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MID TERM PROJECT

ON

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL


&
AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
IN

BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED


GHAZIABAD

SUBMITTED BY: SUNISH KAPOOR


CS/O3/3306
317031256

CONTENTS AT GLANCE
1. PREFACE
2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
3.

About BEL
Production Units
BEL Ghaziabad unit
Development and Engineering Deptt.(D&E-R)
Equipment Modular Command &Control
Application(EMCCA)
4. INTRODUCTION OF SYSYEM
Air Traffic Control & Management
# INTRODUCTION
# OBJECTIVE
#NEEDS
# SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
Radio Detection and Ranging
# Types of Radar
# Applications of Radar
# Working of Radar
Radar Simulator
# Objective
# About Radar Simulator
# Features of Radar Simulator
# Application of Radar Simulator

5. IMPLEMENTATION AND CODING


6. CONCLUSION

PREFACE

As an integral part of curriculum I the student of B-TECH(Bachelor of


Technology) need to get exposed to the actual company environment for better
understanding of various corporate strategies by way of undergoing practical training
of 6 weeks duration.
A well planned, properly executed and evaluated industrial training helps a lot in
inculcating a professional attitude. It provides a linkage between the student and
industry to develop an awareness of industrial approach to problem solving, based on a
broad understanding of process and mode of operation of organization.
I consider myself fortunate enough that I had an opportunity to join Bharat
Electronics Ltd. Ghaziabad and work in their project .
During this period, I got the real, first hand experience for working in the actual
environment. Most of the theoretical knowledge that has been gained during the course
of my studies is put to test here. Apart from this, I got an opportunity to learn various
technologies, which will definitely help me in future. I got a chance to learn many new
technologies and was also interfaced to many new instruments. And all the credit goes
to organization Bharat Electronics Limited.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I take this opportunity to express my sincere thanks and deep gratitude to all the
members of the D&E-R1 Division. All of them were extremely co-operative and helping.
They all have been very supportive of my work with their encouragement and criticism. I
am deeply indebted to all of them and welcome this opportunity to benefit further from
their contribution. I am also thankful to the organization as a whole for providing me the
opportunity to undergo training there.
I pay my sincere thanks to Mr. A. K. Sharma (DGM-D&E R) , who allowed me to
work in this department. In particular I am extremely grateful to Mr. Bhupesh Sharma
and Mr. Ahsan Ali Saifi, for his guidance throughout the project.

SUNISH KAPOOR

ABOUT BHARAT ELECTRONICS Ltd.:


Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) was established in 1954 as a Public Sector
Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defense as the fountainhead to
manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL, with a
noteworthy history of pioneering achievements, has met the requirement of state-of-art
professional electronic equipment for Defense, broadcasting, civil Defense and
telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and
medical X-ray industry. Over the years, BEL has grown to a multi-product, multi-unit,
and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. The company
has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic
component and equipment. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with TCSF of France, the company's equipment designs have had a long voyage through the
hybrid, solid-state discrete component to the state of art integrated circuit technology. In
the component arena also, the company established its own electron valve
manufacturing facility. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of
germanium and silicon devices and then to the manufacture of Integrated circuits. To
keep in pace with the component and equipment technology, its manufacturing and
product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change.

BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing
technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO Labs for a
wide range of products. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Each
unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines. Central
Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency
to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies.
About 70% of BEL's products are of in-house design.
BEL was among the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and
peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in
1970s. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with
ICIL. However, following Government's decision to restrict the computer manufacture to
ECIL, BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. As many of its
equipment were microprocessor based, the company continued to develop computers
based application, both hardware and software. Most of its software requirements are in
real time. EMCCA, software intensive naval ships control and command system is
probably one of the first projects of its nature in India and Asia.

PRODUCTION UNITS:
BEL has production units established at different parts of the country. They are
Bangalore, Ghaziabad, Pune, Taloja (Maharashtra), Hyderabad, Panchkula (Haryana),
Chennai, Machhilipathnam (A.P.) and Kotdwara (U.P.)
Bangalore (Karnataka):
BEL started its production activities in Bangalore in 1954. Since then this unit has
grown to specialize in communication and Radar/Sonar Systems for the Army, Navy &
the Air Force. As an aid to electorate the unit has developed Electronic Voting Machines
that are produced at its Mass Manufacturing Facility(MMF).
Ghaziabad (U.P.):
The second largest unit at ghaziabad was set up in 1974 to manufacture special
types of RADARS for the Air Defense Ground Environment Systems(Plan ADGES). The
units production range includes Static and mobile RADARS, professional grade
Antennae and microwave components.
Pune (Maharashtra):
This unit was started in 1979 to manufacture Image Converter Tubes. At present
the unit manufactures Laser Sub-unit for tank fire control systems and Laser Range
Finders for the Defense Services.
Machilipatnam (Andhra Pradesh):
The Andhra Scientific Co. at Machilipatnam, manufacturing optics/Optoelectronic
equipments was integrated with BEL in 1983. The unit has successfully diversified to
making the Surgical Microscope with zoom facilities.
Chennai (Tamil Nadu):
In 1985, BEL started another unit at Chennai to facilitate manufacture of Gun
Control Equipment required for the integration and installation in the Vijayantra tanks. It
is now manufacturing Stabilizer Systems for T-72 tanks.
Kotdwar (Uttaranchal):
In 1986, BEL started a unit at Kotdwar to manufacture Telecommunication equipments
for both Defense and civilians.
Taloja (Maharashtra):
This unit is fully mobilized to manufacture 20 glass bulbs indigenously.

Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh):


This unit was established in 1986 to coordinate with major defense R&D Laboratories
located in Hyderabad.

OBJECTIVES

To become a customer-driven company supplying quality products at competitive prices


at the expected time and providing excellent customer support.

To achieve growth in the operations commensurate with the growth of professional


electronics industry in the country.

To generate internal resources for financing the investments required for modernization,
expansion and growth for ensuring a fair return to the investor.

