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Pengendalian Emisi Gas pada PLTU

dan Teknologi Pengukuran Emisi Gas


Seminar
Pengukuran dan Pengendalian Emisi Gas dan Sampling
Rack di Industri Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik
Semarang, 26 Maret 2015
Estiko Rijanto
Seluruh materi ini hanya untuk pemakaian pada saat
Seminar Pengukuran dan Pengendalian Emisi Gas dan Sampling Rack di Industri
Pembangkit Tenaga Listrik Semarang tgl 26 Maret 2015.
Tidak untuk konsumsi umum.
Beberapa materi diambil dari referensi terkait.

PLTU DAN SISTEM KONTROLNYA

Governor controls
Power (Frequency)

Boiler controller
controls Pressure

Pengendalian
Emisi Gas

Excitation System with AVR


controls Generator Voltage

BOILER CONTROLLER IO CHANEL NUMBERS


400MW
Power Plant:
5 Mills
5 Levels HFO
5 Levels LFO

IO Card

Channel

AI

348

AO

83

DI

1.877

DO

1.158

Total

3.466
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AKTUATOR KONTROL PEMBAKARAN:


Mill dan Nozle

P&ID KONTROL PEMBAKARAN: Batubara & udara

PEMBAKARAN SEMPURNA
Proses
pembakaran
dimulai
dengan
memanaskan bahan bakar di atas suhu
pengapian dalam kehadiran oksigen. Di bawah
pengaruh panas, ikatan kimia dari bahan bakar
dibagi.
Jika pembakaran sempurna terjadi, unsurunsur karbon (C), hidrogen (H) dan sulfur (S)
bereaksi dengan kandungan oksigen dari
udara untuk membentuk karbon dioksida CO2,
H2O uap air dan sulfur dioksida SO2 dan
Oksida Nitrogen NOx

Coal (C + H2O+ S) + Air (O2 + N2+H2O)

Heat + CO2 + SO2+NOx+ Dust


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STRATEGI PENGUKURAN EMISI GAS

Strategi pengukuran menetapkan apa, dimana, kapan, bagaimana (metoda)


pengambilan data pengukuran dilakukan, berapa lama waktu pengambilan
data dan berapa banyak data diambil dalam periode waktu tersebut.
Jaminan dan kontrol kualitas sangat penting agar pengukuran valid.
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PENGUKURAN EMISI GAS

OBJEK

LOKASI

TUJUAN

O2 & CO

Titik keluaran pembakaran


di dekat ketel

Efisiensi Pembakaran

SO2,NOx, CO,
CO2, HCL,
CH4

Titik keluaran Filter ESP


ATAU
Cerobong

Volume emisi

Partikel/Debu

Titik keluaran Filter ESP


(ElectroStatic Precipitator)

Kinerja Filter ESP

TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN EMISI GAS


1) Mengukur kandungan gas di cerobong (CO, SO2, NOx,
CO2,H2O,HCL, CH4)
2) Mengukur laju alir
3) Mengukur kandungan partikel (debu)
Teknik Pengukuran Gas Analyzer di Stack (CO, SO2, NOx,
CO2,H2O,HCL, CH4):
1) Extractive Sampling & conditioning ( Hot / Dilution probe
type) - 40 years old technique
2) Insitu Cross duct type - came in market in 1985, got phased
out in 2000
3) Insitu probe type (like Zirconia Oxygen analysers) - in market
since year 2000
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ILUSTRASI PERKEMBANGAN TEKNOLOGI CEMS

Shelter Approach
$150K

Streamlined FieldCabinet Approach Mount Approach


$75K
$95K

Teknik Hot Extractive Gas Analyzer


Di Stack
kebutuhan sistem :

Membutuhkan Flue Gas yang banyak


untuk menghasilkan sample yang
sesuai membutuhkan dust filter
with blow back

temperature sample flue gas harus


diatas dew point membutuhkan
probe pemanas, sample lines
pemanas

untuk menganalisa masing-masing


sampel gas harus bersih kering membutuhkan sample conditioning
unit, sampling pump, moisture drain
pump

Panel Gas Analyzer harus dipasang di


ruang ber AC / Shelter / Panel

Listrik 5 KW minimum
Slide 10

Hot Extractive Stack gas analyser


Extractive gas analyser Panel

Kesulitannya :

Sample extraction always leads to probe filter choking

Extraction of sample is highly prone to condensation,


tube choking, leakages

Needs to maintain stock of consumables, spare parts


like probe filters, probe heater, mist filters, pumps ,
diaphragm valve plate, heated sample lines, solenoid
valves, fittings, chopper motor etc

O&M cost is very high (like consumables, spare parts,


man power, electricity )

Needs AMC

Major maintenance required if heated sample lines fail


and any water or solids reach the delicate analysers

Slide 11

Dilution Probe
Extractive stack gas analyser
System requirement :

Expensive low range monitors - i.e


IR for CO, UV for SO2,
Chemiluminescene for NOx
measurement

Analyser panel needs to be mounted


in Air conditioned room/shelter.

Needs calibration gas blender /


mixture for calibration of low range
gas analysers.

