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EssayWriting
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In highereducationit is necessaryto be able to structureand organiseessaysin an


appropriateway, accordingto academicconventions.This moduleprovidesan introduction
to academicessaywriting.lt guidesyou throughthe processof structuringan essayso that
you are preparedfor the kind of writingyou will haveto do in a typicalBritishacademic
institution.You will havethe opportunityto developyour ideasand to producedetailedessay
module),
outlineson topics such as trafficcongestion(coveredin the Problem-Solving
Englishas a global languageand urbanovercrowding.
Unit 1 looksat some basic principlesof writingacademicessays.You will analyseessay
questionsand practisestrategiesfor organisingyour ideasand gatheringinformationon a
topic. Unit 2 helpsyou get startedby showingyou how to write a thesisstatementand begin
an essaywith an interestingintroduction.Unit 3 dealswith the main part of the essayand
how to plan and write effectiveparagraphs,while Unit 4 dealswith the conclusion.Unit 5
examinesthe languageof essays;you will identifythe featuresof academicstyle and
practiseusingformal,objectivelanguage.Finally,Unit 6 looks at some basic principlesto
help you in the futurewith academicwriting,includingredraftingand what lecturersexpect.
A sampleessayis includedin this unit to demonstrateessaystructureand presentation.
tsythe end of the module,you will be more able to interpretessayquestionsand understand
what lecturersexpectfrom you. You will be able to tacklethe processof writingan essayin
a more organisedand systematicway, movingfrom a clear plan and outlineto a wellorganisedand well-writtenessaywith an effectiveintroductionand conclusion.

SkillsMeF
Gettingorganised
Learnsome basic principlesof academicwriting:essaystructure;analysingessay
questions;brainstormingideasand issues.

Getting started
Understand how to plan your writing. Learn to create effective introductions
and write thesis statements.

The body of the essay


Practisearrangingyour argumentsin a logicalsequence.Learneffective
paragraphing.Practisesupportingyour arguments.

Summariesand conclusions
Learn how to close your argument and draw conclusions.

Academicstyle and register


Practiseusingappropriatelanguage:formalvs. informalstyle and some
importantaspectsof academicwritten language.

Guidelinesfor the future


Remembersome importantpoints:lecturerexpectations;producinga detailed
essayoutline.Studya modelessay.

Eellingorganised
At the end of this unit you will:
. understand more about the requirementsof writing an academic essay;
o have learnt how to produce a clear outline.

Basic principlesof essaywriting


There are severaldifferenttypes of academic essay.For example,you might have to write:
.

a descriptiveessay

an argumentessay

an analyticalessay

an evaluativeessay

a personalexperienceessay

a reflectiveessay

Some essays may be a mixtureof differentapproachesand types, but you need to be clear what sort of
essayyou are writing.

Using

Ta,J(

al expeclenc,e,

pe(

The mo.=t elticierrr


Disctlss

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Dritish

form of transport

Task:EssayWriting-

is the train.

households.

Eocopean Union is alreadq far too

Learning a ta

ion and give examPles.

chafacteri

numbar of

desc(iba

age B one of tlne besf

big. Discrtss.
forms

of

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th*
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Br*s**i
The introduction:

What is it for?
What makes a good introduction?

The essay structure:

What is a paragraph?
How do you show wherea paragraphbeginsand ends?
How do you decide the order of paragraphs?

The conclusion:

What is it for?
What makesa good conclusion?

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Do the questionnairebelow. Mark your competence in each area on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 = poor,


5 = excellent).Compareyour answerswith anotherstudent.

skitl

Score

Writingcorrectand accurateEnglish
Planningan outlineof an essay

Draftingand redraftingmy writing


Editingand proofreading
Organisinginformation

Organising
my time
Findingand usingsourcematerial
Paraphrasingother people'swords
N*te: You will be able to think about the basic principlesof academicwritingin more depth in
Unit 6. However,it is useful at this stage to think about what you can do already.

- TasktErsay Wriling
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Analysingthe essayquestion

possiblesolutionsand evaluatetheir
with trafficcongestion.
Suggest
Discussthe problemsassociated
effectiveness.
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Discuss
p r o b l e m sa s s o c i a t e dw i t h t r a f f i cc o n g e s t i o n .

a) What exactly is traffic congestion?


b) Wherewould you find trafficcongestion?
c) What are the main causesof trafficcongestion?
d)

fask: EssayWriling- :..,,,,;

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Suggest
possible
solutions
and evaluate
their effectiveness

Brainstorminginvolvesfree association,
or rapidlygeneratingideason a topic. Try thesetwo differentways
of brainstorming.
Free writing
This is whereyou quicklywrite down everyidea you havethat could be relevantto the topic. You can write
a list or draw a spidergram.The aim is to producelots of ideas,so the form is not imporlant.You do not
need to worry about correctspellingor grammar- it is the ideasthat are important.
Group brainstorming
This is whereall the membersof a group contributetheir own ideason the topic, 'bouncing'their ideasoff
each other.

Transporting
goodsby road.

a) Start individually.
Thinkabout the topic Banninglorriesfrom townsand cities.Accept any ideas

that come into your head.


b) Work in groups.Appointa chairpersonto write down ideas.Then brainstormthe toprc.

- Task:EssayWriling

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Organisingyour ideas
Now that you have a set of ideas,they need putting together in an organisedway. One method is to use a
mind map to try to representyour ideas in a visualform. This can be very usefulwhen you want to quickly
see the relationshipbetweenyour main topic, main ideas and supporling ideas (see essay title, Iask2'2)'
You write the main topic in the middleof the page and placethe main ideasaroundit, connectedwith lines
or arrows.Similarly,you write the supportingideasaroundthe main ideas,connectedwith linesor arrows'
4. i

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*ti9fuv*r*v i***s s* fr:i''

Solufions

Probtems a==,ocid+ed
conge on
r.pifh trafflc

Thesis sfatement
-lne
essaj
r,oill discrlgs
main
fhe
Problems
as5ociated
dith
and afremP-r
conSestion
fo find a range of
aocV-able solul-iong.

Definition

of

traffic
an area

conqestion
is fillt oc

Using your mind maps, work in groups to discuss the possible content of your essay,the
introduction and main points.

Sludenlnoles for UnilI

Unil | - Eettingorganised- Tark Esrey Writing

Eellingslarled
At the end of this unit you will:
. be better equipped to start writing an essay;
. understand how to write a thesis statement;
. have ideas on how to make the introduction interesting for the reader.

Task I whatto inctude


Once you have begun to organiseyour ideas in a logicalway, you need to decide:
o

how to structureyour essay;

how (andwhere)to includethese ideas.

