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1

CHAPTER 1: TRANSPORT
1

The adult human heart has a mass of between 250 and 350 grams and is about the size of a
fist. It is located anterior to the vertebral column and posterior to the sternum. The septum
of the heart is the dividing wall between the right and left sides of the heart. The sinoatrial
node is the impulse - generating tissue (pacemaker) located in the right atrium of the heart,
and thus the generator of normal sinus rhythm.
Jantung manusia mempunyai jisim antara 250 dan 350 gram dan lebih kurang saiz satu
penumbuk. Ia terletak di sebelah anterior turus vertebra dengan sternum.
Septum adalah dinding pemisah di antara jantung bahagian kanan dan kiri. Nodus
sinoatrium merupakan tisu yang menjana impuls (perentak jantung) yang terletak di atrium
kanan jantung, dan dengan itu penjana ritma sinus yang normal.
Diagram 1.1 shows a cross section of human heart.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan satu keratan rentas jantung manusia.

Nodes P
Nodus P
Septum
Septum

Atrium wall
Dinding atrium

Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1
(a)

What is the importance of septum?


Apakah kepentingan septum?
..
..
[2 marks]

(b)

If the Sinoatrial node is impaired, an artificial pacemaker can be use.


How does this pacemaker works?
Sekiranya nodus sinoatrium telah rosak, satu jenis perentak buatan boleh digunakan.
Bagaimanakah perentak buatan berfungsi?
..
..
..
..
..
..
[4 marks]

(c)

What is the implication of using the artificial pacemaker as compared to the


Sinoatrial node?
Apakah implikasi terhadap penggunaan perentak buatan berbanding nodus sinoatria?
..
..
..
..
..
[3 marks]

(d)

Diagram 1.2 shows a pamphlet about the effect of cardiovascular diseases.


Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan satu risalah berkaitan kesan-kesan penyakit kardiovaskular.

Diagram 1.2
Rajah 1.2
Suggest the steps that you should do to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Cadangkan langkah-langkah yang harus anda amalkan bagi mengurangkan risiko
penyakit kardiovaskular.
..
..
..
..
..
[3 marks]

Diagram 2.1 shows leucocyte cell oozing out from blood capillary.
Rajah 2.1 menunjukkan sel leukosit menyelinap keluar daripada kapilari darah.

Leucocyte
Leukosit

Blood capillary
Kapilari darah
Diagram 2.1
Rajah 2.1
(a)

Diagram 2.2
Rajah 2.2
Complete Diagram 2.2 to show the mechanism of leucocyte kill pathogen.
Lengkapkan Rajah 2.2 untuk menunjukkan mekanisma leukosit menghapuskan
patogen.
[2 marks]
(b)

Based on Diagram 2.2, explain the type and mechanism of bodys defence.
Berdasarkan Rajah 2.2 terangkan jenis dan mekanisma pertahanan badan.
..
..
..
[3 marks]

(c)

Diagram 2.3 show a type of white blood cell which is important in the body defense
mechanism.
Rajah 2.3 menunjukkan sejenis sel darah putih yang penting dalam mekanisme
pertahanan badan.

Cell A
Sel A

Substance X
Bahan X

Antigen
Antigen

Diagram 2.3
Rajah 2.3
Name the structure labeled A and X:
Namakan struktur berlabel A dan X:
(i)

Cell A/ Sel A: .

(ii) Substance X/ Bahan X: ..


[2 marks]
(d)

(e)

State the types of body defence shown in Diagram 2.3.


Nyatakan jenis pertahanan yang ditunjukkan dalam Rajah 2.3.
...
[1 mark]
Explain one characteristics of the defence stated in 2 (d).
Terangkan satu ciri-ciri pertahanan yang dinyatakan di 2 (d).
...
...
...
[2 marks]

(f)

The information below is stated in a pamphlet about HIV during World AIDS Day.
Maklumat di bawah terdapat dalam risalah tentang HIV sempena Hari AIDS
Sedunia.
T cell is a cell that helps lymphocytes in the immune response by recognizing
foreign antigens.
If the T cell is infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), it may
cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
Sel T adalah sel yang membantu limfosit dalam tindak balas keimunan
dengan mengenal pasti antigen-antigen asing.
Jika sel T dijangkiti Virus Kurang Daya Tahan Manusia (HIV) ia boleh
menyebabkan Sindrom Kurang Daya Tahan Penyakit (AIDS).
Explain the effects of HIV on body defence mechanism.
Terangkan kesan-kesan HIV ke atas mekanisma pertahanan badan.
...
...
...
[2 marks]

CHAPTER 2: LOCOMOTION AND SUPPORT


1.

