumar Yogesh, Khan Rahul
R V Northland Institute, Dadri, Gautam Budh Nagar (UP).

ABSTRACT
Dengue is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus, which is
transmitted by several species of mosquito within the genus Aedes, principally A.
aegypti. The number of cases of dengue fever has increased dramatically since the
1960s, with between 50 and 528 million people infected yearly. Symptoms
include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that
is similar to measles. Treatment of acute dengue is supportive, using either oral or
intravenous rehydration for mild or moderate disease, and intravenous fluids and
blood transfusion for more severe cases; needs a specialized technical person and
it also caused thrombophlebitis. There is no specific antiviral medication currently
available to treat dengue. The treatment of dengue fever is symptomatic and
supportive

in

nature.

This

can

be

favor

by the

administration

of

phytopharmaceutical substances. It has been observed that the herbal plants like
papaya, pomegranate, kiwi, coconut, neem, tulsi and giloy extensively reduce the
symptoms of dengue and provide early recovery. In this literature we have
discussed the phytopharmaceutical application of these herbal plants in the
treatment of dengue.
Keywords: Dengue, Phytopharmaceutical.

RBSK: A LEADING ROLE OF A PHARMACIST IN


CHILDREN HEALTH SCREENING AND EARLY
INTERVENTION SERVICES
Mishra Sweta *,Pandey Sanjay, Aasim Mohd., Kumar Sanjay, Yogi Bhumika,
Gupta Sujeet Kumar
Hygia Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Lucknow206020
Email: sujeet20gupta2@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is an important initiative aiming at
early identification and early intervention for children from birth to 18 years to
cover 4 Ds viz. Defects at birth, Deficiencies, Diseases, Development delays
including disability. An estimated 27 crore children in the age group of zero to
eighteen years are expected to be covered across the country in a phased
expanding focus from child survival to a more comprehensive approach of child
survival and development and improving the overall quality of life has been the
guiding principle for the launch of a new initiative called the Rashtriya Bal
Swasthya Karyakram. Outreach screening will be done by dedicated Mobile
Health teams for 6 weeks to 6 years at anganwadis centres and 6-18 years children
at school. While facility based new born screening at public health facilities like
PHCs / CHCs/ DH, will be by existing health manpower like Medical Officers
and pharmacist the community level screening will be conducted by the Mobile
health teams at Anganwadi Centres and Government and Government aided
Schools. A RBSK pharmacist play a leading role in RBSK includes provision for
Child Health Screening and Early Intervention Services through early detection
and management of 4 Ds. The pharmacists role is to make sure children
understand and adhere to their medication regimen with respect to timing, dosage,
and frequency during the prescribed length of time.
Keywords: Pharmacist, Anganwadi, Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK).

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL


IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENT ANTICONVULSANT AGENTS
Mohammad Noor *, Tabassum Ruby, Srivastava Neha, Yogi Bhumika, Sinha
Anshuman, Gupta Sujeet Kumar
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Hygia Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and
Research, Lucknow206020.
Email: sujeet20gupta2@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The significance of imidazole heterocyclic nucleus in new drug development is
worth mentioning. The wide range of its application has drawn an immense
attention to the researchers to synthesize various imidazole derivatives, which
may possess various pharmacological efficacies. In view of these observations we
synthesized a series of imidazole derivatives and evaluated for their
anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock method (MES method). In
this study various substituted amines and substituted benzaldehyde were react in
the presence of glacial acetic acid to form Schiff base intermediate (1a-h). Further
Schiff base reacts with benzil in the presence of ammonium acetate afforded final
imidazole derivatives (2a-h). The structures of compounds were characterized by
FT-IR, 1H-NMR and by elemental analysis. Among all synthesized compounds,
compounds 2a, 2f, 2b were found to be most potent in comparison with standard
phenytoin.
Keywords: Imidazole, Anti-convulsant, Schiff base, Maximal electroshock
method.

TREATMENT OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASES BY


TARGETING CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS
Yadav Akash *, Tripathi Ashvani, Ujala Pawan Deep, Srivastava Arvind Kr
United Institute of Pharmacy.