For example,you need to make decisionsabout the main sectionsof your essay.
1.1

You might want to include the following points in your essay on traffic congestion.Think about
the importance of each item in the list. Label them I, U or Nl (important,useful, not important).
Add any other items or topics you can think of.
a) A definitionof trafficcongestion.
b) An explanationof the causes of traffic congestion.
c) Your views on traffic congestion.
e) A list of solutionsto the problem.
f)

Examplesof traffic problems in your hometown.

g) Argumentsin favourof or againstpossiblesolutions.


h)
i)

i)
1"2

Decide in which order the ideas should appear in the essay.Which ones willyou need to
spend most time on? Compare your ideas with another student.

TaSlf A Informationgathering
In academicwritingit is not enoughto use your own ideaswithoutany supportingevidence.lt is essential
'academicweight'.You shouldobtain
to includerelevantinformationfrom academicsourcesto give them
this informationby thoroughlyresearchingthe topic, usinga varietyof sources.
It is importantto make clear notes of any informationyou find. You can then use this information,with
references,to supporl your argument.(SeeTASK,Module 10: Research& Referencing.)Keep a record of all
your sourceswhen you collect the information,as it is easierto do this at the time, ratherthan later.

l0

Tark:Erray Writing- Unit* - Eeltingstarled

*"1

*iscuss possible sources with another student" Write what you think will be your four main
ssurces *f infcrm=ti*n.

Sources of information

2.2

Number the fall*wing points in the order of difficulty for you.


Findingappropriatereferences
Paraphrasingin your own words
Understandinghow much use to make of externalsources
Referencingin an appropriateway

2.3

Discuss your answers as a class.

TaSk il Arousinginterest:the introduction


The introductionacts as a window to the rest of your writing.A good introductionshould make your reader
want to read your work. You can encourageinterestby using a variety of differenttechniques.For example,
you can use one or more of the following:
a) a surprisingor interestingfact
b) a question
c) a quotation
d) a definition
e) some important backgroundinformation

UnitE - fiEtlingE:Erled- Tad<:Esray Wriling

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tr ara

=E

Which of the above, a) - e), has the author used in the introduction to an essay entitled:

3.1

Theeducationsystemin your country?


Accordingto a recentsurvey,a significantproportionof the populationin my countryhasserious
literacvoroblems.

g.2

Look at the four essaytitles below.Think of a sentenceto use as an introductionto each one,
using any of the above,a) - e). Try to interestthe readerso as to encouragehim/herto read
the rest of the essay'
a) Familystructurein Yourcountry
b) Thecriminaljusticesystemin yourcountry
c) lmportsand exportsto and fromyourcountry
in Yourcountry
d) Transportation

TaSk 4 writinga thesisstatement


An introductionshould also contain informationon how you will developthe topic in the essaytitle' You write
this in the thesis statement, a statementof your standpointor the view taken in the essay.lt should be
conciseand convincing.Yourthesis is the controllingidea of your essaythat you will developin the main body.
You normallyfollow the thesis statementwith a clear indicationof how you will structurethe main body of
your essay in support of your thesis statement'
4.1

The controlling ideas can be stated in many different ways. ldentify the controlling ideas of the
following thesis statements.

a) Thecriminaljusticesystemin my countryfunctionsin a varietyof ways.

b) Although the Big Bang Theory is widely accepted, it will probably never be proved, and it
thereforeleavesa number of difficult and unansweredquestions.

c) The key to coping with the rise in sea levels is educationon its effects and the accurate
forecastingof its hazards.

4.2

le

How do you think the rest of the essay will be developed in each case? What areas will be
covered? Continue each statement with a sentence outlining the structure of the essay'
beginning:'This essaq Ditl ...'.

fark: Esray Wrilirq - unil E - Eetling slarled

4.3

Look back at the ideasyou brainstormedin Unit 1 on traffic congestion.What is your own
view about possiblesolutionsto the problems?ldentifuyour main idea and write it as the
controllingidea in a singlesentence.This will be your thesis statement.

4.4

What will you focus on? How will you developyour thesis in the main body of your essay?
Write a follow-on sentencebeginning:'This essaq trlitl...',

Tagk 5 An effectiveintroduction
An introduction
shouldgenerallymovefromthe generalto the specific.Thefollowingexampleis an
introduction
to an essayaboutthe problemsassociatedwith urbanovercrowding.
5.1

5.2

Arrangethe five sentencesin the correct order.


a)

As a resultof this migration,modern-daycitiesfacea numberof seriousproblems


relatedto overcrowding.

b)

Peoplewerethereforedrawntowardslivingin townsand citiesfor simpleeconomic


reasons.

c)

Thepurposeof this essayis to identifysolutionsto theseproblemsof urban


overcrowding
and attemptto evaluatetheirfeasibility.

d)

The mostcriticalproblemsincludehomelessness,
inadequate
healthcare
and education,
unemployment,
and knock-oneffectssuchas risingcrimeand drugabuse.

e)

Thetwentiethcenturysaw a majorincreasein the world'spopulationand,at the same


time,the emergence
of a societydrivenby the forcesof economicsand industry.

Discussthe followingthreequestionswith anotherstudent.


a) Markthe generalstatements
G. Howdo theyattemptto interestthe reader?
b) Markthe thesisstatementwith a tick. Howdo you expectthe restof the essayto be organised?
c) Whatarethe minimumnumberof paragraphs
you wouldexpectin this essay?Whatcanyou
predictabouttheircontent?

Unila - Eeltlngetarled - Tark: Errey Wrlting

t3

=?
Is it likely to interestthe reader?Why?
Doesit startwith a generalstatementrelatedto the topic and graduallybecomemore specific?
Is therea thesisstatementthat tells the readerwhat the essaywill be about?Can you easily
identify it?
Does the introductiongive an overviewof the essaystructure?
Are ideasclearly linked betweensentencesor is it sometimesconfusing?
Does it include a definition?Do you think a definition is necessaryor would be helpful?

The advantaqes

and disadvantaoes

of

qeneticallv

modified

crops

(GM) agriculture
are
modified
of genetically
New devefopments in the field
new
These
made.
are
new
discoveries
as excj-ting
reported
almost daily
however,
been welcomed by consumers. Recently,
<ievelopments have generally
so
is spreading,
GM agriculture
how rapidly
people have begrrn to realise
health.
and
our
environrnent
its
effects
on
about
questions
being
asked
are
and
levels
feel that high production
Needless to say, farmers generally
side
negative
than the possible
crops are more important
top-quality
of GM agriculture
of such advantages, the influence
In the liqht
effects.
unimportant.
on the environment and on our health is, in my opinion,

Stcen

t4

Task:EssayWriting-

Weav-Y\esses

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ir:tr*ductiam.*iscuss th* content
g*r:
*r:* str*e:ti.:r*r*siti:*=*ti:*r =tl:***i **f*r*
=** rariti*9.
a

Food additivesshould be banned. Discuss.