Diagram 1.1 shows an earthworm and its muscles which involved in a forward movement.
Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan seekor cacing dan otot-otot yang terlibat dalam pergerakan ke
hadapan.

Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1
(a)

Name the type of skeleton of an earthworm.


Namakan jenis rangka bagi cacing tanah.
.......................
[1 mark]

(b)

The peristaltic waves that begin at the anterior (front part) and move towards the
posterior (back part) of the body makes the earthworm move forward. How the
muscles in earthworm make this possible?
Gelombang peristalsis yang bermula dari bahagian hadapan dan bergerak ke
bahagian belakang badan membolehkan cacing tanah bergerak ke
hadapan.bagaimanakah otot-otot dalam cacing tanah membolehkan ini berlaku?
...
...
...
[3
marks]
8

(c)

Diagram 1.2 shows a fracture bone in a patients leg.


Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan tulang kaki yang retak yang dialami seorang pesakit.

Diagram 6.2
Rajah 6.2
(i)

Based on Diagram 1.2, name the fractured bone.


Berdasarkan Rajah 1.2, namakan tulang yang retak itu.

[1
mark]

Diagram 1.3 shows the patient is being applied a cast on the part of the
fractured
bone after being suggested by a doctor.
Rajah 1.3 menunjukkan seorang pesakit dipasangkan kas pada bahagian kaki
retak selepas dicadangkan oleh doktor.

Diagram 1.3
Rajah 1.3
Explain why this action should be taken to treat the fracture bone.
Terangkan mengapa tindakan ini perlu dilakukan untuk merawat tulang yang
retak.

(ii)

...
...
...
[4
marks]
(iii)

Explain the diet that should be taken by the patient.


Terangkan diet yang sepatutnya diambil oleh pesakit tersebut.
...
...

...
[3
marks]

10

CHAPTER 3: COORDINATION AND RESPONSE


1 Diagram 1 is a simple diagram showing a cross-section of the human spinal cord, and the
structure of a human leg.
Rajah 1 ialah satu rajah ringkas yang menunjukkan keratan rentas saraf tunjang manusia,
serta struktur bagi kaki manusia.
Quadriceps muscle
Otot kuadrisep

Gentle tap
Ketukan perlahan

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
11

(a)

Complete Diagram 1 by drawing the neurons and arrows to show the direction of
impulse transmission in a reflex arc. Label all the neurones.
Lengkapkan Rajah 1 dengan melukiskan neuron-neuron serta anak panah yang
menunjukkan arah penghantaran impuls dalam arka refleks. Labelkan neuron-neuron
tersebut.
[3 marks]

(b)

When the tendon below the kneecap is tapped gently, the quadriceps muscle will
experience a change that will stimulate an impulse to be produced.
Apabila tendon di bawah tempurung lutut diketuk dengan perlahan, otot kuadrisep akan
mengalami perubahan yang akan merangsang penghasilan impuls.
(i)

How does the quadriceps muscle change when the tendon is tapped gently?
Bagaimanakah otot kuadrisep berubah apabila tendon diketuk dengan perlahan?

[1 mark]

(ii)

(c)

(i)

Name the structure that detects this change.


Namakan struktur yang mengesan perubahan ini.

[1 mark]
Name the structure that is formed when two neurones meet.
Namakan struktur yang terbentuk apabila dua neuron bertemu.

[1 mark]

(ii)

Name the part of the spinal cord that has this structure.
Namakan bahagian pada saraf tunjang yang mempunyai struktur ini.

[1 mark]

(d)

Name two reflex actions that involve glands as the effector.


Namakan dua tindakan refleks yang melibatkan kelenjar sebagai efektor.
(i) ..
(ii) ..
[2 marks]

12

(e)

(i)

What is the response in Diagram 1?


Apakah tindak balas yang berlaku dalam Rajah 1?

[1 mark]

(ii)

What is the difference between the response in Diagram 1 and the response when
kicking a ball?
Apakah perbezaan diantara tindak balas pada Rajah 1 dengan tindak balas
semasa menendang sebiji bola?

[2 mark]

CHAPTER 4: REPRODUCTION AND GROWTH


1.