In order to meet the Nation's strategic needs, to strive for self-reliance by indigenization
of materials and components.

To retain the technological leadership of the company in Defence and other chosen
fields of electronics through in-house Research and Development as well as through
collaboration/co-operation with Defence/National Research Laboratories, International
Companies, Universities and Academic institutions.

To progressively increase overseas sales of its products and services it creates an


organizational culture which encourages members of the organization to realize their full
potential through continuous learning on the job and through other HRD initiatives.

BEL, GHAZIABAD UNIT:


In the mid 60's, while reviewing the Defense requirement of the country, the
government focused its attention to strengthen the air Defense system, in particular the
ground electronics system support, for the air Defense network. This led to the
formulation of a very major plan for an integrated Air Defense Ground Environment
System known as the Plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the
apex review committee.
In December 1970 the Govt. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. In 1971, the
industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained;
1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in

1974.
Over the years, the Unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of
equipment needed for Defense and civil use. It has also installed and commissioned a
large number of systems on turnkey basis. The Unit enjoys a unique status as
manufacturer of IFF systems needed to match a variety of Primary Raiders. More than
30 versions of IFFs have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum
technology to solid-state to latest Microwave Component based system.
The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with
Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions - Design & Engineering
Divisions , Development and Engineering-R, Development and Engineering-C and
Development and Engineering-Antenna.

DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING(D & E) DEPARTMENT:


As the name suggests D&E dept. performs the function of development and
engineering of the requirements of the companys customers which are mainly national
defense organizations. There are five sections in this dept. The table drawn below gives
the division into five sections Radar1, Radar2, Communication, Antennae and Data
Handling. The five sections work in co-ordination with each other and give an aggregate
result as output of D&E dept. and this output is send as an report to the CRL (Central
Research Laboratory) where the requirements of the customers framed by D & E are
considered and a software is developed fulfilling all the requirements.
The pace of development and technological obsolescence in the field of
electronics necessitates a strong Research and Development base. This is all the more
important in the area of Defense Electronics. BEL Ghaziabad has since its inception laid
a heavy emphasis on indigenous Research and Development. About 70% of its
manufacture today relate to items developed in-house. For the development and
production of the Mobile Troposcatter System and the IFF equipment, BEL was
awarded the Gold Shield for Import Substitution.
Design facilities are also constantly being modernized and substantial computeraided design facilities are being introduced including installation of mini and
microcomputers and dedicated design application. About 170 graduate and postgraduate engineers are working on research and development and indication of the
importance R&D has in BELs growth.
Three Development and Engineering groups are product based viz.
Communication, Radar and Antenna., These divisions are further divided into different
departments to look after products of a particular nature. Each of them has a drawing
office attached to them, which are equipped with latest drafting and engineering
software. The PCB layout and PCB master making is done at CADDs center. A central
Records and Printing section takes care of the preserving the engineering documents
and distribution thereof.

Equipment Modular Command &Control


Application(EMCCA)
Purpose: Provide computerized action information handling, on-board ships of project 16A
with capabilities together data from ships sensors and data links, process and assemble
comprehensive and tactical pictures, perform air, surface and sub-surface threat
assessment and tactical navigation etc.
Operation Definition: EMCCA system shall compile a process data from on-board sensors
and through data link and display on tactical pictures, carryout threat assessment, perform
tactical navigation, aircraft and helicopter control. System provides online/offline
diagnostics command team training, data recording/replay for analysis and offline map
prevention facilities.
SEGMENT
1.

Central Computation Complex (CC): is a matched node pair, hot stand by


configuration. The central database and operation software amongst other items shall
resides in the computing complex

2.

Video Extractor And Tracker (VEXT) : for 4 primary radars which shall enable autotracking and auto-initiation of target tracks. Also enable simulation for data for
operating training.

3.

System Control Panel (SCP): from any where it shall be possible to switch or
remotely control, monitor and diagnose the system.

4.

External System Interface (ESI): System has two types of ESI's. In first type, all
radars shall be connected through radars data distribution unit which shall perform
signal conditioning and distribution and raw video and radar data, to video extract
and tracker, MFC's & RRS. In second type it provides redundant I/P-O/P connection
with non-radar sensors and weapon system connector through ships data line or
directly.

5.
6.

7.

Recording and Replay Sub-System (RRS): To store and reply raw video radar
picture as well as synthetic picture under operator control.
Radar Data Distribution Unit (RDDU): to receive radar video signals of primary
radars & simulation radars & after depending upon the condition RDDU sends to its
corresponding users..
E-Bus: A dual redundant Ethernet data bus connecting all 9 consoles, computer
complex, 4 video extractor and trackers and trackers, system control panel, recording
and replay sub-system, radar data distribution unit and external system interface unit.

ATC& ATM

INTRODUCTION:
The air traffic control system is a vast network of people and equipment that ensures
the safe operation of commercial and private aircraft. Air traffic controllers coordinate
the movement of air traffic to make certain that planes stay a safe distance apart.
Their immediate concern is safety, but controllers also must direct planes efficiently to
minimize delays. Some regulate airport traffic; others regulate flights between
airports.
Although airport tower or terminal controllers watch over all planes traveling through
the airports airspace, their main responsibility is to organize the flow of aircraft into
and out of the airport. Relying on radar and visual observation, they closely monitor
each plane to ensure a safe distance between all aircraft and to guide pilots between
the hangar or ramp and the end of the airports airspace. In addition, controllers keep
pilots informed about changes in weather conditions such as wind sheara sudden
change in the velocity or direction of the wind that can cause the pilot to lose control
of the aircraft.
During arrival or departure, several controllers direct each plane. As a plane
approaches an airport, the pilot radios ahead to inform the terminal of the planes
presence. The controller in the radar room, just beneath the control tower, has a copy
of the planes flight plan and already has observed the plane on radar. If the path is
clear, the controller directs the pilot to a runway; if the airport is busy, the plane is
fitted into a traffic pattern with other aircraft waiting to land. As the plane nears the
runway, the pilot is asked to contact the tower. There, another controller, who also is
watching the plane on radar, monitors the aircraft the last mile or so to the runway,
delaying any departures that would interfere with the planes landing. Once the plane
has landed, a ground controller in the tower directs it along the taxiways to its
assigned gate. The ground controller usually works entirely by sight, but may use
radar if visibility is very poor.

