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Advertising mix

the combination of methods that a company or organization uses

toadvertise its products or services, for example, on television or radio,
in newspapers, or on the internet:
When starting an online company, it is crucial to decide on the advertising mix that
you are going to use



Theory X and Theory Y

Two distinct sets of assumptions that managers, in general, have
about their employees and which often turn out to be selffulfilling prophesies. Theory-X assumptions are: (1) most people
dislike work and will avoid it to the extent possible, therefore (2)
they must be continually coerced, controlled, and threatened
with punishment to get the work done, and that (3) they have
little or no ambition, prefer to avoid responsibility, and
choose security above everything else. Theory-Y assumptions
are: (1) physical and mental effort are natural and most people
(depending on the work environment) find work to be
a source of satisfaction, (2) they generally, on their

own motivation, exercise self-control, self-direction, creativity,

and ingenuity in pursuit of individual and collective
(company) goals, (3) they either seek responsibility or learn to
accept it willingly, and that (4) their full potential is not tapped in
These assumptions serve as powerful behavioral models reflected
in the way an organization is structured. Management that
believes in theory-X assumptions, creates stick-and-carrot
approach based firms with
restrictive discipline and pervasive controls. Theory-Y believers
create trust based firms with empowered employees.
These concepts were introduced by the US college-administrator
and professor Douglas McGregor (1906-64) in his 1960 book 'The
Human Side Of Eenterprise.' See also theory Z.

Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory

The two-factor theory (also known as Herzberg's motivation-hygiene
theory and dual-factor theory) states that there are certain factors in
the workplace that cause job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors
cause dissatisfaction. It was developed by psychologist Frederick
Herzberg, who theorized that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction act
independently of each other.[1]
Two-factor theory distinguishes between:

Motivators (e.g. challenging work, recognition for one's achievement, responsibility,

opportunity to do something meaningful, involvement in decision making, sense of importance to
an organization) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself,
such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth, [4] and

Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, good pay,
paid insurance, vacations) that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation,
though dissatisfaction results from their absence. The term "hygiene" is used in the sense that
these are maintenance factors. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such
as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.[4][5] Herzberg often referred to

hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, which is an acronym for "kick in the ass", the process of
providing incentives or threat of punishment to make someone do something.
According to the Two-Factor Theory there are four possible combinations:[8]
1. High Hygiene + High Motivation: The ideal situation where employees are highly motivated
and have few complaints.
2. High Hygiene + Low Motivation: Employees have few complaints but are not highly
motivated. The job is viewed as a paycheck.
3. Low Hygiene + High Motivation: Employees are motivated but have a lot of complaints. A
situation where the job is exciting and challenging but salaries and work conditions are not
up to par.
4. Low Hygiene + Low Motivation: This is the worst situation where employees are not
motivated and have many complaints.
Unlike Maslow, who offered little data to support his ideas, Herzberg and others have presented
considerable empirical evidence to confirm the motivation-hygiene theory, although their work has
been criticized on methodological grounds

Organizational structure
An organizational structure defines how activities such as task allocation, coordination and
supervision are directed toward the achievement of organizational aims. [1] It can also be considered
as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its
Organizations are a variant of clustered entities.[citation needed]
An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on its objectives. The structure
of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs.
Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and
processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual.
Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways:

First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest.

Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making

processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organizations actions. [2]

(1) Materials variances:

= (8,000 pounds $11.50) (8,000 pounds $12)

= $92,000 $96,000
= $4,000 Favorable

= (6,000 pounds $12) (4,500 pounds $12)

= $72,000 $54,000
= $18,000 Unfavorable
(2)Labor variances:

= $40,000 (1,600 hours $24)

= $40,000 $38,400
= $1,600 Unfavorable

= (1,600 hours $24) (1,800 hours $24)

= $38,400 $43,200
=$4,800 Favorable
(3) Variable overhead variances:

= (1,600 hours $4.5) (1,600 hours $5)

= $7,200 $8,000
= $800 Favorable

= (1,600 hours $5) (1,800 hours $5)