Diagram 1 shows the structure of plant reproduction organ.


Rajah 1 menunjukkan struktur organ pembiakan tumbuhan.

Diagram 1
13

Rajah 1
(a)

Based on the Diagram 1, name the structures labeled.


Berdasarkan pada Rajah 1, namakan struktur yang berlabel.
A: ..
B: ..
C: ..
[2 marks]

(b)

(i) Explain the function of structure A.


Terangkan fungsi struktur A.

[2 marks]

(ii) Explain the process occur when the structure A reaches the structure B.
Terangkan proses yang berlaku apabila struktur A sampai ke struktur B.
..
..
..
[3 marks]
(c)

Explain how the development of fruits and seeds after process in (b)(ii) occur.
Terangkan bagaimana perkembangan biji dan buah selepas proses dalam (b)(ii)
berlaku.
....

14


[3 marks]
(d)

Suggest how to prevent the germination of structure A.


Cadangkan bagaimana menghalang percambahan struktur A.

[2 marks]

CHAPTER 5: INHERITANCE
1.

Diagram 1 shows the inheritance of colour body and size of wing in Drosophilla.
G represents the dominant allele for grey body while g represents the recessive allele for
black body. N represents the dominant allele for normal wing while n represent the
recessive allele for short wing.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan pewarisan warna badan dan saiz sayap dalam Drosophilla. G
mewakili alel dominan bagi badan kelabu sementara g mewakili alel resesif bagi badan
hitam. N mewakili alel dominan bagi sayap normal sementara n mewakili alel resesif bagi
sayap pendek.
A

Parent (P)
Induk

15
C

F1 generation

Generasi F1

F2 generation
Generasi F2

Diagram 1
Rajah 1
(a)

State the genotype and phenotype of A and C.


Nyatakan genotip dan fenotip A dan C.
(i)

Genotype and phenotype A // Genotip dan fenotip A:

(ii)

Genotype and Phenotype C // Genotip dan fenotip C:


..
[2 marks]

(b)

State why the above inheritance is dihybrid ?


Nyatakan mengapa pewarisan di atas adalah dihibrid?

..
[1 mark]
(c)

Using Punnett Square, draw a genetic diagram between C and D to show ratio E, F,
G and H.
Dengan menggunakan segi empat Punnett, lukis rajah genetic antara C dan D untuk
menunjukkan nisbah anatara E, F, G dan H.

Parent (P)

16

[5 marks]

(d)

Explain why the ratio of genetic diagram from the above diagram follow Mendel
Second Law.
Terangkan mengapa nisbah rajah genetik daripada rajah di atas mengikut Hukum
Mendel Kedua?
......
...
..
[2 marks]

(e)

State Mendel Second Law.


Nyatakan Hukum Mendel Kedua.
...
......
[2 marks]
17

CHAPTER 6: VARIATION
1.

Diagram 1.1 (a) and 1.1 (b) show different types of fingerprint and a group of form five
students with various body heights.
Rajah 1.1 (a) dan 1.1 (b) menunjukkan jenis cap jari yang berbeza dan sekumpulan murid
tingkatan lima dengan pelbagai ketinggian.

Diagram 1.1 (a)


Rajah 1.1 (a)

18

Diagram 1.1 (b)


Rajah 1.1 (b)
(a)

State the types of variation shown by the Diagram 1.1 (a) and 1.1 (b).
Nyatakan jenis variasi yang ditunjukkan oleh Rajah 1.1 (a) dan 1.1 (b).
Diagram 1.1 (a) : .
Rajah 1.1 (a)
Diagram 1.1 (b) :
Rajah 1.1 (b)
[2 marks]

(b)

State two differences between the two types of variation in 1 (a).


Nyatakan dua perbezaan variasi yang dinyatakan dalam 1 (a).
1 ..
.
2 ..
.
[2 marks]

(c)

Explain the importance of variation.


Terangkan kepentingan variasi.
.
19

.
.
[2 marks]
(d)

Mutation is one of the factors that cause variation. Diagram 1.2 shows two types of
chromosomal mutation.
Mutasi merupakan salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan variasi. Rajah 1.2
menunjukkan dua jenis mutasi kromosom.

Q
Diagram 1.2
Rajah 1.2

(i)

Name the processes involved in the mutation of P and Q.


Namakan proses-proses yang terlibat dalam mutasi P dan Q.
P : ..
Q :
[2 marks]

(ii)

Explain one factor that causes mutation.