What are the main benefitsof investingmoney in space research?

Euthanasiashould be made legal.Discuss.

Outlinethe differenttypes of alternativeenergy sources.

What would you do to improvethe lives of the elderly in your country?

Essaywriting: points to remember


o Planningand organisation
are keyskills.
.

Keepa closeeye on your title: alwaysanswerthe question.

Wordprocessingis very useful.For example,you can changetext or movesectionsaboutvery


easily.(SeeModule7: lntroductionto lT SkrT/s.)

Keepa note as you go alongof all referencesor sourcesthat you use.

is an essentialskill.
Redrafting

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ffi*rudmre*
ffiGG
*

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=iErle$- Tesk:Erray Wrlllng

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Thebody of lhe essay


At the end of this unit you will:
o have a clear idea of how to structure the main part of an academic essay;
. know how to plan and write effective paragraphs.

Remember,if you want to write a successfulacademicessay,you need to have the following:


.

an outlineplan

a clear structure

a strong introduction

logicaland meaningfulparagraphs

a developmentof an argumentor discussion

a conclusion

The organisationof your essaywill dependto some extenton what sort of essayyou are writing.The body
of your essay can be arrangedin various logicalways, for example:
.

Reasonsfor and reasonsagainst

Causesfollowed by effects

Problemsfollowedby solutions

Paragraphorganisation

IE

a)

Eachmain idea shouldbe presentedseparatelyin a new paragraph.

b)

Eachparagraphin the body of your essaywill usuallybeginwith a topic sentencesiating


the main idea of the paragraph.

c)

The topic sentenceshould be followed by severalsentenceswhich support the main idea.

d)

To add supportor evidence,you should use examples,figuresor statistics.

e)

You shouldalwaysuse quotationsto suppotl your ideas.

f)

You should have a strongconcludingsentencein each paragraphto link the readerback


to the topic sentenceor providea link to the next paragraphor section.

Tark: Ersay Wtiling - :r"

. .

Thefirstepisodein the Coca-Colastoryis an importantpartof the riseof capitalismin the UnitedStates


of America.Towardsthe end of the nineteenthcentury,Americagraduallybeganto transformitselffrom
a nationof farmersto a city-basedindustrialised
society.The
industrialrevolutionwasepitomisedby
new communications
and the arrivaland spreadof the railways.
Thisproduceda new kind of
capitalism,a distinctiveAmericanvarietywherethe ethoscentredfirmly on the imageof individual
immigrantstruggle.
Theworld of US business
was on its way.One of the mostimportantchangeswhich
helpedbusiness
success
waspopulation
growth.TheAmericanpopulation
almostdoubledin size
between1880 and 1910,and a largeproportionof the increase
was createdby the new immigrants
from Europeand the restof the world. Success
camefrom ambitionand hardwork, and anybodycould
makelargeamountsof moneyprovidedthey tried hardenough.Helpedby the success
of some,
immigrants
flockedto the USA.By 1890,therewerealreadyover4,000Americanmillionaires
and
AndrewCarnegie,
who had madea fortunefrom railwaysand iron and steel,was spreading
the "Cospel
of Wealth".Therewere,however,somedisadvantages
to the new business
environment.
In manyparts
of the USA,therewas morethan an elementof the Wild West.Conmen,thievesand swindlerscameto
the new townswhich were appearing,lookingfor suitablevictims.A secondmajordisadvantage
was
thatCokewasoriginallya patentmedicine,and only abouttwo percentof the medicines
whichwere
producedeverbecamewell-known- mostinventorsand salesmen
failedmiserably.
Thirdly,although
largeprofitscould be madefrom all kindsof medicines,manyof which oftencostalmostnothingto
produce,by the late1880sthe marketfor medicineswasalreadysaturated.
Patentmedicines,
therefore,
were not an easycommercialareato breakinto.Anotherimportantaspectof the storyis that the world
of medicinewas not advanced
atthistime.Nineteenth-centuryAmerican
doctorswerenor numerous,
nor werethey very good (anaesthetics
were still to be inventedand someof the primitivemethodsused
by the medicalprofession
wereterrifying,killingmorepatientsthanthey saved).
Thiswasthe reason
why manypeopleturnedto alternative
remedies,
the so-calledpatentmedicines,
to solvetheir health
problems.By the end of the century,therewerethousands
of cureson offerfor everyimaginable
ailment,fromthe commoncold to malaria,all of which requiredextensive
advertising
in newspapers
and publicplacesto promotetheirsuperiorvaluesovertheircompetitors.
To conclude,it is not
surprising
that manywould-betycoonswereattractedby the risingnumbersof consumers
and that the
field of patentmedicineswas an attractivestartingpoint for some.In 1869,Dr JohnPemberron,
a
Ceorgiapharmacist,
had movedto Atlantasearching
to makehis fortuneby the discoveryof the perfect
patentcure.In 1886,afterlongyearsof research,
he finallylaunchedhis new invention.
lt was intothis
very crowdedand overcompetitive
marketthat Coca-Colawasto emergeas a highlysuccessful
product.

- Task:EssayWriling

t7

=3
YASI( A Linkingwords and phrases
It is importantto develop and link your ideas in each paragraphso the readercan follow your line of
argumentclearly.The Coca-Colaessay uses words and phrasesto help the readerfollow the sequenceof
events.
g.J

&4atel':t!"i* ursrds and phrase-=l= i** t*::l ti:*t r:**ti*= := ::=* =*:=* =r==== -i*= ::ll*e'r:-*ii+k w*t*t

Firstly
Secondly
Thirdly
Fourthly
Finally

t**:==t* 3:*ir?l:**ti*?='
L**k =t t** f=i!*sr-g i!::* ='"'*r*=*** :==E=1-:

Showingsimilarity
Comparingor contrasting
Adding something
Givingreasons
Showing cause and effect
Givingan example
l**t*: There is a large variety of link words and there are complex rules regardingtheir use. You
should consult your tutor on a good source of referenceto learn more about how to use them
effectively.

t8

Task:EssayWriting- L:*il * - T=* **dg *f qi:* =s==

The topic sentenceand supportingsentences


The topic sentenceis usuallyat the beginningof a paragraph,but it does not haveto be. When you write a
paragraph,you shouldtry to developthis initialidea and not changeor add too many new ideas.
The benefitsof immigration
t o i n d u s t r i a l i s e cdo u n t r i e s .

a)
lmmigrationis a very difficult subjectto discussbecausethere are many possibledifferentviewpoints.

b)

One of the majorproblemsof immigration


is that peoplein the hostcountrymaydisagree
with such
a policy.
c)
lmmigrationcan offerseveralclearadvantages
for industrialised
countries.