ABSTRACT
Cholinergic or parasympathomimetic agents are drugs which stimulate the
effector cells innervated by post ganglionic parasympathetic cholinergic nerves.
In general, their actions are similar to those seen following the stimulation of the
parasympathetic nervous system.This study deals with biosynthesis of cholinergic
neurotransmitters. Our target of study is alzheimers disease that is associated with
brain shrinkage and localized loss of neurons, mainly in the hippocampus and
basal forebrain. AD refers to dementia that does not have an antecedent cause ,
such as stroke, brain. In this special issue of Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics,
we focus on AD therapy. With the recent failures in clinical trials of new
therapeutics for AD, it is easy to become disheartened. Challenges for successful
approval of new therapies pose exceedingly high hurdles for drug developers.
Issues such as the long duration of trials linked to the slow progression of the
disease; need for safety in elderly population; lack of biomarkers that predict
clinically meaningful change to enable decision making in advancing drug
candidates forward; recognition that early intervention, even before onset of
symptom, is required; insensitive outcome measures, patient heterogeneity and
multiple confounding factors; and lack of disease-modifying therapies, all
contribute to the landscape of barriers that further serve to disincentivize
investments for the future. We have decided to focus on what we have learned
from these trials, how we can improve our current use of therapy and what
potential therapeutics look promising for the future. This issue also paves the way
for groundbreaking strategies successfully employed in other complex diseases,
including combination drug development.
Keywords: Cholinergic drugs,Alzheimer's disease.

RECENT ADVANCES TO OVERCOME THE CHIKUNGUNIA


THREATENING
Kumar Mithilesh *, Singh,Virendra Vikram, Tiwari Kshitij, Pathak Ashutosh
Kamla Nehru Institute of management & Technology.
Email id: warikshitij8@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Chikungunya is a viral disease which is transmitted to humans by infected
mosquitoes including Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus remains in
the human system for 5-7 days and mosquitoes feeding on an infected person
during this period can also become infected. The Americas in 2015, 693 489
suspected cases and 37480 confirmed cases of chikungunya were reported to the
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) regional office, of which Colombia
bore the biggest burden with 356 079 suspected cases. Now a days it's threatenig
effect is seen in India and several positive cases have been reported. Chikungunya
shares some clinical signs with dengue and can be misdiagnosed in areas where
dengue is common . Serological tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assays (ELISA), may confirm the presence of IgM and IgG anti-chikungunya
antibodies. The virus may be isolated from the blood during the first few days of
infection. Various reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RTPCR)
methods are available but are of variable sensitivity. Treatment is directed
primarily at relieving the symptoms, including the joint pain using anti-pyretics,
optimal analgesics and fluids. or protection during outbreaks of chikungunya,
clothing which minimizes skin exposure to the day-biting vectors is advised.
Repellents should contain DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide), IR3535 (3[N-acetyl-N-butyl]-aminopropionic

acid

ethyl

ester)

or

icaridin

(1-

piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester).


Keywords: Chikungunya, IR3535, N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, IgG antichikungunya antibodies, ELISA etc.

EFFECT OF LOSARTAN ON ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUG


LEVETIRACETAM IN PTZ INDUCED KINDLING MODEL
Mishra Ashutosh*, Yadav Amod
Analytical Department, Mankind Research Centre, Gurgnao
*E-mail: ashumishrapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy is associated with increased in neuronal excitation in brain well as
oxidative stress. Treatment with both levetiracetam and losorton decreased the
seizure score and increased the latency as well as attenuated ROS generation.
Thus, combination of these drugs ameliorated PTZ-induced kindling. Epilepsy is
associated with seizure score and latency. Epileptic subject showed higher seizure
score and lower latency period. Thus, results demonstrated that combination
therapy of levetiracetam and losorton attenuates convulsion induced by PTZ.
Various central nervous system disorders have been associated with the reactive
oxygen species (ROS) generation, such as seizures (Hassan and Abdel-Aziz,
2010). ROS can damage essential cellular constituents such as lipids measured by
identification of its products thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (Souza et al.,
2009).We observed that PTZ-induced seizure increases the levels of TBARS
indicating that oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of seizures, thereby
contributing to seizure-induced brain damage, which goes fine with previous
study (Celik and Suzek, 2009). Animals treated with both levetiracetam and
losorton significantly prevented PTZ-induced elevations in lipid peroxidation. It
is also known that convulsions followed by an increase in lipid peroxidation in
brain tissue might be diminished by substances with antioxidant properties (Silva
et al., 2009). Thus, our results suggest that, levetiracetam and losorton
combination therapy have antiepileptic and antioxidant effects against PTZinduced lipid peroxidation in brain tissue. Furthermore, free radicals are normal
products of cellular aerobic metabolism involved in the development of seizures
(Sejima et al. 1997). Free radical scavenging enzymes such as GSH CAT and
SOD are the first line cellular defense against oxidative stress, eliminating
reactive oxygen radical such as superoxide (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),
and preventing the formation of more reactive hydroxyl radical (OH) (ref). Our
study goes fine with these findings where we found that the decreased activities
of GSH in PTZ-subjected rat were significantly increased on combined treatment
with levetiracetam and losorton. This finding indicated that combined therapy of
levetiracetam and losorton could improve the cellular antioxidative defense
against oxidative stress.
Keywords: Epilepsy, PTZ lipid peroxidation, free radicals.