Terangkan satu faktor yang menyebabkan mutasi.

....
...
[2 marks]

(iii) Explain one bad effect caused by mutation.


Terangkan satu kesan buruk yang disebabkan oleh mutasi.

....
...
20

[2 marks]

21

CHAPTER 1: TRANSPORT
Answer all questions.
Jawab semua soalan.
Question 1
Soalan 1
1

22

Diagram 1.1
Rajah 1.1

A group of students carried out an experiment to investigate the relationship between the rate
of transpiration and the relative humidity of air. Diagram 1.1 shows the photometer used in
the experiment. The air in the transparent glass box is treated with different mass of calcium
chloride.

Sekumpulan pelajar menjalankan satu experiment untuk mengkaji hubungan antara kadar
transpirasi dengan kelembapan bandingan udara. Rajah 1.1 menunjukkan photometer yang
digunakan dalam eksperimen ini. Udara di dalam kotak kaca lutsinar itu dirawat dengan
kalsium klorida dengan jisim yang berbeza.

Diagram 1.2 shows the initial water level ini the pipette.
Table 1.3 shows the water level observed after 10 minutes in each experiment with petri dish
containing different mass of calcium chloride.
Rajah 1.2 menunjukkan aras awal air di dalam pipet.
Jadual 1.3 menunjukkan aras air yang diperhatikan selepas 10 minit bagi setiap eksperimen
dengan piring petri yang mengandungi jisim kalsium klorida yang berbeza.

23

Diagram1.2
Rajah 1.2
Mass of calcium
chloride (g)
Jisim kalsium
klorida (g)

20

40

80

Water level in the


pipette after 10
minutes
Aras air di dalam
pipet selepas 10
minit

Change in volume
of water (cm3)
Perubahan isipadu
air (cm3)
Table 1.3
Jadual 1.3

(a)

Complete Table 1.3 by stating in the volume of water in the pipette after 10 minutes
when 20g, 40g and 80g of calcium chloride is used in the experiment.
Lengkapkan Jadual 1.3 dengan menyatakan perubahan isi padu air di dalam pipet
selepas 10 minit apabila 20g, 40g dan 80g kalsium klorida digunakan dalam
eksperimen ini.
24

[3 marks]
(b)

(i)

Based on Table 1.3, state two observations that can be made in the
experiment.
Berdasarkan Jadual 1.3, nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang boleh dibuat dalam
eksperimen ini.
Obersvation 1/ Pemerhatian 1:
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Observation 2/ Pemerhatian 2:
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(ii)

State the inference for each observation made in (b)(i).


Nyatakan inference bagi setiap pemerhatian yang dibuat di (b)(i).
Inference for observation 1:
Inferens bagi pemerhatian 1:
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
Inference for observation 2:
Inferens bagi pemerhatian 2:
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[3marks]

(c)

Complete Table 1.4 based on this experiment.


Lengkapkan Jadual 1.4 berdasarkan eksperimen ini.
Variables

Method to handle variables

Pembolehubah

Cara mengendalikan pemboleh ubah


25

Manipulated variable
Pemboleh ubah
dimanipulasikan

.........................................................................

....................................................
....................................................

.........................................................................
.........................................................................

Responding variable
Pemboleh ubah bergerak balas

.........................................................................

.................................................... .........................................................................
....................................................

.........................................................................

Constant variable
Pemboleh ubah dimalarkan

.........................................................................

.................................................... .........................................................................
....................................................

.........................................................................
Table 1.4
Jadual 1.4
[3 marks]

(d)

State the hypothesis for this experiment.


Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(e)

(i)

Based on Table 1.3, construct a table and record the result of the experiment
which include the following aspects:
Berdasarkan Jadual 1.3, bina satu jadual dan rekod keputusan eksperimen ini
yang meliputi aspek-aspek berikut:
26

Mass of calcium chloride


Jisim kalsium klorida

Change in volume of water


Perubahan isipadu air

Rate of transpiration
Kadar transpirasi

Rate of transpiration
Kadar transpirasi

Change in volume of water


Perubahan isipadu air
=

Time taken
Masa yang diambil

[3 marks]

(ii)

Draw a graph of the rate of transpiration against the mass of calcium chloride
on the graph paper provided.
Lukis satu graf kadar transpirasi melawan jisim kalsium klorida di atas kertas
graf yang disediakan.
[3 marks]

(iii)

Based on the graph drawn in (e) (ii), state the relationship between the rate of
transpiration and the mass of calcium chloride.
Explain your answer.
Berdasarkan graf yang dilukis dalam (e) (ii), nyatakan hubungan antara
kadar transpirasi dengan jisim kalsium klorida.
27

Terangkan jawapan anda.