Example A
Thereare obviousadvantagesto learningEnglishin Britain.Everyday thereare opportunitiesto
practiselisteningto and speakingwith Britishpeople.In the first place,studentscan experiencethe
culturefirst-hand,which is a greathelp when tryingto understandthe language.This is especially
true if they chooseto live with a Britishfamilyas exchangestudents,for example.In addition,if
studentsattenda languageschoolfull-time,the teacherswill be nativespeakers.In this case, not
only will students'speakingand listeningskillsimprove,but attentioncan be givento developing
readingand writingskillsas well.
Example B
lmmigrationto industrialised
countriesposesa numberof difficultchallengesfor incomingfamilies.
They may need to learna new language,they may face racismand discrimination
and they
frequentlyhave problemsadjustingto the new culture.In France,for example,it is illegalfor Muslim
schoolgirlsto wear headscarvesto school.Already,five Muslimschoolgirlshave been expelledfrom
schoolfor wearingheadscarves.
The ban is perceivedby many as intolerant,underminingthe
integrationof France'sMuslims.Feministssay the lslamicscarf is a repressivesymbol,but many
FrenchMuslimssay the ban is racistand againsttheir humanrights."Everyonehas the rightto
freedomof thought,conscienceand religion;this right includesfreedomto manifesttheir religionor
beliefin teaching,practice,worshipand observance"(Article18, The UniversalDeclarationof
HumanRights).'

- fark: Erray Writing

l9

E3
3.3

There are three thesis statements below. Write a topic sentence for each of them. Then write
a suppoding sentence or two for the paragraph. Remember to focus on the main idea. The
first has been done for you.

A) Thesis statement

Paragraph1
Topicsentence

Supportingsentence(s)

B) Thesis statement
Whatis the focushere?

peopte ulho live af horne rrrhite studging at


Y-
univer5itS Y]6ve *vecat advantages.

First of all, tkreq can focr:g on theic sludies


rr#hout dorrbing abouf domestic matters.
SJudents tiving arrn3 fronr knme have to learn hor..l
'fo do -their oun laundrS and ma3 uoell have to
shop and cooV- la fnemselves. Those ulho live af
horne do naf have such ccllc.e(ns.

of globat darming trrilt be


Tkre catres and effec+s
brief! ouHined in thig essatj.

Paragraph 1
Topic sentence

Supportingsentence(s)

C) Thesis statement
Whatis the focushere?

kravg revolufionised
Pgcsonal cornpute(s
c,ommunicafion and brr.sirress P(dcftc'es
J

Paragraph 1
Topic sentence

Supportingsentence(s)

e0

fask: EssayWrfring- Uoit3 - Thebody of the essay

in the

pa5f

Organisingan essay

Paragraph begins
s-fofla ts
ot
advanced at thi.= time.
-fttece
to

fiela

the

r,aece, hot^:eve(, s,ofi\e disadva


neD business environment.

of

pafenf

medicines

qes

Das an

One of the most impo


hetped business so)Cess

nf changes r.,"rhich
(,as populafion

capitalisrn

States

in fhe

United

of

America

a) How would you structureyour essay?e.g.,Feasonsfor and


reasonsagainst, causes followed by effects, problems
followed by solutions
b) What are the main pointsthat you would includein the essay?
c) What sort of researchwill you haveto do on this topic?
1) Thereis too much advertisingon television.
2l Discussthe advantagesand disadvantages
of Englishas a
world language.
3) How has educationimprovedover the last one hundred
years?
4l Marketingis the most imporlantaspect of a business's
activities.Discuss.
5) Everyindividualhas a responsibility
to preventglobalwarming.

- lask: EssayWriling

?l

=3

aa

4.3

Choose one title and make a plan for it, listing the topics you would cover in each paragraph'

4.4

practise writing the first paragraph for your essay. Make sure you staft with a clear topic sentence"

Task:Ersay Wiling - Unit3 - Thebody ef lhe essay

tariesand
rsions
At the end of this unit you will:
. have a clear idea of how to finish an academic essay with a successful
conclusion.

The main aim of the conclusionis to show the readerthat you have
successfullyansweredthe questionthat was set. lt does not includeany
new information,but it summarisesthe main pointsmade in the body of
the essay.lt shoulddraw your argumentto a close and it also needsto
link back to the thesisstatementin vour introduction.

Restatingthe thesis
You needto repeatthe main ideasin the conclusion,but you do not want to simplywrite the same
sentencesagain.One way of linkingback to the thesisstatementis to rewriteit (thatis, to paraphrasethe
ideasand the language).
You can use synonymsto do this, or you can rearrangethe order and also change
some of the grammar.

Lackof investment
in publictransport
is havingserious
consequences
for travellers
in Britaintoday;thisis
the maioroointthatwill be discussed
in this essay.

Original

55non

lacV- o{
coneq{ence5
t(avelle(s
major

Poinf

di5,uJ55,e-d

- Task:EssayWriling

?3

=4
1.2

Rewrite the sentence, using synonyms and different word order to make a good concluding
statement. Think about the grammar that needs to change {e.9.,willbe is not appropriate for
a conclusion).

t
I
TaSk ? Organisingthe concludingparagraph
2.',|

Rearrangethe following sentences to form an effective conclusion for an essay on the topic of
Urban overcrowding.

problems

a)

these
aimed at solving
Government policies
only
often verv simp]e measures that offer

b)

In

c)

and offers
conditions
It is a model which aims for improved social
whatever their number.
for city dwellers,
of life
a high quality

d)

This essay has argued for the implementation


policy
an economically
which needs to provide
model of city design.
resource-efficient

e)

help to
of such a model will
The creation
problems of urban life.
and future
current

conclusion,

urban

overcrowding

are too
solutions.
short-term

causes problems

on all

levels.

of a long-term
sustainable,

resolve

many of

the

I
)

TaSk 3 rinish with a clearstatement


Rememberthat your conclusionneeds to be clear and relevantto the questionyou are answering.A strong
conclusionshould refer back to the introduction.ldeally,it needs to leavea strong impressionon the reader.
3.1

Read the following thesis statement and the concluding sentences of the same essay. Discuss
the following questions.
a) What is the subject of the essay?Think of a title for it.
b) How is ihe conclusionsimilarto and differentfrom the introduction?

e4

Tark: Erray Wriling- Unit4 - Summariesand conclusions

Thesis statement: The growth of a 'fast food'


culturein this countryhas generated
unexpectedproblems,includingrisingobesity
levelsand, more importantly,the loss of our
gastronomicheritage.This essaywill examine
the role of fast food in the developmentof an
increasingly
unhealthyBritain.
Conclusion:Fastfood outletscannotentirerv
be blamedfor our increasingly
unhealthy
dietary habits.Fast food evidentlyrespondsto
a need in our modern society,and reflects
changesin our modernlifestyle.lt is, rather,
our lifestylewhich needschangingif we hope
to becomea healthiernation.