The procedure is reversed for departures. The ground controller directs the plane to
the proper runway. The local controller then informs the pilot about conditions at the
airport, such as weather, speed and direction of wind, and visibility. The local controller
also issues runway clearance for the pilot to take off. Once in the air, the plane is
guided out of the airports airspace by the departure controller.
After each plane departs, airport tower controllers notify enroute controllers who will
next take charge. There are 21 air route traffic control centers located around the
country, each employing 300 to 700 controllers, with more than 150 on duty during
peak hours at the busier facilities. Airplanes usually fly along designated routes; each
center is assigned a certain airspace containing many different routes. Enroute
controllers work in teams of up to three members, depending on how heavy traffic is;
each team is responsible for a section of the centers airspace. A team, for example,
might be responsible for all planes that are between 30 to 100 miles north of an
airport and flying at an altitude between 6,000 and 18,000 feet.
To prepare for planes about to enter the teams airspace, the radar associate controller
organizes flight plans coming off a printer. If two planes are scheduled to enter the
teams airspace at nearly the same time, location, and altitude, this controller may
arrange with the preceding control unit for one plane to change its flight path. The
previous unit may have been another team at the same or an adjacent center, or a
departure controller at a neighboring terminal. As a plane approaches a teams
airspace, the radar controller accepts responsibility for the plane from the previous
controlling unit. The controller also delegates responsibility for the plane to the next
controlling unit when the plane leaves the teams airspace.
The radar controller, who is the senior team member, observes the planes in the
teams airspace on radar and communicates with the pilots when necessary. Radar
controllers warn pilots about nearby planes, bad weather conditions, and other
potential hazards. Two planes on a collision course will be directed around each other.
If a pilot wants to change altitude in search of better flying conditions, the controller
will check to determine that no other planes will be along the proposed path. As the
flight progresses, the team responsible for the aircraft notifies the next team in charge
of the airspace ahead. Through team coordination, the plane arrives safely at its
destination.
Both airport tower and enroute controllers usually control several planes at a time;
often, they have to make quick decisions about completely different activities. For
example, a controller might direct a plane on its landing approach and at the same
time provide pilots entering the airports airspace with information about conditions at
the airport. While instructing these pilots, the controller also would observe other
planes in the vicinity, such as those in a holding pattern waiting for permission to land,
to ensure that they remain well separated.
In addition to airport towers and enroute centers, air traffic controllers also work in
flight service stations operated at more than 100 locations. These flight service
specialists provide pilots with information on the stations particular area, including
terrain, preflight and inflight weather information, suggested routes, and other
information important to the safety of a flight. Flight service station specialists help
pilots in emergency situations and initiate and coordinate searches for missing or
overdue aircraft. However, they are not involved in actively managing air traffic.

Project details

Project aims at networking all radars in India, regionally at national level in an integrated
network shared by all the armed services & the Civil Aviation Department.

Customer
Air Force

Market Potential
Four regional networks integrated at national level.

Technology
The system will be from Thales, France,on a work sharing basis.

System architecture

i.
ii.
iii.

The overall system architecture should have the following features:a) Static, modular, state-off-the-art.
b) Commercial-off-the-shelf(COTS) platform
i. Open architecture
ii. Everready upgrade with upward compatibility
iii. Low life cycle cost
c) Full redundancy
Servers
Dual LAN
Communication(Customer supplied)
d)
e)
f)
g)

Standard operating systems


Modern programming language(C++)
Client/server architecture
Growth potential for incorporation of all air operations.

MY ROLE
As part of my training in Bharat Electronics Limited, I am getting an opportunity to work
in their prestigious project ATM & ATC. The ATM & ATC is a network of RADARS (which

is an abbreviation of word Radio Detecting And Ranging) capable of providing a Real


time and accurate air situation picture of high, medium and low level radars. Air traffic
controllers specify a flight path, altitude, and speed for airborne aircraft, and pilots are required
to comply with these instructions.
NEED OF THE SYSTEM:
With an average of 50,000 aircraft arriving and departing from different destinations throughout the
United States daily, you may wonder how air traffic control manages all this traffic, while
maintaining a exceptional safety record. A rise in the number of aircraft in the skies means an
increasing need to safely coordinate this air traffic. Consequently, the United States categorized its
airspace system into many different levels and forms to accommodate this need. This system is
called the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system and those people who work in this system are called Air
Traffic Controllers.

To prevent collision between aircraft.

(b)

To prevent collision between aircraft and obstructions in the manoeuvring area.

(c)

To expedite and maintain an orderly flow of traffic.

(d)

To provide advice and information, useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flight.

(e)
To notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of search and
rescue aid and assist such organizations as required

RADIO DETECTION & RANGING


RADAR is an abbreviation of word Radio Detection And Ranging. It is an

electromagnetic system for detection and location of object. It operates by transmitting a


particular type of waveform.
An elementary form of radar consists of a transmitting antenna emitting
electromagnetic radiation generated by an oscillator, a receiving antenna, and an
energy detecting device or receiver. A position of the transmitted signal is intercepted by
a reflecting object (target) and is re-radiated in all the directions. The receiving antenna
collects the returned energy and delivers it to a receiver, where it is processed. The
distance to the target is determined by measuring the time taken by the radar signal to
travel and come back. The direction or angular position of the target may be determined
from the detection of arrival of the reflected wave.