[3 marks]
(f)

Based on the experiment, state the operational definition of transpiration.


Berdasarkan eksperimen, nyatakan definisi secara operasi bagi transpirasi.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(g)

The experiment is repeated by using another hibiscus shoot with six number of leaves
and the air is treated with 40g of calcium chloride.
Predict the rate of transpiration.
Explain your answer.
Eksperimen ini diulang dengan menggunakan pucuk pokok bunga raya yang lain
dengan enam helai daun dan udara dirawat dengan 40g kalsium klorida.
Ramalkan kadar transpirasi.
Teraangkan jawapan anda.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(h)

The following list is some factors that can affect the rate of transpiration in plants.
Senarai berikut adalah beberapa faktor yang boleh mempengaruhi kadar transpirasi
pada tumbuhan.
Relative humidity

Surface area of leave


28

Topography

Kelembapan relatif
Temperature
Suhu

Luas permukaan daun


Light intensity
Keamatan cahaya

Topografi
Number of stomata
Bilangan stomata

Classify each character to the correct category of factor.


Kelaskan setiap ciri berdasarkan kategori faktor yang betul.
Biotic factor
Faktor biotik

Abiotic factor
Faktor abiotic

[3 marks]

Question 2
Soalan 2
Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from plants, especially in leaves. Transpiration occurs
mostly through the stomata. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, surrounding
29

light intensity, temperature, humidity and wind speed. Diagram 2 shows the movement of water
in a terrestrial plant.
Transpirasi ialah kehilangan wap air dari tumbuhan, terutamanya pada daun. Transpirasi
berlaku terutamanya melalui stomata. Jumlah air yang hilang dari tumbuhan bergantung
kepada saiz tumbuhan, keamatan cahaya sekeliling, suhu. Kelembapan dan kelajuan angin.
Rajah 2 menunjukkan pergerakan air dalam suatu tumbuhan darat.

Water lost by transpiration


Air hilang melalui transpirasi

Capillarity action
Tindakan kapilari
Water absorbed by roots
Air diserap melalui akar

Diagram 2
Rajah 2

Plan a laboratory experiment to determine the effect of the number of leaves on the rate of
transpiration in a hibiscus plant
Rancang satu eksperimen dalam makmal untuk menentukan kesan bilangan daun ke atas kadar
transpirasi dalam pokok bunga raya.
The planning of your experiment should include the following aspects:
30

Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

Problem statement
Pernyataan masalah

Variables
Pembolehubah pembolehubah

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

List of apparatus and materials.


Senarai radas dan bahan

Experimental procedures
Prosedur eksperimen

Presentation of data
Persembahan data
[17 marks]

CHAPTER 3: COORDINATION AND RESPONSE


Question 1
Soalan 1

31

A group of students carried out an investigation to determine the effects of different volumes of
water intake on the production of urine. Four students were given different volumes of mineral
water to drink and the volumes of urine produced after half an hour by each student was
collected and measured. The results are shown in Table 1. The experiment was repeated two
times.
Sekumpulan pelajar telah menjalankan suatu penyiasatan untuk menentukan tentang kesan
pengambilan isipadu air yang berbeza terhadap penghasilan air kencing. Empat orang pelajar
telah diberikan isipadu air mineral yang berbeza untuk diminum dan isipadu air kencing yang
dihasilkan selepas setengah jam telah dikumpulkan dan diukur bagi setiap pelajar. Keputusan
ditunjukkan di dalam Jadual 1. Eksperimen telah diulangi sebanyak dua kali.
Student
Pelajar

Volume of water
taken (ml)
Isipadu air diambil
(ml)

100ml

Volume of urine produced (ml)


Isipadu air kencing dihasilkan (ml)
First
Second
Pertama
Kedua

90

90

80

80

70

70

160

150

180

170

200ml
140

160

210

260

200
32

250

190

240

300ml

370

380

360

370

350

360

400ml

Table 1 / Jadual 1
(a)

Record the volume of urine that have been collected in the measuring cylinder into
Table 1
Rekod isipadu air kencing yang dikumpulkan di dalam selinder penyukat ke dalam
Jadual 1
[3marks/3markah]

(b) (i) Based on the results in Table 1, state two observations that can be made from
this experiment.
Berdasarkan keputusan di dalam Jadual 1, nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang dapat
dibuat daripada eksperimen ini.
33

Observation 1/Pemerhatian 1:
...............
...........
...........