Advanfages

Disadvantages

- Task:EssayWriling

?5

T
4.1

Lecturerexpectations
Tutors and lecturers have clear ideas of what they want to see in the conclusion to an
academic essay. Look at the list below and check that you understand the expectations.
ldentify whether you think you are strong or weak in these areas.
;r:ti:

,i:r,l

xx

'r*'*r'"

a retevarrt

eE

-*"

I am good, OK, uoeaL at

concluding statemenf

Tarkr EssayWritlng- Unit4 - SummariesBnd ctrnElusiong

...

- fark: Esray Wriling

?7

slyle
Hcademic
and regisler
At the end of this unit you will:
. be more familiar with the language of essays and able to identify some of the
features of academic style;
. have practised using formal, objective language.

Formalor informalregister?
Academicessaysusuallyrequirea formalstyle.You need to rememberwhat to avoid in an academicessay.

fnformal/spoken: Geography? Well, I think it's basically just some sort of mix of physical and social
sciences and how they interact together. You know, like, for example, how global warming has an
effect on the economy, um, of a region ... but you can also look at these things individually too ... er
... so you could just study things like sea-levelrisewhich'd be physical,oryou could look at ... say
... how people, human beings,adapt themselvesto the environment,that's human.
Formal/written: Geographyis the study of the surface of the Earih, the location and distribution of its
physical and cultural features,and the interrelationof these featuresas they affect humans. ln the study
of geography,two main branches may be distinguished,physical geographyand human geography.

Informat/spoV-en examples

?ea+oce
ons,
Use ol contra
.
isnt, dont,
Use ol fillerg,
Vr)ell,ec, elc.
Use of

pds3lve

volce

Impersonal and ob1ective


Pergonal and subiective
Punctu

eB

Task:EssayWdling -

on

Format/uor

n exarnpleg

a) | don't believethis is true at all. lt soundslike nonsense.


b) New regulationswill come into effect next year.
c) The study was conductedwith a group of school-agechildren.
d) We'redefinitelygoingto haveto followthose stupid new rulesnext year.
e) Furtheranalysisis requiredbeforeconclusionscan be drawn.
D

lt reallypuzzlesme why some studentsdon't get bettergrades.

g) Our experimentswere OK - they just provedthat his argumentdidn't stand up.


h) He'll haveto havea betterlook at the findingsbeforemakinghis mind up.
i)

lt has been provedthat the claimsare unfounded.

j)

We went down to a school and chattedwith some of the kids.

k) lt isn't clearwhy quite a lot of studentsdon't get reallygood grades.


l)

A majoraspectof the investigationinvolvedresearchinto socialhousingtrends.

Gautiouslanguage
Anothertypicalfeatureof academicwritingis the need to be carefulor
cautious.Unlessyou are quotinga fact or a statistic,or there is evidence
'100%
which shows
certainty,statementsand conclusionsare often
qualifiedin some way to make them less assediveor positive.The reasonis
partlyEnglishacademicstyle,but it is also to avoid makingany false
claims.This use of cautiouslanguageis sometimescalled'hedging'.

l,.r::,-l I ;li

A } D Some collegesand universitiesin this countryhave largenumbersof internationalstudents.


ii Some collegesand universitiesin this countryappearto have largenumbersof international
students.

B ) i ) Insteadof coming here,international


studentsshouldstudy in their own country.
i D It could be arguedthat, insteadof coming here,internationalstudentsshouldstudy in their
own counrry.

c ) D This is a misapplicationof governmentpolicy.


i D This would seem to be a misapplicationof governmentpolicy.

e9

=5
D) i) This is true.
ii) To a certain extent, this may be true.
E) i) Erlichman'sfindingsprovethat the amountof independentstudy is directlyrelatedto higher
oerformancelevels.
ii) Erlichman'sfindingssuggestthat the amountof independentstudy might be directlyrelated
to higherperformancelevels.
F) i) Inflationwill not rise next year.
ii) Evidenceindicatesthat inflationwill probablynot rise next year.
don't like learningmoreforeign
G) i) The surveydemonstratesthat Englishschoolchildren
languages.
are apparentlynot in favourof
ii) The surveytends to indicatethat Englishschoolchildren
learningmore foreignlanguages.
H) i) Thereare situationswherethis is the only solution.
ii) Thereare undoubtedlysituationswherethis would seem to be the only possiblesolution.

Exampte

Hedging fea+oce
hedging

Some colleges

vecbs

appeaf

to

have

Use of modal vecbs

Qualif3ing

exP( e3 3lon3

hc^ec+lves and adverbg

Se-l exp(es3lons

""ltrw,
Wffi Registerin use
that are inappropriatefor formal written
InformalEnglishuses everydayspoken forms (colloquialisms)
writing.
English.lt is importantnot to mix stylesin academic
.l]it.i'i.if.:::i1,|.i:.-!il;ji,..ii:..]{l,,:i.itl''ji.;...

l,.-:i.::i.:::li,n:{1':.;i:il{:i.;:lljil;.::iif'-:ilir..i,i;l.:Fi:ij:gi.l:;.:t::lql;::lt
ricii]!+F]i:t': Iiif+';{jt{lf{*
q';r'i.
il.o,l:.r-',:,;-'i,:!:liiliY''f;::itli l['+g'=

30

Task: Ersay Wdting - ii*!t * itr**qq::r*

6i1rlq +n# ,frllesir*t

- wasmorepeoplearrivingin the USA.Therewere


A massive
change- one which reallyhelpedbusiness
two timesas manypeoplewho got herebetween1880 and 1910,and lotsof them camefrom all sortsof
differentplaceslike Europe.lf you wantedto be successful
you had to work reallyhard;however,you
could get rich quicklyif you did this. Lotsof immigrantsmadeit and becauseof this, lotsmorewannabe
millionaires
turnedup in the US.By 1890,Americamaybehad around4,000millionaires.
One of the
bestwasAndrewCarnegie,
who got rich throughtrainsand iron and steel.His message
was calledthe
'Cospelof Wealth'.

vocabulary
appropriate
and grammatical
structures;

(Unit5, Task2, page29).


cautiouslanguage

Anotherkind of usefulalternative
fuel is electricity.
Thisisn'treallya veryefficientfuel rightnow,because
the technologyis somewhatlimited;however,it'sfair to saythat recentadvancesin the productionof
electriccarscould maybemakethis a realityin the future.But it is possiblefor carspoweredwith
electricityto releaselittleor no emissions,
so if we want thisalternative
fuel to becomea reality,we'll
needit in lotsof cars.Maybethen it'll makesomesortof a difference.If we want thisto happen,i.e.,to
knocka big chunkout of the pollutionproblemall aroundthe world,it'll takea while.