Target

Radar
Antenna

Transmitted signal beam

Antenna Beam width

APPLICATION OF RADAR:

RADAR has been employed on the ground, in air ,on the sea and in space.
Some important areas of application are:
Air Traffic Control(ATC)
Air Traffic Management(ATM)
Ship safety
Space
Remote sensing
Military
WORKING OF A SIMPLE RADAR:

A simple RADAR system, as found on many merchant ships, has three main
parts. These are:Antenna unit or the scanner.
The transmitter/receiver or transceiver
The visual display unit.
The antenna is about 2 or 3 meters wide and focuses pulses of very high
frequency radio energy into a narrow vertical beam. The frequency of the radio waves is
usually about 10,000 MHz. the antenna is rotated at the speed of 10 to 25 revolutions
per minute so that the radar beam sweeps through 360 degrees all around the ship out
to a range of about 90 kilometers.
In all radars it is vital that the transmitting and receiving in the transceiver are in
close harmony. Everything depends on accurate measurement of the time which passes
between the transmission of the pulse and the return of the echo about 1,000 pulses per
second are transmitted. Though it is varied to suit requirements. Short pulses are best
for short-range work; longer pulses are better for long range.
An important part of the transceiver is the modulator circuit. This keys the
transmitter so that it can oscillate, or pulses, for exactly the right length of time. The
pulses so generated are video pulses. These pulses are short-range pulses and hence
cannot serve out purpose of long-distance communication. In order to modify these
pulses into radio frequency pulses or RF pulses, we need to generate power. The
transmitted power is generated in a device called magnetron, which can handle these
very short pulses and very high oscillations.
Between each pulse, the transmitter is switched off and isolated. The weak
echoes from the target are picked up by the antenna and fed into the receiver. To avoid
overlapping of these echoes with the next transmitted pulse, another device called
duplexer is used.

Thus, by means of a duplexer, undisturbed, two-way communication is


established. The RF echoes emerging from the duplexer are now fed into the mixer
where they are mixed with pulses of RF energy. These pulses are generated by means
of a local oscillator. Once the two are mixed, a signal is produced in the output which is
of intermediate frequency range or IF range. The IF signals is received by a receiver
where it is demodulated to video frequency range, amplified, and then passed to the
display unit.
The display unit usually carried all the controls necessary for the operation of
the whole radar. It has a cathode ray tube, which consist of an electron gun in its neck.
The gun shoots a beam of electron at a phosphorescent screen at the far end. The
phosphorescent screen glows when hit by the electrons and, the resulting spot of light
can be seen through a glass surface. The screen is circular and is calibrated in degrees
around its edge. The electron beam travels out from the center to the edge. This
random motion of the electron beam, known as the trace, is matched with the rotation of
the antenna. So, when the trace is at zero degrees on the tube calibration, the antenna
is pointing dead ahead. The beginning of each trace corresponds exactly which the
moment at which the radar energy is transmitted.
When an echo is received it brightens up the trace for a moment. This is a blip,
and its distance from the center of the tube corresponds exactly with the time taken for
the radar pulse to travel to the target and return. So that blip on the screen gives the
range and bearing of the target. As the trace rotates, a complete picture is built up from
the coating of the tube. This type of display is called a PPI (plane position indicator) and
is the most common form of presenting radar information.
TYPES OF RADAR:
Based on its functions, RADAR may be classified as:

PRIMARY RADAR
SECONDARY RADAR
Primary RADAR locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the
reflected echo. A Secondary RADAR system is similar in operation to primary radar
except that the return signal is radiated from a transmitter on board the target rather
than by reflection. In other words, secondary radar operates with a co-operative
ACTIVE TARGET while the primary radar operates with a PASSIVE TARGET. But in
cases such as controlling of air traffic, the controller must be able to identify the aircraft
and know whether it is of a friend or a foe. It is also desired to know the height of the
aircraft, so that on the same source but flying at different levels can be kept apart.

To give the controller this information, second radar called a SECONDARY


SURVEILLANCE RADAR (SSR) is used. This works differently and needs the help of
the target aircraft. It senses out the sequence of pulses to an electronic black box,
called a transponder fitted on the aircraft. The secondary radar system consists of an
INTERROGATOR and a TRANSPONDER. The interrogator transmitter in the ground
station interrogates transponder-equipped aircraft, providing a two-way data link to
separate transmitted and received frequencies. The transponder, on board the aircraft,
on receipt of a chain of pulses from the ground interrogator, automatically transmits a
reply. The reply, coded for purposes of Identification is received back at the ground
interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation.
APPLICATIONS OF RADAR:
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC):
Radars have been employed around the world to safely control air traffic in the
vicinity of the airports (Air Surveillance Radar or ASR) and route from one airport to the
another (Air Route Surveillance Radar or ARSR) as well as ground vehicular traffic and
taxiing aircraft on the ground (Airport Surface Detection Equipment or ASDE). The ASR
also maps regions of rain so that the aircraft can be directed around them. There are
also Radars specifically dedicated to observing the weather in the vicinity of airports,
which are called Terminal Doppler Weather Radar or TDWR. The Air Traffic Control
Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS and Mode-s) widely used for the control of air-traffic,
although not a Radar originated from military IFF(Identification of Friend or Foe) and
uses the Radar-like technology.

RADAR SIMULATOR
OBJECTIVE:
It generates dummy data for radar system and displays it on the screen. It is
used for testing purpose for Radar based projects.
ABOUT SIMULATOR:
Radar simulator simulates the functionalities of a radar. Every target has a
position determined by its range and azimuth.
Range is the shortest distance of the target or an object from the radar. This value of
range is less than equal to the range of the radar. The range of the radar is the distance
(in all directions) to which the radar can detect the presence of a target. In a radar
system, all angles are specified with respect to the north direction. Azimuth is the
angular position of the target or the object. A track number is allotted to the target as a
number allotted to its path which is a individual property for that target.
The target may be stationary seldom occurs) or moving. A moving target has a

speed and course. Speed is the rate of movement of the target in m/s.
Course is the direction of movement of the target. It is again an angle with respect to
the north.