Observation 2/Pemerhatian 2:
.........
.........
.........
[3marks/3markah]
(ii) State the inference from the observations in (b) (i).
Nyatakan inferens berdasarkan pemerhatian di (b) (i).
Inference from observation 1/Inferen dari pemerhatian 1:
...........

............
Inference from observation 2/Inferen dari pemerhatian 2:
....................
........
.........
[3marks/3markah]

(c) Complete Table 2 based on the experiment.


Lengkapkan Jadual 2 berdasarkan eksperimen.
34

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated variable
Pemboleubah dimanipulasikan

Particulars to be implemented
Cara mengendalikan pembolehubah

Responding variable
Pembolehubah bergerakbalas

..
..
.
..

..
Controlled variable
Pembolehubah dimalarkan

Table 2/ Jadual
[3marks/3markah]
(d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.
Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini
.
.
.
[3marks/3markah]
(e) Construct a table and record all your data collected in the experiment which include
the following aspects :
Student
Volume of water intake
35

Volume of urine produced


Bina satu jadual untuk merekodkan semua keputusan eksperimen meliputi aspek
berikut :
Pelajar
Isipadu air yang di ambil
Isipadu air kencing yang dihasilkan

[3marks/3markah]

(f) Use the graph paper provided, answer this question.


Using the data in 1(e), draw a bar chart between volume of water intake by the
different students against volume of urine produced.
Gunakan kertas graf yang disediakan menjawab soalan ini.
Menggunakan data di 1(e), lukis carta bar di antara isipadu pengambilan air oleh
pelajar yang berbeza melawan isipadu air kencing yang dihasilkan .
[3marks/3markah]

(g) Based on the result, explain the relationship between the volume of water intake and
the volume of urine produced?
Berdasarkan keputusan , terangkan hubungan antara isipadu air yang diminum
dengan isipadu air kencing yang dihasilkan.
36

..
..
..
..
..
[3marks/3markah]
(h) If the student D was given 500ml orange juice to drink before the experiment, predict
the volume of urine produced. Explain your prediction.
Jika pelajar D diberi minum 500ml air jus oren sebelum menjalankan eksperimen,
ramalkan isi padu air kencing yang dihasilkan. Terangkan ramalan anda.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
[3marks/3markah]
(i) Based on this experiment, what can you deduce about osmoregulation ?
Berdasarkan eksperimen ini, apakah yang dapat anda rumuskan tentang
pengomoskawalaturan ?
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
[3marks/3markah]

(j) The following list is part of the apparatus and material used in this experiment.
Senarai berikut adalah sebahagian daripada radas dan bahan yang digunakan dalam
eksperimen ini
Measuring cylinder
Selinder penyukat

Stopwatch
Jam randik

Mineral water Mineral bottle Student


Air mineral
Botol mineral Pelajar
37

Urine
Air Kencing

Complete Table 3 by matching each variable with the apparatus and material used in
this experiment
Lengkapkan Jadual 3 dengan memadankan setiap pembolehubah dengan radas dan
bahan yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini.
Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Manipulasi

Apparatus
Radas

Material
Bahan

Responding
Bergerak balas
Controlled
Dimalarkan
Table 3/ Jadual 3
[3marks/3markah]

Question 2
Soalan 2

38

When a boy drinks too much water, the osmotic pressure of the blood will fall below normal
level. Under such condition, the hypothalamus will not be stimulated and less anti-diuretic
hormone (ADH) will be produced. Less water will be reabsorbed and most of the water is
allowed to pass out through urine.
Apabila seorang budak lelaki minum air dengan banyak, tekanan osmosis darah akan akan
turun di bawah aras normal. Dalam keadaan itu, hipotalamus tidak akan dirangsang dan
kurang hormon antidiuretik akan dihasilkan. Kurang air akan diserap semula dan kebanyakan
air dikeluarkan melalui air kencing.
Design a laboratory experiment to determine the urine volume released by a student who drinks
different volumes of mineral water.
Rekabentuk satu eksperimen makmal untuk menentukan isi padu air kencing yang dikeluarkan
oleh murid yang minum air mineral dengan isi padu yang berbeza.
The planning of your experiment must include the following aspects:
Perancangan eksperimen anda mesti mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

