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# 1.

0 LEARNING OUTCOME
1. To learn the technique used to estimate and calculate the lift, drag, and power
characteristic of an aircraft.
2. At the end of this exercise, students should know the technique that can be used to
estimate the climbing performance of an aircraft.
3. At the end of this exercise, students should know the technique that can be used to
estimate the flight parameters during a level turn maneuver.
2.0 OBJECTIVE
1. To learn and conquer the method of estimating the lift, drag and performance of an
aircraft.
2. To experience the physical process of the stall, turn and how it varies with power.
3. To learn the method to estimate climbing performance parameters of an aircraft.
4. To learn the method to estimate flight parameters during level turn maneuver.
3.0 INTRODUCTION
For this flight lab, we had flown with CESSNA 172 SKYHAWK four-seated aircraft to study
about its performance. We observed the flights performance by collecting data of the flight
during steady level flight, climb, its banking and turning performance and its stall condition.
Further results and data collection are further shown and explain in the result section below.
The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is a four-seated, single-engine, high wing, fixed-wing aircraft with
maximum range of 640nm, maximum cruise speed of 124ktas, useful load of 918lb and
takeoff ground roll of 960ft.
For a vehicle in steady, level flight, the thrust force is equal to the drag force, and lift is equal
to weight. Any thrust available in excess of that required to overcome the drag can be applied
to accelerate the vehicle (increasing kinetic energy) or to cause the vehicle to climb
(increasing potential energy).

## Figure 1: Force balance for aircraft in steady

level.flight.
3.1
Vehicle Drag

Recall from fluids that drag takes the form shown below, being composed of a part
termed parasitic drag that increases with the square of the flight velocity, and a part
called induced drag, or drag due to lift, that decreases in proportion to the inverse of the flight
velocity.

## Figure 2: Components of vehicle drag.

where

and

Thus

or

The minimum drag is a condition of interest. We can see that for a given weight, it occurs at
the condition of maximum lift-to-drag ratio

## from which we find that

and

and

Power Required
Now we can look at the propulsion system requirements to maintain steady level flight since

Thus the power required (for steady level flight) takes the form

## Figure 3: Typical power required curve for an aircraft.

The velocity for minimum power is obtained by taking the derivative of the equation for
Preq with respect to V and setting it equal to zero.

As we will see shortly, maximum endurance (time aloft) occurs when the minimum power is
used to maintain steady level flight. Maximum range (distance traveled) is obtained when the
aircraft is flown at the most aerodynamically efficient condition (maximum CL/CD).

or

## applying the initial conditions,

at t = 0

W = Winitial

\ const. = ln Winitial

the time the aircraft has flown corresponds to the amount of fuel burned, therefore

then multiplying by the flight velocity we arrive at the Breguet Range Equation which applies
for situations where Isp and flight velocity are constant over the flight.

## This can be re-written in other forms:

where

or
Aircraft Endurance
For a given amount of available fuel energy (Joules), the maximum endurance (time aloft) is
obtained at a flight condition corresponding to the minimum rate of energy expenditure
(Joules/second), or Preqmin, as shown in Figure 4.3.
We can determine the aerodynamic configuration which provides the minimum energy
expenditure:

so
where

Then

## So the minimum power required (maximum endurance) occurs when

is a maximum.

With a little algebra we can arrive at an expression for the maximum endurance. Setting

we find that

and

and

Thus the minimum power (maximum endurance) condition occurs at a speed which is 3 -1/4 =
76% of the minimum drag (maximum range) condition. The corresponding lift-to-drag ratio
is 86.6% of the maximum lift-to-drag ratio.

Figure 4: Relationship between condition for maximum endurance and maximum range.

Continuing

## 3.2 Climbing Flight

Any excess in power beyond that required to overcome drag will cause the vehicle increase
kinetic or potential energy. We consider this case by resolving forces about the direction of
flight and equating these with accelerations.

where

where

## is the accel. tangent to the flight path

path

So the change in height of the vehicle (the rate of climb, R/C) is:

## which is instructive to rewrite in the form

or

in words:
excess power = change in potential energy + change in kinetic energy

where

## for example, and

The power available is a function of the propulsion system, the flight velocity, altitude, etc.
Typically it takes a form such as that shown in Figure 4.6. The shortest time-to-climb occurs
at the flight velocity where Pavail Preq is a maximum.