Needs zero air generator

Clean & dry sampled flue gas to


respective gas analysers needs
sample conditioning unit, sampling
pump, moisture drain pump

Electricity 5 KW minimum
Slide 12

Insitu Probe Stack gas analyser


System requirement :
Insitu probe - insertion length depends on stack ID/MOC
Probe mounted transceiver unit for the ordered gases
24 V DC, 400 watt power to Transceiver unit
Local/remote mounted digital display & control unit
Plant instrument air for zero calibration & reference air purging

Slide 13

Insitu probe Stack gas analyser


System benefits :
Rugged, reliable, accurate Insitu Gas Analyser
Works 365 days a year
Field mounted (No AC room / shelter required)
Measures CO, SO2, NOx, CO2, H2O, HCL, CH4)
Works on IR gas filter co-relation technique
Does not have moisture interference
Works on Gas diffusion technique, hence no filter choking
No sampling/conditioning of gases
Measures CO2,H2O,Temp & Pressure for Online Normalisation
On line calibration using audit gases.
Bulk Measurement no straight run required
Negligible maintenance - No need of AMC
Accuracy 12 year PTR , more than 500 installations
2% of
measured
value
Slide 14

PERBANDINGAN BIAYA OPERASI & PEMELIHARAAN


TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN KANDUNGAN EMISI GAS

No.

Description

For Extractive gas


analyser
Rp. x1/- year

Routine
A
maintenance cost
B Consumable cost Rp. x2/- year

Power
Rp. x3/- year
C
consumption
Total operating & Rp. X1+x2+x3 /- per
maintenance cost year

For Insitu Gas


analyser
Nil
Nil
Rp. y1 per year
Rp. y1 per year

Slide 15

TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN LAJU ALIR EMISI GAS


Adanya tuntutan regulasi untuk mengukur laju alir total
emisi gas ke atmosfir.
Laju alir emisi dalam satuan Kg/Jam atau Ton/Tahun.

Laju alir = konsentrasi x area x kecepatan alir


mg/s = mg/m3 x m2 x m/s
Diperlukan teknologi pengukuran kecepatan alir
emisi gas.
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TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN LAJU ALIR EMISI GAS

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Pitot tube
Thermal anemometer
Triboelectric correlation
Bi-directional ultrasonic
Infrared correlation

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TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN LAJU ALIR EMISI GAS


Pitot tube

Thermal anemometer

Static
pressure

Differential

pressure
Velocity
pressure
Type L Pitot tube
Automated systems are prone to blockage
Unsuitable for irregular, cyclonic or angular flow
Unsuitable with high level particulates or aerosols
Complex installation

Unsuitable for ducts with high spatial variations


Affected by condensates and dust build-up
Non-linear outputs need site calibration

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TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN LAJU ALIR EMISI GAS


Triboelectric correlation

Bi-directional Ultrasonic

Unsuitable for ducts with high spatial variations



Affected by condensates and dust build-up
Unsuitable for turbulent flow

Unsuitable for large ducts
Close-coupled probes prone to bridging with high dust

burdens

Transceivers must be purged to keep them cool and


clean
Complex install and service especially on large
ducts
Complex end effects
Errors due to secondary reflections and vibration
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TEKNOLOGI PENGUKURAN LAJU ALIR EMISI GAS

Infrared correlation






Simple installation
Average across entire duct
Suitable for high temperatures
High efficiency air purges
Unaffected by condensates and dust
build-up
 Suitable for turbulent flow
 Suitable for large or small ducts

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TEKNOLOGI MENGUKUR PARTIKEL/DEBU


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Optical scatter
Triboelectric probe
Single pass transmissometer
Double pass transmissometer
Double beam transmissometer

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TEKNOLOGI MENGUKUR PARTIKEL/DEBU

T1. Pantulan cahaya

T2. DC Triboelectric probe

Light
source

Detector
 Measures in a very small
zone local to duct wall
 Measured zone not consistently representative
 In-duct reflections cause zero errors
 Unsuitable for large ducts or high dust levels

Unsuitable for large ducts

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TEKNOLOGI MENGUKUR PARTIKEL/DEBU

T3. Transmittance
Received
energy Ir

Transmitted
energy Io

Transmittance T = Ir/Io

T4. Opacity
Received
energy Ir

Transmitted
energy Io

%opacity = (1-T)x100
This is the measurement preferred by US EPA

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TEKNOLOGI MENGUKUR PARTIKEL/DEBU

Single Pass Transmissometer

Zero point reflector


Mirror

Beam splitter
Light source

Double Pass Transmissometer

Measurement
Light
detector
source

Autocollimating
reflector

Control detector

Cannot differentiate between gas-borne


particles and window contamination
Cannot detect misalignment errors

 Window contamination check on


transceiver only
 Non-linear due to back scatter from the
particles
 Cannot detect misalignment errors

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TEKNOLOGI MENGUKUR PARTIKEL/DEBU


Double Beam Transmissometer
Rotary valve with
integral mirror

Light source

Mirror

Beam
splitter

Detector

 High efficiency air purges keep windows clean


 Alternate, bi-directional measurement provides automatic misalignment check
 Linear not influenced by back scatter effects

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TELE MONITORING

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TERIMAKASIH

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