- Task:EssayWriling

3l

Sludenlnoles tor Unil5

Euidelines
for lhe fulure
At the end of this unit you will:
o understand the editing and redrafting processes in essay writing;
r have a clearer understanding of what lecturers expect from a piece of academic
writing.

Thingsto remember

understanding
the task

checkingthe title carefully

answeringthe questionset

getting organised

keepingto deadlines

writinga plan

collectingand recordingsourcesand important information

keeping useful phrasesand examplesof "essay language"

reflectingon what you have written

checkingand redraftinglanguageand content

writinga final draft

presentingyour essay in a clear and acceptableform

a;s'{+1+b

Redrafting

number Of crimes

Da-rch prrrrc'tua-t'iorr

- Task:EssayWriling

33

=5
a) How many draftsof an essayshouldyou write?
b) What do you need to considerand work on when you redraftan essay?

Redra

ng: +hing5 to

r.oorL on

Consider

ong

paragcaphs
.
.

eaclrt ParagfaPh
Pa(a3faPh5 afe

ha.= a main idea


in the

fi

o(de(

gfammar

ten

of essa3

Rememberthat your mark will depend not only on how good your writingis, but also on how successfully
you have completed the task. lt is importantto make sure you read and understandthe feedback that your
lecturergivesyou to help you with your next essay.lt is also importantto understandthe markingcriteria.

34

T a s k : E s s a Y W r i l i n g -: r

i - r' :!:::: :

i-r

For instance,robbery might be decreasedwhereasmurder has increasedso the

their performancein a positiveway.


cet? - this

is rather

good ro includeeg

a oeneralisation!

a) You havewrittena competentanswer,but unfortunatelyit is an answerto a differentquestion!


b) Youressaywould be improvedby checkingthe grammarand spelling.
c) You have answeredthe questionvery well; you show a good understanding
of the issuesand
have providedsome excellentexamples.
d) Thereis littleevidencein the essayof reflectiveand evaluativethought.Yourconclusionis rather
weak.
e) The essayneedsto be word-processed- in general,the presentationis very poor.
fl

You have made good use of personalreflectionand have clearlydone a lot of background
readingon the topic.

g) You havedescribedthe situationwell but have not analysedthe advantagesand disadvantages


as the questionaskedyou to do.

7O%o+

60-69%
50-59o/o

4049%

30-39%

- Task:EssayWriling

35

Mark

Marking criteria
ideasgenerallynot made clearand often irrelevant;weak paragraphs;small rangeof
vocabulary;grammaticalstructureis very limited
limitedrange
ideasgenerallyclear but not alwaysvery relevant;some lack of paragraphing;
of vocabulary;limitedgrammaticalstructureat times

useveryweak;
of ideas;vocabulary
or development
organisation
lacksanysatisfactory
pass
generally
the
required
to
meet
fails
grammatical
structure;
use
of
unsatisfactory
standard
clear paragraphswith well-expressedideas;wide rangeof
excellenttext organisation;
vocabulary;good use of grammaticalstructure
good text organisation
with generallyrelevantideas;adequaterangeof vocabularyand
orammaticalstructure

A model essay

Essay title: Discussthe problemsassociatedwith urban overcrowdingand evaluatepossiblesolutions.

a) How does the writerarouseyour interest?


b) What is the thesisstatement?
lntroduction:
The twentiethcenturysaw a majorincreasein the world'spopulationand at the sametime the
emergenceof a globalsocietydrivenby the forcesof economicsand industry.Peoplewere
inexorablydrawn towardslivingin towns and cities,migratingfrom ruralcommunitiesout of
economicnecessity.As a resultof this influx,modern-daycitiesacrossthe globeface serious
unemployment,
problemsdue to overcrowding.The most criticalincludepovertyand homelessness,
the provisionof adequatehealthcareand education,and knock-oneffectssuch as risingcrime and
pollution.The purposeof this essayis to identifysolutionsto some of these problemsof urban
overcrowdingand attemptto evaluatetheirfeasibility.

3E

lask: EssayWriling

- -r

iH*vi;

.r.lii*

t*"

!{Iittf { ::}**g

l}*ii,,1-.{ idi.'-: - --i:vq,-:

i.'iif{*'{:i,ri;{i':]ilv*flbs in t*e e*s*?

i:Ei* h,;$:-il*

".:.-

{i,:{i:,i!={r.i

...:ci:. :i.,cLrve, ,.ir-:;lr*1.-g}i:t:g !*i*

1F:+r:* gtat*ftfft!.

i#frtFF vt'u r#"?{i.