Now the target can move either straight or can take a turn. If the target is
moving straight, then it moves along a fixed course till it gets out of the range of the
radar. Now, since it gets out of the range of the radar, radar cannot detect it any more. If
the target is taking turn as well, then the turn can be specified in terms of degrees per
second.
In the simulator, the system time is displayed for the reference of the operator.
Also, the time since the simulator was started is displayed in seconds. For a target to be
displayed in the simulator it requires some data from the user like range of the target,
its azimuth, its speed and course. Also, if it has to take a turn then the RATE OF TURN
is to be specified along with the Distance Before Turn and Time taken during the turn
i.e. the time in seconds when the target will start rotating with the given rate of turn and
when it will stop turning.
FEATURES OF THE SIMULATOR:
1 Very much user friendly The graphical user interface makes it very easy to understand
and use.
2 New Scenarios can be created and successfully saved for later viewing.
3 Synchronized with time to make it as real as possible.
4 Various parameters of a track can be modified in between of the display process as a
target would not move with same parameters all the time.
5 New tracks can be added in between of the display process. As the new targets keep
entering and leaving the detection range of the radar.
6 As a target does not always move straight, turn can be applied to the track of the target.
7 More than one turns are permissible as is the case with actual targets.
In most of the simulators, already being used in the company had a few
limitations. They lacked a good user interface. The various parameters of a track cannot
be modified in between of the display process. New tracks cannot be added in between
of the display process. And there was no provision for incorporating more than one turn
for a track. All these factors did not allow to simulate an actual condition and hence
hampered the effective usage of the simulator.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT
Requirement analysis is done in order to understand the problem of the software
system, is to solve. The problem could be automatic an existing manual process,
developing a new automated system or a combination of two. For large system that
have many features, and that need to perform many different task, understanding the
requirements of the system is a major task.
There are two major activities in this phase: problem understanding or analysis
and requirement specification. In problem analysis the analyst has to understand the
problem and its context. A clear understanding is needed of the important data entities
in the system, major centers where the action is taken, the purpose of the different
actions that are performed, and inputs and outputs. Understanding the existing system
is usually just the starting activity in problem analysis. The goal of this activity is to
understand the requirements of the new system that is to be developed. The analyst
has to make the client aware of the new possibilities.
Once the problem is analyzed and the essentials understood, the requirements
must be specified in the requirement specification document. The requirements
document must specify all the functional and performance requirements; the format of
input and outputs; and all design constraints that exist due to economic, environmental,
and security reasons. In other words, besides the functionality required from the system,
all the factors that may affect the design and the proper functioning of the system
should be specified in the requirement document. A preliminary user manual that
describes all the major user interfaces frequently forms a part of requirement document.
Software requirement specification (SRS) is the starting point of the software
development activity. As systems grow more complex, it becomes evident that their
goals cannot be easily comprehended. Hence the need for the requirements analysis
phase arose.
The SRS is a means of translating the idea in the mind of the client (the input) into a
formal document (the output of the SRS phase).

Functional
Requirements

Performance
Requirements

SRS
Document

Design
Requirements

External
Requirements

Hardware Requirements:

CPU
Main Memory
Hard Disks
Clock Speed

Pentium III
64 MB (minimum)
1/2 GB (minimum)
100 MHZ (minimum)

Software Requirements:

Operating System
GUI

Windows 2000/NT
C/C++ (Graphics)

CODING & IMPLIMENTATION


Once the design is complete most of the major decisions about the system have
been made. The goal of the implementation phase is to translate the design of the
system into code in a given programming language. For a given design, the aim in this
phase is to implement the design in the best possible design.
The implementation phase affects both testing and maintenance profoundly.
Well-written code can reduce the testing and maintenance effort. Because the testing
and maintenance cost of the software are much higher than the coding cost. The goal of
the coding should be to reduce the testing and maintenance effort. Simplicity and clarity
should be strived for during the implementation phase.
The concept of structured programming should be adopted. The goal of
structured programming is to liberalize the control flow in the program. The program
next should be organized as a sequence of statements, and during execution the

statements are executed in sequence given in the program. For structured programming
a few single-entry-exit constructs should be used.
Coding starts once the design phase is over. During the design phase, it is not
decided that which language will be chosen and how the different modules will be
written. In the coding phase the system design is converted into a code using
programming language. The coding phase affects both testing and maintenance. A wellwritten code can reduce the testing and maintenance cost. During the coding the focus
should be on the developing programs that are easy to read and understand and not
simply on developing programs that are easy to write.

CODING

Air Traffic Management


#include<fstream.h>
#include<dos.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<iostream.h>
#include<graphics.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<math.h>
#include<iomanip.h>
void line1(float,float,float,float);
struct f1
{
float x[8];
float y[8];
float stime[8];
float etime[8];
}var;
struct man
{
int fpno[10];
int x[10],x1[10];
int y[10],y1[10];
int sp[10];
int etd[10];
int eta[10];
char ac[10];
int fl[10];
}v;

void main()
{

clrscr();
int gdriver=DETECT,gmode;
initgraph(&gdriver,&gmode,"c:\\tc\\bgi");
char l,ch='y',e;
int r=200,base,air,i,k,j,h,a,c,d,flag=1;
float stime2,etime2,f;
int gx=getmaxx()/2,gy=getmaxy()/2;
int dly=110,dly1=40,x,y,b;
for ( i=0; i < 200; i+=2 )
{
setcolor(i);
circle(300,i,200-i);
delay(dly1);
}
for ( i = 0; i < 220; i+=2 )
{
setcolor(i);
circle(300,i+200,i);
delay(dly1);
}
clrscr();
for ( i=1;i<=10;i++)
{
if(i==7)
continue;
else
{
setcolor(i);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT, HORIZ_DIR, i);
moveto(40,120);
outtext("PROJECT");
delay(dly);
clrscr();
}
}
for ( i=1;i<7;i++)
{
setcolor(i);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT, HORIZ_DIR, i);
moveto(160,150);
outtext("OF C++");
delay(dly);
clrscr();
}
for ( i=3;i<=9;i++)
{
if(i==7)
continue;
else
{
setcolor(i);
settextstyle( TRIPLEX_FONT, HORIZ_DIR, i);
moveto(40,120);
outtext("SUBMITTED");
delay(dly);
clrscr();
}
}