PROBLEMS IN MAKING PEPTIDE DRUGS: A REVIEW


Dixit Surya Prakash1, Tiwari Salil2
1

R&D Department, TCG Life Science, Kolkata


Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences -226028, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Peptides and proteins are ubiquitous and are involved in nearly all physiological
processes at some level. They therefore present a wide range of therapeutic
targets. Peptides offer not only diverse chemical functionality, but also offer the
ability to extensively explore conformational space. Although peptides are useful
leads in the drug discovery process, unfortunately, the linear peptides for clinical
application have been limited by the intrinsic properties of peptides which
include rapid degradation of peptides of peptidase enzymes, leading to metabolic
instability which complicates oral delivery of peptides. Passage through blood
brain barrier is an additional problem for peptides which acts on CNS.
Some possible limits of either protein or peptides can be identified, which
might have accounted for their delay as potential drugs with respect to small
molecules. Some important drawbacks are common to peptides and proteins:
Both have important limits for oral delivery, being degraded by digestive
enzymes;
Both are not able to diffuse through cell plasma membrane (with a few
exceptions for peptides); and
Both are generally not able to cross the bloodbrain barrier. Apart from these
common limits, there are others more typical of each class.
The low biostability of peptides generates the necessity to add several steps
for their manufacturing, including different chemical modifications. Moreover,
their short half-life brings tough delivery and the necessity of high doses. The
result is a higher manufacturing cost. Given the extensive biology associated with
peptides, it is not surprising that considerable effort has been devoted recently to
the synthesis of peptidomimetics designed to overcome the therapeutic
deficiencies of peptides.
Keywords: Peptide drug, peptidomimetics, proteins.

FULLERENES: A MAGIC BALL FOR RESEARCHERS


Dr. Kandasamy Nagarajan1, Dr. Gupta Amresh2, Tiwari Salil3
1

KIET Schhol of Pharmacy,Ghaziabad


Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai Etawah, 2016130, Uttar Pradesh, India
3
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences -226028, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
Ever since their experimental discovery in 1985, fullerenes have attracted
considerable attention in different fields of sciences. Investigations of chemical,
physical and biological properties of fullerenes have yielded promising
information. Their unique carbon cage structure coupled with immense scope for
derivatization makes fullerenes a potential therapeutic agent. The study of
biological applications has attracted increasing attention despite the low solubility
of carbon spheres in physiological media. The fullerene family, and especially
C60, has appealing photo, electrochemical and physical properties, which can be
exploited in various medical fields. Fullerene is able to fit inside the hydrophobic
cavity of HIV proteases, inhibiting the access of substrates to the catalytic site of
enzyme. It can be used as radical scavenger and antioxidant. At the same time, if
exposed to light, fullerene can produce singlet oxygen in high quantum yields.
This action, together with direct electron transfer from excited state of fullerene
and DNA bases, can be used to cleave DNA. In addition, fullerenes have been
used as a carrier for gene and drug delivery systems. Also they are used for serum
protein profiling as MELDI material for biomarker discovery. In this review we
report the aspects of medicinal applications of fullerenes.
Keywords: Fullerene, Biomarker.