= $1,000 Favorable
Profit ($0) = sales variable costs fixed costs
Profit ($0) = (units x $40) (units x $20) $1,000
Profit ($0) = units x ($40 $20) $1,000
Profit ($0) = units x $20 $1,000
To finish this little piece of algebra, add $1,000 to both sides of the equation. Then divide both
sides by 20: X = 50, or 50 units.
$1,000 = units x $20
$1,000 / $20 = units
50 = units
You need to sell 50 units at $40 per unit. If you dont think you can sell at least 50 units of
software, dont get on the plane for the t

Cost benefit Analysis

Present Value of Int Factor Annuity
Present Value of Int Factor Annuity
A = P ( 1 + r / n ) n t {\displaystyle A=P(1+r/n)^{nt}}
A = P ( 1 + r / n ) n t {\displaystyle A=P(1+r/n)^{nt}}
Investment P = $1000
Interest i = 6.90% Compounded Qtrly (4 Times in Year)
Tenure Years n = 5
= 1000 ( 1 + 0.069 / 4 ) ( 5 y r s 4 q t r s i n a y e
a r ) = 1000 ( 1 + 0.069 / 4 ) 20 1407.84 {\displaystyle
=1000\times (1+0.069/4)^{({5\ yrs}\ \times \ 4\ {qtrs\ in\ a\
year})}=1000\times (1+0.069/4)^{20}\approx 1407.84} =
1000 \times (1+0.069/4)^{({5\ yrs}\ \times\ 4\ {qtrs\ in\ a\
year} )} = 1000 \times (1+0.069/4)^{20} \approx 1407.84

The following table summarizes the different formulas commonly

used in calculating the time value of money.[8] These values are
often displayed in tables where the interest rate and time are
Find Given


Future value (F)

Present value (P)
{\displaystyle F=P\cdot (1+i)^{n}} F=P\cdot (1+i)^n

Present value (P)

Future value (F)
{\displaystyle P=F\cdot (1+i)^{-n}} P=F\cdot (1+i)^{-n}
Repeating payment (A) Future value (F)
1 {\displaystyle A=F\cdot {\frac {i}{(1+i)^{n}-1}}} A=F\cdot
Repeating payment (A) Present value (P)
( 1 + i ) n 1 {\displaystyle A=P\cdot {\frac {i(1+i)^{n}}
{(1+i)^{n}-1}}} A=P\cdot \frac{i(1+i)^n}{(1+i)^n-1}
Future value (F)
Repeating payment (A) F = A ( 1 + i ) n
1 i {\displaystyle F=A\cdot {\frac {(1+i)^{n}-1}{i}}}
F=A\cdot \frac{(1+i)^n-1}{i}
Present value (P)
Repeating payment (A) P = A ( 1 + i ) n
1 i ( 1 + i ) n {\displaystyle P=A\cdot {\frac {(1+i)^{n}-1}
{i(1+i)^{n}}}} P=A\cdot \frac{(1+i)^n-1}{i(1+i)^n}
Future value (F)
Gradient payment (G)
i n 1 i 2 {\displaystyle F=G\cdot {\frac {(1+i)^{n}-in-1}
{i^{2}}}} F=G\cdot \frac{(1+i)^n-in-1}{i^2}
Present value (P)
Gradient payment (G)
i n 1 i 2 ( 1 + i ) n {\displaystyle P=G\cdot {\frac {(1+i)^{n}in-1}{i^{2}(1+i)^{n}}}} P=G\cdot \frac{(1+i)^n-in-1}
Fixed payment (A) Gradient payment (G)
+ i ) n 1 ] {\displaystyle A=G\cdot \left[{\frac {1}{i}}-{\frac
{n}{(1+i)^{n}-1}}\right]} A=G\cdot \left[\frac{1}{i}-\frac{n}
Future value (F)

Exponentially increasing payment (D)

Increasing percentage (g)

F = D ( 1 + g ) n ( 1 + i ) n g i {\displaystyle
F=D\cdot {\frac {(1+g)^{n}-(1+i)^{n}}{g-i}}} F=D\cdot
\frac{(1+g)^n-(1+i)^n}{g-i} (for i g)