for ( i=1;i<=10;i++)
{
if(i==7)
continue;
else
{
setcolor(i);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT, HORIZ_DIR, i);
moveto(230,160);
outtext("BY");
delay(dly);
clrscr();
}
}
for ( i=1;i<=5;i++)
{
setcolor(i+7);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT,
moveto(10,120);
outtext("SUNISH KAPOOR");
delay(i*dly);
clrscr();
}
for(i=1;i<=10;i++)
{
setcolor(5);
rectangle(x, y+3, b, c);
clrscr();
setcolor(5);
rectangle(x, y+3, b, c);
if(i!=5)
{
setcolor(i);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT,
moveto(210,100);
outtext("ATM");
}
if(i!=5)
{
setcolor(1+i);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT,
moveto(260,165);
outtext("&");
}
if(i!=5)
{
setcolor(i+2);
settextstyle( DEFAULT_FONT,
moveto(210, 200);
outtext("ATC");
delay(dly);
}
}
getch();
clrscr();

HORIZ_DIR, i);

HORIZ_DIR, 6);

HORIZ_DIR, 3);

HORIZ_DIR, 6);

setbkcolor(WHITE);
setcolor(BLUE);
circle(gx,gy,r);
setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL,CYAN);
floodfill(gx,gy,BLUE);

line(gx-r,gy,gx+r,gy);
line(gx,gy-r,gx,gy+r);
settextstyle(1,0,1);
setcolor(BLUE);
settextstyle(1,0,3);
settextstyle(1,0,1);
setcolor(BLUE);
outtextxy(150,220,".
setcolor(BROWN);
outtextxy(350,150,".
setcolor(MAGENTA);
outtextxy(180,350,".
setcolor(RED);
outtextxy(380,300,".

AB1");
AB2");
AB3");
AB4");

outtextxy(gx-r,gy,"W");
outtextxy(gx,gy-r,"N");
outtextxy(gx,gy+r,"S");
outtextxy(gx+r,gy,"E");
//FOR AIRBASE 1
fstream fin,fin1;
fin.open("d:\\sa\\s.txt",ios::out);
var.x[0]=150;
var.x[1]=150;
var.y[0]=220;
var.y[1]=220;
var.stime[0]=11.31;
var.stime[1]=11.45;
var.etime[0]=12.11;
var.etime[1]=12.34;
//FOR AIRBASE 2
var.x[2]=350;
var.x[3]=350;
var.y[2]=150;
var.y[3]=150;
var.stime[2]=12.31;
var.stime[3]=13.05;
var.etime[2]=13.22;
var.etime[3]=14.51;
// FOR AIRBASE 3
var.x[4]=180;
var.x[5]=180;
var.y[4]=350;
var.y[5]=350;
var.stime[4]=12.11;
var.stime[5]=12.12;
var.etime[4]=12.57;
var.etime[5]=12.39;
//FOR AIRBASE 4
var.x[6]=380;
var.x[7]=380;
var.y[6]=300;
var.y[7]=300;
var.stime[6]=12.03;
var.stime[7]=12.15;
var.etime[6]=12.59;
var.etime[7]=12.33;
fin.write((char*)&var,sizeof(var));
fin.close();
textcolor(BLUE);
cout<<"ENTER YOUR CHOICE\n";
cout<<"\t\t 1 TO 3 FOR AUTOMATIC AND 4 FOR MANUAL FLIGHT PLAN\n";
cout<<"1 FOR AIR BASE \n2 FOR START TIME \n3 FOR REGION\n4 MANUAL
FLIGHT PLAN\n5 EXIT PROGRAM";
do
{
cin>>air;
float m,m1,m2,m3,m4,m5,m6,m7,n,n1,n2,n3,n4,n5,n6,n7;
fin1.open("d:\\sa\\s.txt",ios::in);
fin1.read((char*)&var,sizeof(var));
fin1.seekg(ios::beg);
m=var.x[0];
n=var.y[0];
m2=var.x[2];
n2=var.y[2];

m4=var.x[4];
n4=var.y[4];
m5=var.x[5]; m7=var.x[7];
n5=var.y[5]; n7=var.y[7];

switch(air)
{
case 1:
do
{
cout<<"ENTER AIR BASE NUMBER:";
cin>>base;
float a,b,dx,dy,x2,x1,y2,y1,l,xinc,yinc;
switch(base)
{
case 1:
setcolor(BLUE);
line1(m,n,m2,n2);
line1(m,n,m4,n4);
break;
case 2:
setcolor(BROWN);
line1(m2,n2,m4,n4);
line1(m2,n2,m7,n7);
break;
case 3:
setcolor(MAGENTA);
line1(m4,n4,m2,n2);
line1(m4,n4,m7,n7);
break;
case 4:
setcolor(RED);
line1(m7,n7,m5,n5);
line1(m,n,m7,n7);
break;

break;

default:
cout<<"WRONG CHOICE\n\n";
}
cout<<"\n"<<"DO YOU WANT TO CONTINUE";
cin>>ch;
}while(ch=='y');

case 2:
do
{

cout<<"enter start time";


cin>>stime2;
cout<<"enter end time";
cin>>etime2;
fin.read((char*)&var,sizeof(var));

for(k=0;k<=7;k++)
{
if((stime2>=var.stime[k] && stime2<var.etime[k]) ||
(etime2>=var.stime[k] && etime2<var.etime[k])|| var.etime[k]<etime2 ||
var.stime[k]<=stime2)
{
cout<<"\nPlane no"<<k+1;
cout<<"\n"<<"x="<<var.x[k];
cout<<"\t"<<"y="<<var.y[k];
switch(k)
{
case 0:

setcolor(BLUE);
line1(m,n,m2,n2);
break;
case 1:
setcolor(BLUE);
line1(m,n,m4,n4);
break;
case 2:
setcolor(GREEN);
line1(m2,n2,m4,n4);
break;
case 3:
setcolor(GREEN);
line1(m2,n2,m7,n7);
break;
case 4:
setcolor(MAGENTA);
line1(m4,n4,m2,n2);
break;
case 5:
setcolor(MAGENTA);
line1(m4,n4,m7,n7);
break;
case 6:
setcolor(RED);
line1(m7,n7,m5,n5);
break;
case 7:
setcolor(RED);
line1(m,n,m7,n7);
break;
default:
cout<<"WRONG CHOICE";
}

break;