PEPTIDE DRUG: AT A GLANCE


Gaurav Krishna1, Salil Tiwari2
1

Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences -226028, Uttar Pradesh, India


Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences -226016, Uttar Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT
More than 7000 naturally occurring peptides have been identified, and these often
have crucial roles in human physiology, including actions as hormones,
neurotransmitters,

growth

factors,

ion

channel

ligands,

or

anti-

infectives 1, 2, 3 and 4. In general, peptides are selective and efficacious


signaling molecules that bind to specific cell surface receptors, such as G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) or ion channels, where they trigger intracellular
effects. Given their attractive pharmacological profile and intrinsic properties,
peptides represent an excellent starting point for the design of novel therapeutics
and their specificity has been seen to translate into excellent safety, tolerability,
and efficacy profiles in humans. The four most significant concerns voiced about
peptide-based drugs are: potential immunogenicity, poor pharmacokinetics (PK),
lack of oral activity, and high manufacturing costs. The last issue is greatly
dependent upon a variety of factors, which will be discussed in an upcoming
article, Peptide-based Drug Research and Development, Relative Costs,
Comparative Value. The time has now come to reinvestigate new drug leads that
fit between these two molecular weight extremes, with the goal of combining
advantages of small molecules (cost, conformational restriction, membrane
permeability, metabolic stability, oral bioavailability) with those of proteins
(natural components, target specificity, high potency).

Keywords: Peptide, pharmacokinetic, immunogenicity.

ANTIOXIDANT AND PROTECTIVE PERFORMANCE OF


SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM SCHRAD. & WENDL. FRUIT
EXTRACT AGAINST ETHANOL INDUCED LIVER
TOXICITY IN EXPERIMENTAL RODENTS
Ramesh Kumar Gupta1*, Sudhansu Ranjan Swain2, Jagannath Sahoo3,
Salil Tiwari4, Amresh Gupta5
1

Sherwood College of Faculty of Pharmacy, Barabanki -225001,Uttar Pradesh, India.


2
MET Faculty of Pharmacy, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
3
KIET School of Pharmacy, Ghaziabad-201001, Uttar Pradesh, India.
4
Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences -226028, Uttar Pradesh, India
5
Uttar Pradesh University of Medical Sciences, Saifai Etawah, 2016130, Uttar Pradesh, India.

ABSTRACT
The present study was aimed to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective
activity of the ethanolic fruit extract of Solanum xanthocarpum against ethanol
induced hepatopathy induced liver toxicity in experimental animals. In the
present study, in-vivo hepatoprotective effect of 50% Ethanolic fruit extract of
Solanum xanthocarpum (SXE, 100, 200

and 400 mg/kg body weight) was

evaluated using experimental models, ethanol (5 g/kg, p.o.) induced


hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. The hepatoprotective activity was
assessed using various biochemical parameters like AST, ALT, ALP, -GT and
total bilirubin. Meanwhile, in-vivo antioxidant activities as LPO, GSH, SOD and
CAT were screened along with histopathological studies. Obtained results
demonstrated that the treatment with SXE signicantly (P<0.05-P<0.001) and
dose dependently prevented ethanol induced increase in serum levels of hepatic
enzymes. Furthermore, SXE signicantly (up to P<0.001) restored the
antioxidant enzymes like LPO, GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels.
Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that SXE attenuated the hepatocellular
necrosis and lead to reduction of inammatory cells inltration. The results of
this study strongly indicate the protective effect of SXE against ethanol tempted
liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and there by
scientically support its traditional use.
Keywords: Solanum xanthocarpum, Hepatoprotective effect, Ethanol, ALP.

HEALTY FOODS - AS MEDICINE FOR HEALTHY HEART


Sunil Kumar*
Department of Pharmacy, Naraina Vidya Peeth, Panki, Kanpur

ABSTRACT
Food is medicine because it gives the energy for growth and development and
obtains self-made energy from food. All drugs are toxic chemicals that address
the symptoms without removing the causes of our health conditions. Use of
healthy food instead of dangerous pharmaceutical drugs helps in controlling from
various heart diseases without any toxic effects. Heart disease is a worldwide
problem and the leading cause of death among whole world. There isn't any one
healthy food that can guarantee a healthy heart, but adding certain foods to your
diet on a regular basis can go a long way to helping you to avoid the heart
diseases. A healthy food diet that replaces some carbohydrates with either protein
or monounsaturated fat can substantially reduce blood pressure and cholesterol
levels, resulting in a substantial reduction in overall risk of heart disease. For
reducing heart disease risk includes eating a balanced diet with less saturated fat,
more fresh fruits and vegetables, more fish, less sugar, more fiber. High level of
LDL, Triglycerides, Homocystiene and excess weight are the major factor which
leads to heart problems. Normal Cholesterol level is 150 mg/dl. Therefore use of
healthy food supplements help in the control from heart attack and other cardiac
problem. Some healthy foods are salmon, olive oil, oats, apples, whole grains,
green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, soy etc.
Keywords: Heart disease, blood pressure, cholesterol, apples.