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Current and Current Density:

Source quantity

Lecture -13

I J.dS
S

Different Kinds of Current Density


9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Convection current density


Conduction current density
Displacement current density

J = v u

J = E

Will be
discussed later

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Equation of Continuity
I out


dQin
J .dS
dt

.J 0
v 0 e

v
.J
t

Steady electric currents are


divergenceless or solenoidal

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Power Dissipation and Joules Law


Power P (in watts) is defined as the rate of change of energy W (in
joules) or force times velocity

Power density: wp (in W/m3)

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Lecture 14

J n1 J n 2

J t1 1

J t 2 2

For homogeneous conducting medium

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Example: Static Charge and


Steady Current

Find:

Parallel-plate capacitor with lossy dielectrics

(a) Current density between the plates


(b) Electric Field intensities in both dielectrics, and
(c) Surface charge densities on the plates and at the interface.

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Resistance calculation

Homogeneous material of a
uniform cross section

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Resistance Calculation

Only when medium is homogeneous

If the capacitance between two conductors is known, the resistance (or


conductance) can be obtained directly from the / ratio without recomputation
9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example:
Coaxial Cable

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Parallel-wire Transmission Line

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example:

Lecture -15

A metal bar of conductivity is bend from a flat 90 o


sector of inner radius a , outer radius b, and thickness t as
shown in Figure . Show that a) the resistance of the bar
between the vertical curved surface at r = a and r = b is
and (b) the resistance between the two horizontal surfaces
at z = 0 and z = t is
b
a
R
t
2 ln

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

10

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

BITS Pilani
Pilani Campus

Topic: Static Magnetic Field

Fundamental Postulates of
Magnetostatics in Free Space

A magnetostatic field is produced by a constant current flow.

1. Divergence of B
2. Curl of B

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Magnetic Flux Density



B .d S


B.dS 0
c

.B 0

Gausss Law for


magnetic fields
It is not possible to have isolated magnetic poles
9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

13

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Magnetic Flux Density


B 0 J

Tell us try to have its integral form

Amperes Circuital Law


Amperes circuital law states that the line integral of H around a closed
path is the same as the net current enclosed by the path.
Magnetostatic Field is not conservative
BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Maxwells Equation for Static electric field


and steady magnetic field

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

15

Vector and Scalar magnetic


potential

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

H Vm if J = 0

Scalar
magnetic
potential
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BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Significance of A
Its line integral around any closed path equals the total
magnetic flux passing through the area enclosed by the
path.

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Two Important Laws

Two important laws governing magnetostatic fields

Biot-Savart Law and Amperes Circuital Law

Biot-Savarts Law:

I dl a R
dH
4 R 2

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Idl R

4 R 3

18

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Different Current Distribution

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

19

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Example: Circular loop of


current:
Calculate the magnetic field on the axis of a circular current
carrying loop.

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

Ib 2

2 b z
2

2 3/2

az

20

BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus

Boundary conditions for


magnetostatic field

Normal component:

The normal component of B is continuous across an interface


The normal component of H is discontinuous by the ratio 2/1.

Tangential component:

Ht1 Ht2 = K
If the surface current density is zero. Ht1 = Ht2

9/15/2016

Dr. Navneet Gupta

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BITS Pilani, Pilani Campus