F = D n ( 1 + i ) n 1 + g {\displaystyle F=D\cdot {\frac

{n(1+i)^{n}}{1+g}}} F=D\cdot \frac{n(1+i)^n}{1+g}
= g)
Present value (P)

(for i

Exponentially increasing payment (D)

Increasing percentage (g)

P = D ( 1 + g 1 + i ) n 1 g i {\displaystyle P=D\cdot
{\frac {\left({1+g \over 1+i}\right)^{n}-1}{g-i}}} P=D\cdot
\frac{\left({1+g \over 1+i}\right)^n-1}{g-i} (for i g)

P = D n 1 + g {\displaystyle P=D\cdot {\frac {n}{1+g}}}

P=D\cdot \frac{n}{1+g} (for i = g)


A is a fixed payment amount, every period

G is a steadily increasing payment amount, that starts at G
and increases by G for each subsequent period.
D is an exponentially or geometrically increasing payment
amount, that starts at D and increases by a factor of (1+g) each
subsequent period.

The scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new
knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. To be termed scientific, a method
of inquiry is commonly based on empirical or measurable evidence subject to specific principles
of reasoning.
The steps of research by the scientific method can be summarized like this:
The steps of research by the scientific method can be summarized like this:

Scientific Method:
formulating questions
collecting data
and testing hypotheses and conclude

the use of a variety of data sources (data triangulation)

the use of several different researchers (investigator triangulation)

the use of multiple perspectives to interpret the results (theory triangulation)

the use of multiple methods to study a research problem (methodological triangulation)

1. Random Sampling
Everyone in the entire target population has an equal chance of being selected.
This is similar to the national lottery. If the population is everyone who has bought a
lottery ticket, then each person has an equal chance of winning the lottery (assuming they
all have one ticket each).
Random samples require a way of naming or numbering the target population and then
using some type of raffle method to choose those to make up the sample. Random
samples are the best method of selecting your sample from the population of interest.
The advantages are that your sample should represent the target population and eliminate
sampling bias, but the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to achieve (i.e. time, effort
and money).

2. Stratified Sampling

The researcher identifies the different types of people that make up the target population
and works out the proportions needed for the sample to be representative.
A list is made of each variable (e.g. IQ, sex etc.) which might have an effect on the
research. For example, if we are interested in the money spent on books by
undergraduates, then the main subject studied may be an important variable.
For example, students studying English Literature may spend more money on books than
engineering students so if we use a very large percentage of English students or
engineering students then our results will not be accurate.
We have to work out the relative percentage of each group at a university e.g.
Engineering 10%, Social Sciences 15%, English 20%, Sciences 25%, Languages 10%,
Law 5%, Medicine 15% The sample must then contain all these groups in the same
proportion as in the target population (university students).
Gathering such a sample would be extremely time consuming and difficult to do
(disadvantage). This method is rarely used in Psychology. However, theadvantage is
that the sample should be highly representative of the target population and therefore we
can generalize from the results obtained.

3. Opportunity Sampling
Uses people from target population available at the time and willing to take part. It is
based on convenience.
An opportunity sample is obtained by asking members of the population of interest if
they would take part in your research. An example would be selecting a sample of
students from those coming out of the library.
This is a quick way and easy of choosing participants (advantage), but may not provide a
representative sample, and could be biased (disadvantage).

4. Systematic Sampling
Chooses subjects in a systematic (i.e. orderly / logical) way from the target population,
like every nth participant on a list of names.
To take a systematic sample, you list all the members of the population, and then decided
upon a sample you would like. By dividing the number of people in the population by the
number of people you want in your sample, you get a number we will call n.

If you take every nth name, you will get a systematic sample of the correct size. If, for
example, you wanted to sample 150 children from a school of 1,500, you would take
every 10th name.
The advantage to this method is that is should provide a representative sample, but
the disadvantage is that it is very difficult to achieve (i.e. time, effort and money).