## Figure 6: Typical behaviour of power available as a function of flight velocity.

MISSION PROFILE

RESULT
From Students (Observer 1 and Observer 2)
Flight test data sheet

Date
Name of observer

Capt.
Dr. Amzari
Nurhasanah
Amirah

Weight
66kg

Pilot
Co-pilot
Observer 1
64kg
Observer 2
46kg
Fuel (US Gallon)

Time
10:50
12:57

Take Off
Landing
Direction

T/Off

Landing

Speed

Wind Condition
T/Off
Fuel Quant

Speed

Fuel Quant

Speed

Touch Down

## Time Actual (Local)

12:51

Stop

12:57

Brake Off
Lift Off
Landing

Climb Performance
Altitude
1000
1500
2000
2500

Time
32
17
38
49

TAS

IAS
80

OAT

Fuel Remaining
28

3000
49
3500
52
4000
59
4500
63
5000
70
Turning Performance
Bank Angle Altitude: 5000ft
Compass R
0
270
180
90
360

Time
11
43
30
33
38

IAS
90

Time
0
13
15
19
16

IAS
90

## Bank Angle Altitude: 5000ft

Compass R
0
90
180
270
360
Stall Chwck
Altitude: 5000ft
Configuration
Clean
Flap 50%
Flap 100%

Stall Speed

Fuel Remaining

Pitch Angle
10

12

Glide Performance
Altitude
5000
4500
4000
3500

Time
42
35
40
32

IAS
80

OAT

Fuel Remaining

3000
2500
2000
1500
1000

32
37
37
47
44

Altitude: 1500ft
Power

RPM

Fuel
Remainin
g

OAT

1700
2100
2100
2300
2500

TAS

IAS

G
Speed

g

95

70
80
90
100
110

82
86
102
105
121

330
330
330
330
330

TAS

IAS

G
Speed

g

70
80
90
100
110

75
85
98
108
114

330
330
330
330
330

W/Dir

W/Spee
d

W/Dir

W/Spee
d

Altitude: 5000ft
Power

RPM

1980
2150
2200
2330
2500

1980
2150
2200
2330
2500

Fuel
Remainin
g
26

OAT

117

## From Co-pilot (as a supplement and comparisons)

Flight test data sheet
Date
Name of observer

Take Off
Landing

Capt.
Dr. Amzari
Nurhasanah
Amirah

Time
10:54
12:58

Pilot
Co-pilot
Observer 1
Observer 2
Fuel (US Gallon)
1880.6
1882.8

Weight
66kg
64kg
46kg

1880.7
1882.5

Direction

T/Off

Landing

Speed
Wind Condition

T/Off
Fuel Quant
31

10:54

Speed

Brake Off
Lift Off

31

11:22

65

Touch Down

Fuel Quant
23

## Time Actual (Local)

12:51

Speed
55

Stop

23

12:58

Landing

Climb Performance
Altitude
Time
1000
0
1500
34.89
2000
1:25.39
2500
3:16.17
3000
3:05.44
3500
3:58.10
4000
4:56.22
4500
66:00.4
5000
7:10.57
Turning Performance

TAS

IAS
80

OAT

Fuel Remaining
28

80
80
80
80
80
80
80

Compass R
0
270
180
90
360

Time
0
35.75
1:14.96
1:50.88
2:28.48

IAS
90

## Bank Angle Altitude: 5000Ft 30o

Compass R
0
90
180
270
360

Time
0
16.90
36.16
51.68
1:07.83

IAS
90

Stall Check
Altitude: 5000ft
Configuration
Clean
Flap 50%
Flap 100%

Stall Speed
40
35

Fuel Remaining
25
25

Pitch Angle
10o
12o

Glide Performance
Altitude
5000
4500
4000
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000

Time
0
40.54
1:15.84
1:53.01
2:29.66
3:06.32
3:87.81
4:35.47
5:19.95

IAS
80
80

OAT

Fuel Remaining
25

80
80
80
80

Altitude: 1500ft
Power

RPM

1700
2100
2100

Fuel
Remainin
g
28
28
28

OAT

TAS

IAS

G
Speed

g

95

70
80
90

82
88
102

330
330
330

W/Dir

W/Spee
d

2300
2500

28
28

105
110

105
121

330
330

IAS

G
Speed

g

70
80
90
100
110

75
85
98
108
114

330
330
330
330
330

## Straight and Level Performance

Altitude: 5000ft
Power

RPM

1980
2150
2200
2330
2500

Fuel
Remainin
g
26
26
26
26
26

OAT

TAS

119

W/Dir

W/Spee
d

DISCUSSION
Some of the results collected by the students and co-pilot are different as they were having
distraction of miscommunication during flight. The students also did not manage to collect
some of the data as they were seated behind the co-pilot and pilot. Thus, they could not get a
better observation of the flights data during certain flights.

Landin

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
EAS 3924
AVIATION LABORATORY FOR AGRICULTURE APPLICATIONS

GROUP MEMBERS:
SITI NURHASANAH BINTI PAZIL (170673)
NUR AMIRAH BINTI ZAINAL ABIDIN (165239)