Main body:
Urbanovercrowdingis not a recentphenomenon,but it has recentlybecomea globaldemographic
problem.The rise of the world's 'Megacities'such as Tokyo,Jakafta,Sdo Pauloand Cairo,with
populationsapproaching20 million,is one of the most markedtrendsof recentdecades.In 1950 for
example,New YorkCity was uniqueamongthe world'scitiesin havingmorethan 10 million
inhabitants.By 1975 that numberhad grown to 15 million. By 2015 it is estimatedit will reach
21 million.(UNO2005).Two principalreasonsfor this phenomenoncan be identified,one economic
and the othersociocultural.
Peoplemigrateto the citiesin searchof both economicsecurityand improvedsocialconditions.
As the economy of a nation develops,its cities develop as centres of industry investmentand
education,providingplentifuljobopportunitiesfor those in searchof a higherstandardof living.
Sydney,Sdo Pauloand Frankfurtare all thrivingmoderncitieswhich have developedexponentially
sincethe SecondWorldWar.A fudher exampleis Tokyo,the hub for Japan'srapid economic
developmentin the 1960sand 70s; its populationgrew quicklyas peoplemovedthereto find
employment,and it is now the most populouscity in the world (population35.3 million).
Not all developingnations,however,are equippedto cope with such rapidlyexpandingcity
populations.The overridingproblem associatedwith overcrowdingis poverty and its attendant
socialdeprivations- homelessness,
unemploymentand insecurity.lmmigrantsto citiesfrom rural
areas are typicallythe poorest membersof urban society,and in many cities are often forced to live
in shantytownsor slumson the peripheryof the city withoutaccessto cleandrinkingwater or safe
sanitation,in crampedand unsanitaryconditions.Examplesof such poor livingconditionscan be
seen across the continents,from Caracasto Bombay.Unemploymentis widespreadas familiesfight
to survive.Transmission
of infectiousdiseasesis very common in such conditions,resultingtoo
frequentlyin high infant mortalityrates (UNESCO2002).Furthermore,access to vital social services
such as hospitalsand schools may be restrictedas authoritiestry to cope with large numbersof
people,thus denyingchildrenadequateeducationand healthcare.
Inevitably,
there is no one best solutionto a problemof such magnitude.Two solutionsare
proposed, both of which seek to move people away from the cities. The first is that of resettlement,
wheregovernment-ledhousinginitiativesseek to rehousefamilieson the outskirtsof cities.The
Shanghaihousingresettlementproject,begun in 1987,is an exampleof successfulurbanrenewal
where livingconditionshave been measurablyimproved.Resolutionof the housingshorlagehas
promotedlong-termsocialdevelopmentand stability,resultingin socialand economicbenefits.This
measuredoes not, however,addressthe problem of urban sprawl as the city spreadsoutwards, but
it does relievethe pressureof urban overcrowding.
The second solution encouragesthe relocationof businesses,factoriesand warehousesto rural
areas.lt exploitsbrownfieldsites in the countrysidewhich are developedas businessparks.Policies
of industrialrelocationhave been successfulin Canadaand the UK. where industrialexpansionof
citieshas been curtailed.However,peopleare not willingto leavethe citiesunlessthey are
guaranteedbetterhousing,schoolsand transportfacilities,so long-termgovernmentinvestmentin
these areas is crucial. Furthermore,such projectsare disputed by environmentalists,who see the
developmentsas a threatto the balanceof the countryside.
a) Underlinethe topic sentencein each paragraphin the text and make a note of its key words below.
b) How much support does the writer give for the topic sentencein each paragraph?Make a note
(key words) of the support below.

,J.i;i * - *r*lfieirne* {*r ifg* ii.l*ure - Task: Essay Wriling

37

Paragraph 1

Support examplesand evidence:

Paragraph2
Topicsentencekeywords:

Supportexamplesand evidence:

Paragraph 3
Topic sentencekey words:

Supportexamplesand evidence:

Paragraph 4
Topic sentencekey words:

Support examplesand evidence

Paragraph5
Topicsentencekeywords:

Support examplesand evidence:

38

fark: Essly Writlng- llnil 6 - 'Euidelinesfor lhe fulure

a) describethe situationand causes


b) suggestsolutions
c) describethe problems

a) ls thereany new informationin the conclusion?


b) How does the conclusionlink back to the introduction?
Conclusion:
In conclusion,urbanovercrowdingcausesproblemson all levels.Governmentpoliciesaimed at
solving these problemsare too often simple stopgap measuresofferingonly short-termsolutions.
This essayhas arguedfor the implementation
of a long-termpolicythat potentiallyprovidesan
economicallysustainable,resource-efficient
model of city design.lt is a modelthat fulfilsa universal
desirefor improvedsocialconditionsand ultimatelyoffersa high qualityof lifefor city dwellers,
whatevertheir number.
4"S

L**k t*r**g*t tF"t*wh*i* *s$*F*r** d**d{"$*1vir*i'#


ge.:r:***l* *e;*k* a:h:=::l**sfre}lt.t**s*rt*Li* *c:
m*r* **rstl**x 3te**gi;':g
ieetg**g*" Bfrit* y*ur r*i***'rg*sin h* tarhS*i**l*.,+..

Change

To

- Tark: Ersay Writing


ijs*gff - S**3**lielss
fs. l*e f*;lqJF

39

TaSk 5 write an essayoutline


The sample essay in Task 1 was an example of the Situationmodel (seeUnit 3, page 17).
Problem-solution-Response
5.1

Preparean essay outline for the following essay


question (or one of the other questions in this module).
Follow the stePs below

Engtishhasbecomea globallanguagebecauseit is both


easyto learnand superiorto otherlanguages'Discuss.
Analysethe question:Howmanygeneralstatements
arethere?Whatis the maininstructionverb?
fromUnit
o Brainstorm
ideasusingoneof thetechniques
1,Task3, page19.

o Writea thesisstatementto showhowyourargumentwill developthroughthe essay'


. Decidewhichessaypatternto use(Unit3, page20).
you will use.
o Linkyour ideasintoa logicalsequenceand decidehow manyparagraphs
Writea topic statementfor eachparagraph.
o Notethe supportingevidenceand examplesfor eachof your mainpoinis.
if you areincludingquotations.
. Referto TASKModule10: Research
and Referencing,

5.2

Discussyour essayoutlinesin smallgroups'

SludenlnolesForUnitE

40

Tark: Erray Wrlling- UnitE - Euidelineslor lhe fulure

MsduleI
Webwork
ABC of academic writing and essays
http :l/www.md x.ac.uk/WWWSTUDYlgioess.htm#p ians
Review
This is part of a guide for students at the Universityof Middlesex.lt gives comprehensiveexplanations
of terms and examplesof essaytypes and sections.
Task
Note down usefulwords and terms connectedwith essay writing, together with their definitions.

Andy Gillett's academic writing


http://wlvw.uefap.com/rvriting/writfrarn.hrir
Review
This is a very useful study skills site written by Andy Gillett at the Universityof Hertfordshire.
Task
This link takes you to the writing section.Try the exercisesat the end of each section,then check your
answers.Beginwith Understanding
the Questionand apply your knowledgefrom this module.

Exlensionaclivilies

Expandone of your essayoutlinesinto a full essay.Althoughyou may havea numberof essaysto


write over the year,it is usefulto write one immediatelyon completingthis module.
You can completeone that you have been workingon in this module,or choosean areato write about
that you are particularlyinterestedin.