}
}
cout<<"\n"<<"WANT TO CONTINUE y/n";
cin>>ch;
}while(ch=='y');

case 3:
float x,y,r;
fstream fin9;
outtextxy(240,150,"P");
outtextxy(390,170,"W");
outtextxy(230,310,"R");
outtextxy(380,330,"Q");
do
{
cout<<"Enter Region - ";
cin>>e;
switch(e)
{
case 'p':
cout<<"Enter radius less than 100 = \n";
cin>>r;
circle(240,180,r);
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s7.txt",ios::in);
fin9>>x>>y;
do

{
if((x>=240-r && x<=240+r) && (y<=150+r && y>=150-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s7.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(150,240,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();
flag=1;
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s8.txt",ios::in);
fin9>>x>>y;
do
{
if((x>=240-r && x<=240+r)&&( y<=150+r && y>=150-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s8.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(150,230,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();
break;
case 'w':
cout<<"Enter radius less than 100 = ";
cin>>r;
circle(390,170,r);
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s9.txt",ios::in);
fin9.seekg(ios::beg);
flag=1;
do
{
if((x>=390-r && x<=390+r) &&( y<=170+r && y>=170-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}

else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s9.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(350,160,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s10.txt",ios::in);
flag=1;
do
{
if((x>=390-r && x<=390+r) &&( y<=170+r && y>=170-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s10.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(350,160,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
break;
case 'r':
cout<<"Enter radius less than 72 = ";
cin>>r;
circle(230,330,r);
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s11.txt",ios::in);
fin9.seekg(ios::beg);
fin9>>x>>y;
do
{
if((x>=230-r && x<=230+r) &&( y<=330+r && y>=330-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s11.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do

{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(180,360,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());

}
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s12.txt",ios::in);
fin9>>x>>y;
flag=1;
do
{
if((x>=230-r && x<=230+r) &&( y<=310+r && y>=310-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s12.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(180,360,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();
break;
case 'q':
cout<<"Enter radius less than 90 = ";
cin>>r;
circle(380,330,r);
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s13.txt",ios::in);
fin9.seekg(ios::beg);
fin9>>x>>y;
do
{
if((x>=380-r && x<=380+r) &&( y<=330+r && y>=330-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s13.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(380,310,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();

fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s14.txt",ios::in);
fin9>>x>>y;
flag=1;
do
{
if((x>=380-r && x<=380+r) &&( y<=330+r && y>=330-r))
{
flag=2;
fin9>>x>>y;
}
else
fin9>>x>>y;
}while(!fin9.eof());
fin9.close();
fin9.open("d:\\sa\\pc\\s14.txt",ios::in);
if(flag==2)
{
do
{
fin9>>x>>y;
line(380,310,x,y+20);
}while(!fin9.eof());
}
fin9.close();
break;
default:
cout<<"WRONG CHOICE ENTERED";
}

break;
case 4:

cout<<"DO YOU WANT TO CONTINUE";


cin>>ch;
}while(ch=='y');
fin9.close();
clrscr();
float o[10],z[10];
fin.open("d:\\sa\\own.txt",ios::out|ios::app|ios::trunc);
cout<<"HOW MANY FLIGHT PLANS YOU WANT TO ENTER\n";
cin>>k;
for(i=0;i<=k-1;i++)
{
cout<<"\nENTER FLIGHT PLAN NUMBER\n";
cin>>v.fpno[i];
cout<<"ENTER ORIGIN 1 TO 4\n";
cin>>o[i];
cout<<"ENTER DESTINATION 1 TO 4 \n";
cin>>z[i];
cout<<"ENTER DEPARTURE TIME\n";
cin>>v.etd[i];
cout<<"ENTER ARRIVAL TIME\n";
cin>>v.eta[i];
cout<<"ENTER TYPE OF AIRCRAFT A TO Z\n";
cin>>v.ac[i];
cout<<"ENTER SPEED OF AIRCRAFT IN KM\HR\n";
cin>>v.sp[i];
cout<<"ENTER FLIGHT LEVEL 1 TO 30\n" ;
cin>>v.fl[i];
cout<<"\n\n\n";
if(o[i]==1)
{

v.x[i]=150;
v.y[i]=220;
}
else if(o[i]==2)
{
v.x[i]=350;
v.y[i]=150;
}
else if(o[i]==3)
{
v.x[i]=180;
v.y[i]=350;
}
else if(o[i]==4)
{
v.x[i]=380;
v.y[i]=300;
}
if(z[i]==1)
{
v.x1[i]=150;
v.y1[i]=220;
}
else if(z[i]==2)
{
v.x1[i]=350;
v.y1[i]=150;
}
else if(z[i]==3)
{
v.x1[i]=180;
v.y1[i]=350;
}
else if(z[i]==4)
{
v.x1[i]=380;
v.y1[i]=300;
}
}
fin.write((char*)&v,sizeof(v));
fin.close();
fin.open("d:\\sa\\own.txt",ios::in);
fin.seekg(0,ios::beg);
fin.read((char*)&v,sizeof(v));
do
{
cout<<"SEARCH OPTIONS FOR A PARTICULAR FLIGHT \n";
cout<<"1.FLIGHT PLAN\n";
cout<<"2.RANGE OF TIME\n";
cout<<"3.TYPE OF AIRCRAFT\n";
cout<<"4.LEVEL OF AIRCRAFT\n";
cin>>j;
clrscr();
r=200;
setbkcolor(YELLOW);
setcolor(BLUE);
circle(gx,gy,r);
setfillstyle(SOLID_FILL,CYAN);
floodfill(gx,gy,BLUE);
line(gx-r,gy,gx+r,gy);