Problem statement
Penyataan masalah

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

Variables
Pemboleh ubah

List of apparatus and materials


Senarai radas dan bahan

Experimental procedures or methods


Prosedur atau kaedah eksperimen

Presentation of data
Persembahan data
[17 marks]

CHAPTER 6: VARIATION
Question 1
Soalan 1
39

Variation is differences between organism of the same species. Variation in plant can be shown
by the different size/mass of fruits, length of leaves or colour of flower. These variation can be
affected by light intensity, amount of water, amout of minerals or pH of soil.
Variasi adalah perbezaan diantara organisma daripada spesies yang sama. Variasi dalam
tumbuhan boleh ditunjukkan oleh perbezaan saiz/jisim buah, panjang daun atau warna bunga.
Variasi ini boleh dipengaruhi oleh keamatan cahaya, jumlah air, jumlah mineral atau pH tanah.
One experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of light intensity onto growth of tomato
plantswhich contain the same genetic. The tomato plants were planted in two glass house with
same other basic needs.
Satu eksperimen telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan keamatan cahaya ke atas pertumbuhan
pokok-pokok tomato yang mempunyai genetik yang sama. Pokok tomato tersebut telah
ditanamkan di dalam dua rumah kaca dengan keperluan asas lain yang sama.

The following steps were carried out.


Langkah-langkah berikut telah dijalankan :

1. 10 tomato plants were planted in glass house A.


10 pokok tomato telah ditanamkan di dalam rumah kaca A.
2. While the other 10 tomato plants were planted in glass house B.
Manakala 10 pokok lagi telah ditanamkan di dalam rumah kaca B.
3. Basic needs such as waterand minerals were fixed for both glass house A and B.
Keperluan asas seperti air serta garam mineral telah ditetapkan bagi kedua-dua rumah
kaca A dan B.
4. For the factor of light intensity, tomato plants in glass house A were exposed to light
about 12 hours daily while in glass house B, tomato plants were exposed to the light
about 6 hours.
Bagi faktor keamatan cahaya, pokok-pokok tomato rumah kaca A telah didedahkan
kepada cahaya selama 12 jam sehari manakala pokok-pokok tomato rumah kaca B
telah didedahkan selama 6 jam.
5. After 4 months, the tomato fruits which were planted in both glass houses shown
differences in size and mass.
Selepas 4 bulan, buah tomato yang ditanamkan didalam kedua-dua rumah kaca didapati
menunjukkan saiz serta jisim yang berbeza.

Table 1 shows the result obtained from the experiment.


Jadual 1 menunjukkan keputusan yang diperolehi dari eksperimen :

Glass

Duration of tomato

Mass of 10 tomatoes
40

Average mass of

house
Rumah
Kaca

plant exposed to the


light intensity daily
(hour)
Tempoh masa keamatan
cahaya didedahkan
kepada pokok tomato
setiap hari (jam)

Jisim 10 biji tomato (kg)

each tomato
Purata Jisim bagi
sebiji tomato (kg)

A
12

Table 1
Jadual 1
(a) Record the mass of 10 tomatoes and calculate the average reading in Table 1.
Rekodkan jisim 10 biji tomato dan hitungkan purata bacaan dalam Jadual 1.
[3 marks]
(b) (i)

Based on Table 1, state two observations that can be made in the


experiment.
41

Berdasarkan Jadual 1, nyatakan dua pemerhatian yang boleh dibuat dalam


eksperimen ini.
Obersvation 1/ Pemerhatian 1:
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
Obersvation 2/ Pemerhatian 2:
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(ii)

State the inference for each observation made in (b)(i).


Nyatakan inference bagi setiap pemerhatian yang dibuat di (b)(i).
Inference for observation 1:
Inferens bagi pemerhatian 1:
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
Inference for observation 2:
Inferens bagi pemerhatian 2:
..............................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................
[3marks]

(c) Complete Table 2 based on this experiment.


Lengkapkan Jadual 2 berdasarkan eksperimen ini.
42

Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated variable:
Pembolehubah dimanipulasikan:

Method to handle the variable


Cara mengendali pembolehubah

..................................................................
.............................................................
..................................................................
.............................................................
..................................................................