Terkr Esrey Mlllng

4l

I
Msdrule
ffilErEffy
A*ad*r*i* writfng {r:}Writing that students and
academicsproduce.lt normallyinvolves
research,demonstrateslearningor knowledge
and followsclear conventionsin its style and
organisation.For example,essays and
assignments,reports,disseftations,theses.
Arg*m*nt e$say {n} An essaythat involvesbuilding
a case for an idea or thesis statement.This
eniails giving reasonsfor your thesis statement
and providingevidenceto back it up.
&n**y** {u} To break an issue down into parts in
orderto study,identifyand discusstheir meaning
and/or relevance.
&**FytleaFe***y inl An essaythai involves
analysinga text, theory or set of ideas.
*r*inst*rn: {v} The act of writing down all the
thoughtsand ideasyou haveabout a topic
withoutstoppingto monitor,edit or organise
them. Brainstormingis a creativeprocessthat
can be done aloneor in a group.
**ll*qr"ri*l i*di} Used to describeinformalspoken
words and expressionsused in conversation,or
informalwritten languageused in lettersto
friendsand familyor e-mails.For example,in
'Don't
BritishEnglish,a colloquialway of saying
'Don't
get in a tizz!'
be annoyed!'would be
Sraft {n} {v} 1 (n)An early version of a piece of
academicwritingthat is used as the starting
point for further work. 2 (v)To create an early
version of an essay,knowing that you will go
back afterwardsand develop and edit your
languageand ideas.
*eadline {n} The date or time by which an
assignmentor projectneedsto be completed.
*escriptive essay {n} An essay that describesa
processor sequenceof events ratherthan
arguing,interpretingor evaluating.
trdit {v} To select,rearrangeand improvematerialto
make it more suitablefor its final purpose.Editing
materialinvolvesreorganisingit, correctingerrors,
improvingthe wordingor contentand changing
its length,by addingsectionsor iakingthem out.

4?

Task:Essaylllriling

v*5r**t* {v} To assess informationin terms of


quality,relevance,objectivityand accuracy.
v*i**iv* *ssay {n} An essay that requiresyou to
eithercompareand evaluatea rangeof things in
relationto one another,or to look at the
argumentsfor and againstone thing, and come
to a judgmentin your conclusion.lt is askingfor
your personalopinion,backed up with facts,
examplesand explanations.
Ex*n':ptifu{viTo illustratea belief,statementor
theory with examples.You may be asked to do
this in an essay.
Fr** writir":g{v} To write without deliberateor
consciousthoughtso that ideasflow freely.
This is sometimesdone as an exerciseto
stimulateideas and creativityin preparationfor
a written assignment.
Ftedging {*} The use of deliberatelyvague, uncertain
languagein order to avoid asseftingsomethingas
a fact that may not be true. In the context of
academicwriting,hedginglanguageis often used
to discusstheoriesand possiblesolutions.
Key skEll{s':iA skillthat it is importantto masterin
order to be successfulin a certain area (such as
academiclife or employment).
Markir:g *rit*ri* {tt} A list of criteriaor qualitiesthat
the personwho marksan assignmentor exam is
lookingfor, includingaspectsof the style,
presentationand organisationof the work. For
example,one criterionfor an assignmentthat is
graded above 70% (a first) is likelyto be that it
must includeoriginalideas.
Mind inap {r*}A diagramused to representwords,
ideas,tasks or other items linkedto, and arranged
radiallyaround,a central key word or idea
*bje*tiv* {*dj} it"t}1 (adj)An opinion or idea that is
not influencedby personalfeelingsor emotions.
2 (n)The aim, or what you want to achievefrom
an activity.
*utfi** {*} A brief plan that shows the order in
which you will deal with the main issuesor ideas
in a piece of academicwriting.

To alter a piece of text so that you


restateit (concisely)in differentwords without
changingits meaning.lt is usefulto paraphrase
when writinga summaryof someone'sideas;if
the sourceis acknowledged,it is not plagiarism.
It is also possibleto paraphraseyour own ideas
in an essayor presentation;
that is, to state them
again, often in a clearer,expandedway.
An essay that asks
"
you to describeand draw conclusionsabour
somethingthat you have experienced.
. .
To readthrougha piece of writing
and pick out and correcterrorsin it. lt is usefulto
ask someoneelse to proofreadyour work. This
shouldbe done beforethe finaldraft of a oieceof
academicwriting is submitted.
To write out a new draft of an essay,
incorporatingchangesand makingadditions.
This is done afteryou have readthrough,edited
and/or had feedbackon the first draft.
'

, , 1(n)Acknowledgmentofthe
sourcesof ideasand informationthat you use
in writtenwork and oral presentations.
2 (v)To
acknowledgeor mentionthe sourcesof
information.
. , .,r , ,, , An essaythat involvesthinking
about a statementor idea and decidingwhether
you agreewith it, and givingreasonsfor your
decision.
,:i ,

, The style of speechor writingthat is


used in a specific context and/or by a specific
group of people.For example,a studentwill use
a very informal,colloquialregisterto text or email a friend,but a formalscientificregisterto
write a chemistry report.
'

i
. , To paraphraseor say somethingagain
in a differentway.This is often done in essaysto
help clarifyan idea or issue.The conclusionof an
essaywill often restatethe originalthesis
statementin more deoth.

Something(usuallya book, articleor


other text)that suppliesyou with information.
In an academiccontext,sourcesused in
essaysand reportsmust be acknowledged.
,'1(n)Aframeworkor
arrangementof severalpafts, put togetherin a
parlicularway.2 (v) In academicwriting,to put
togetherideas,argumentsor thoughtsin an
organised,logicalway. lt is imporlantto
structureessaysand presentationsas you
work on them.
Describesan idea or opinion
that is basedon someone'spersonalopinion
ratherthan on observablephenomena.
Informationfrom
academicsourcesthat should be includedin a
piece of academicwriting.This evidence
illustratesand backs up your ideasand adds
'academicweight' your
to
work.
i Sentencesthat
usuallyfollow and systematically
developthe
idea containedin the tooic sentence.
., A word or phrasewhich has a
' i
similarmeaningto anotherone and can
replaceit in a sentencewithoutchangingthe
meaningof the sentence.
A methodor way of doing
something.For example,it is possibleto learn
usefultechniquesfor answeringexam questions.
:, r
:r,
.Astatementthatexplains
the controllingidea or main argument(thesis)
in a piece of academicwriting.lt is stated in
the introductionand supportedby reasonsin
the body of the essay.
A sentencethat states and
sometimessummarisesthe topic/mainidea of
the paragraphand the standpointtaken by the
writer.lt usuallycomes at the beginningof
each paragraph.

TaskrEssayWriling

43

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This editionfirst published2007.
tsBN 978 1 85964 922 0
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h LebanonbyJnternationalPress

THsK
is a flexible learning resource that has been carefully designed to develop the key
transferable skills that promote students' success in university and college study.
Whether you are a student or a teacher, the TASK series provides a tried and
tested teaching and learning tool suitable for a broad range of academic disciplines.

THSKseriescomprises:
TheEomplele
I

978 1 85964 915 2

978 1 85964 916 I

978 1 85964 917 6

978 1 85964 918 3

978 1 85964 919 0

978 1 85964 920 6

978 1 85964 921 3

s78 1 85964 922 0

978 1 85964 9237

IE

978 1 85964 924 4

tl

978 1 85964 925 1

tu

978 1 85964 926 I


9781 85964927 5
978 1 85964 928 2
I S B N9 2 8 1 8 5 9 5 4 9 2 2 - 0

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