line(gx,gy-r,gx,gy+r);
outtextxy(150,220,"1");
outtextxy(350,150,"2");
outtextxy(180,350,"3");
outtextxy(380,300,"4")
switch(j)
{
case 1:
cout<<"ENTER FLIGHT PLAN NUMBER \n";
cin>>a;
for(i=0;i<=k-1;i++)
{
if(a==v.fpno[i])
{
cout<<"FLIGHT NO"<<v.fpno[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"INITIAL"<<o[i];
cout<<"FINAL"<<z[i];
cout<<"ETD"<<v.etd[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETA"<<v.eta[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"TOAC"<<v.ac[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"SPEED"<<v.sp[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FL"<<v.fl[i]<<"\n";
line(v.x[i],v.y[i],v.x1[i],v.y1[i]);
}
}
break;
case 2:
cout<<"ENTER DEPARTURE TIME \n ";
cin>>c;
cout<<"ENTER ARRIVAL TIME \n";
cin>>d;
for(i=0;i<=k-1;i++)
{
if((c>=v.etd[i] && c<=v.eta[i]) || (d>=v.etd[i] &&
d<=v.eta[i])|| v.eta[i]<=d || v.etd[i]<=c)
{
cout<<"FLIGHT NO"<<v.fpno[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"INITIAL"<<o[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FINAL"<<z[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETD"<<v.etd[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETA"<<v.eta[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"TOAC"<<v.ac[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"SPEED"<<v.sp[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FL"<<v.fl[i]<<"\n";
line(v.x[i],v.y[i],v.x1[i],v.y1[i]);
}
}
break;
case 3:
cout<<"ENTER TYPE OF AIRCRAFT A TO Z \n";
cin>>l;
for(i=0;i<=k-1;i++)
{
if(l==v.ac[i])
{
cout<<"FLIGHT NO"<<v.fpno[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"INITIAL"<<o[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FINAL"<<z[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETD"<<v.etd[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETA"<<v.eta[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"TOAC"<<v.ac[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"SPEED"<<v.sp[i]<<"\n";

cout<<"FL"<<v.fl[i]<<"\n";
line(v.x[i],v.y[i],v.x1[i],v.y1[i]);
}
}
break;
case 4:
cout<<"ENTER FLIGHT LEVEL\n";
cin>>h;
for(i=0;i<=k-1;i++)
{
if(h==v.fl[i])
{
cout<<"FLIGHT NO="<<v.fpno[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"INITIAL="<<o[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FINAL="<<z[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETD="<<v.etd[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"ETA="<<v.eta[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"TOAC="<<v.ac[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"SPEED="<<v.sp[i]<<"\n";
cout<<"FL="<<v.fl[i]<<"\n";
line(v.x[i],v.y[i],v.x1[i],v.y1[i]);
}
}
break;
default:

break;
case 5:

cout<<"WRONG CHOICE ENTERED\n";


}
cout<<"DO U WANT TO CONTINUE\n";
cin>>ch;
}while(ch=='y');

exit(0);
default:
cout<<"WRONG CHOICE ENTERED\n";
cout<<"DO U WANT TO CONTINUE\n";
cin>>ch;
cout<<"ENTER CORRECT CHOICE";
break;
}}
while(ch=='y');
getch();
}
void line1(float a,float b,float c,float d)
{
float dx,dy,l,xinc,yinc;
int i;
dx=c-a;
dy=d-b;
if(dy>dx)
l=dy;
else
l=dx;
xinc=dx/l;
yinc=dy/l;
for( i=1;i<=l;i++)
{
a=a+xinc;

b=b+yinc;
settextstyle(1,0,2);
outtextxy(a,b,".");
delay(10);

CONCLUSION

In most of the simulators, already being used in the company had a few
limitations. They lacked a good user interface. The various parameters of a track cannot
be modified in between of the display process. New tracks cannot be added in between
of the display process. And there was no provision for incorporating more than one turn
for a track. All these factors didnt allow to simulate an actual condition and hence
hampered the effective usage of the simulator. The following features are included in
this simulator1 Very much user friendly The graphical user interface makes it very easy to understand
and use.
2 New Scenarios can be created and successfully saved for later viewing.
3 Synchronized with time to make it as real as possible.
4 Various parameters of a track can be modified in between of the display process as a
target would not move with same parameters all the time.
5 New tracks can be added in between of the display process. As the new targets keep
entering and leaving the detection range of the radar.
6 As a target does not always move straight, turn can be applied to the track of the target.
More than one turns are permissible as is the case with actual targets.
Plot Extractor interface will allow to get plot data from a radar instead of the track
data. In the radar plot data is processed to convert it to track data. This processing time
is almost equal to the three scan cycles of the radar. And a radar outputs only track
data. So, with the help of the plot extractor, plot data will be received and the display
system will use it as input from the radar. This will reduce the delay of three scan cycles,

if not remove it. And hence result in a better display system.

CERTIFICATE

Dated:
This is to certify that Mr SUNISH KAPOOR, pursuing B-TECH. From IET
BHADDAL ROPAR , Punjab. Technical University, has completed the project titled Air
Air
Traffic Management
Management at Bharat Electronics Ltd.,, Ghaziabad.
Ghaziabad
He completed the assigned work efficiently. He bears good moral character and is
sincere to his work.

Mr. Bhupesh
(Senior Engineer)
Bharat Electronics Ltd.,

Ghaziabad,U.P.