Responding variable:
Pembolehubah bergerak balas:

..................................................................

.............................................................. ..................................................................
.............................................................. ..................................................................

Constant variable:
Pembolehubah dimalarkan:

......................................................................

.................................................................

......................................................................

.................................................................

......................................................................

Table 2
Jadual 2
[3 marks]
(d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.
Nyatakan hipotesis bagi eksperimen ini.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(e) (i)

Construct a table and record all the data collected in this experiment.
Your table should have the following titles:
43

Bina satu jadual dan rekodkan semua data yang dikumpul dalam eksperimen ini.
Jadual anda hendaklah mengandungi tajuk-tajuk berikut:
Glass house
Rumah kaca
Duration of tomato plant exposed to the light intensity daily.
Tempoh masa keamatan cahaya didedahkan kepada pokok tomato setiap hari
Mass of 10 tomatoes
Jisim 10 biji tomato
Growth rate of tomato
Kadar pertumbuhan tomato
Mass of 10 tomatoes
Jisim 10 biji tomato

Growth rate
Kadar pertumbuhan

Time taken for planting


Masa yang diambil untuk menanam

[3 marks]
(ii)

(iii)

By using the data in 1(e)(i), draw a bar chart on the growth rate of tomato against
duration of tomato plant exposed to the light intensity daily.
Menggunakan data di 1(e)(i) , lukis carta bar kadar pertumbuhan tomato
melawan tempoh masa keamatan cahaya didedahkan kepada pokok tomato setiap
hari
[3 marks]
Based on the bar chart in 1(e)(ii), explain the relationship betweenthe growth rate
of tomato against duration of tomato plant exposed to the light intensity daily.
Berdasarkan carta bar dalam 1(e)(ii), terangkan hubungan di antara kadar
44

pertumbuhan tomato melawan tempoh masa keamatan cahaya didedahkan


kepada pokok tomato setiap hari.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]
(f)

This experiment is repeated by exposing the tomato plant to the light intensity for 4
hours daily.
Predict the mass of 10 tomatoes that will be provided.
Explain your prediction.
Eksperimen ini diulangi dengan mendedahkan pokok tomato kepada keamatan cahaya
selama 4 jam sehari.
Ramalkan jisim 10 tomato yang akan diperolehi.
Terangkan ramalan anda.
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(g)

Based on the result of this experiment, state the operational definition for continuous
variation
Berdasarkan keputusan eksperimen ini, nyatakan definisi secara operasi untuk
variasi selanjar
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................
[3 marks]

(h)

The following list is part of the apparatus and material used in this experiment.
Senarai berikut adalah sebahagian daripada radas dan bahan yang digunakan dalam
eksperimen ini
45

Light bulb
Mentol lampu

Calendar
Calendar

Compression balance
Neraca mampatan

Tomatoes fertilizer
Baja
Tomato plant
Pokok tomato

Complete Table 3 by matching each variable with the apparatus and material used in
this experiment.
Lengkapkan Jadual 3 dengan memadankan setiap pembolehubah dengan radas dan
bahan yang digunakan dalam eksperimen ini.
Variable
Pembolehubah
Manipulated
Manipulasi
Responding
Bergerak balas
Controlled
Dimalarkan

Apparatus
Radas

Material
Bahan

Table 3
Jadual 3
[3 marks]

Question 2
Soalan 2
46

Human traits are determined by gene or combination of genes and environment. There are
continuous variation and discontinuous variation. Study on variation of traits could be done to
decide on the type of variation.
Trait dalam manusia ditentukan oleh gen atau kombinasi gen dan persekitaran. Terdapat variasi
selanjar dan variasi tak selanjar. Kajian ke atas trait variasi boleh dijalankan untuk menentukan
variasi.
By using trait ability to roll the tongue, design an experiment to determine the types of variation
among the students in your class.
Dengan menggunakan trait kebolehan menggulung lidah, reka bentuk satu eksperimen untuk
menentukan jenis variasi dalam kalangan murid di kelas anda.
The planning of your experiment should include the following aspects:
Perancangan eksperimen anda hendaklah mengandungi aspek-aspek berikut:

Problem statement
Pernyataan masalah

Variables
Pembolehubah pembolehubah

Hypothesis
Hipotesis

List of apparatus and materials.


Senarai radas dan bahan

Experimental procedures
Prosedur eksperimen

Presentation of data
Persembahan data
[17 marks]

47