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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

2016
American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)
e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936
Volume-5, Issue-9, pp-116-121
www.ajer.org
Research Paper
Open Access

Solution of Advection-Diffusion Equation for Concentration of


Pollution and Dissolved Oxygen in the River Water by Elzaki
Transform
Pradip R. Bhadane1, Kirtiwant P. Ghadle2,
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Arts, Commerce and Science College Ozar (Mig) Nasik424008(MS) INDIA
2
Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,
Aurangabad-431004 (MS) INDIA

ABSTRACT : In this article, a new integral transform called as Elzaki transform is used to solve the model
consists of a couple of advection-diffusion equations. These advection-diffusion equations have much
importance in chemistry, engineering and sciences. These advection-diffusion equations play a very important
role to study the parameters regarding river pollution and are used to predict the level of pollution
concentration and level of dissolved oxygen concentration in the river water. We have obtained the solutions for
advection-diffusion equations by Elzaki transform. These results prove that the Elzaki transform is quite
applicable and useful for finding solutions of the problems related to pollution and dissolved oxygen level in
river water.
Keywords: Elzaki transform, Advection-diffusion equation, Chemical parameters, Water pollution.

I. INTRODUCTION
There are many partial differential equations such as Laplace equation, wave equation etc. which are
quite useful and applicable in Engineering, Physics, Chemistry and Sciences. Such partial differential equations
are very difficult and complicated to solve to obtain its exact solution. In recent years many researchers have
paid attention to find the solution of partial differential equations by using various methods. One of such
methods is Elzaki transform, which is a very useful technique. Elzaki transform was proposed originally by
Tarig M. Elzaki in 2011. He developed the method for solving ordinary and partial differential equations in the
time domain [1] [2] [3].
These advection-diffusion equations are the partial differential equations and also known as
Mathematical Model for river pollution. In Chemistry, advection is the transport of pollutants in a river by bulk
water flow downstream and diffusion is the spread over of gas through water.
Different types of Mathematical Models in Engineering, Chemistry and Earth Sciences have been
solved by B. Pimpunchat in 2009 [4]. Recently in 2012 Saleem Azara Husain presented a simple Mathematical
model for the concentration of Pollution and dissolved oxygen in river water [5].
In this paper, Elzaki transform is used to solve advection-diffusion equations for studying the level of
pollutant and dissolved oxygen concentrations in river water and the result is presented.
1.1 Elzaki Transform
Mainly Fourier, Laplace and Sumudu transforms are used as convenient mathematical tools for solving
differential equations. Recently a new transform called as Elzaki transform is derived from the classical Fourier
integral and some of it is fundamental properties are used to solve the differential equations.
A new transform called the Elzaki transform defined for function of exponential order, we consider
functions in the set defined by

A f (t ) : M , K 1 , K

0 , f (t ) M e

, i f , t ( 1)

X [0, )

(1)

For a given function in the set A, the constant must be finite number, 1 , 2 may be finite or infinite

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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

2016

The Elzaki transform denoted by the operator (. ) defined by the integral equation.

E [ f (t )] T (u ) u

d t , t 0 , K 1 u K 2 ., 0

f (t )e

(2)

The variable in this transform is used to factor the variable t in the argument of the function; this
transform has deeper connection with the Laplace transform.
Elzaki Transform of the Some Functions
We have Elzaki transform of simple functions.

1)

I f , f ( t ) 1, th e n ; E (1) u e

2)

dt u ue

t
u

2
u

If , f ( t ) t , th e n ; E [ t ] u te

dt u

3)

If , f ( t ) e , th e n ; E ( e
at

at

) ue e
at

dt

Theorem: 1)

If E [ f

( t )] T ( u )

1 au

then

T (u )
df
E f ' (t )
u f (0 )

u
dt

d f
T (u )
"
E
E f (t )
f ( 0 ) u f '( 0 )
2
2

d
t
u

2)

d f
E
E f
n

dt
n

3)

(t )

T (u )
u

n 1

2nk

(0 )

k 0

1.2 Mathematical Model


In this model we assumed that the advectiondiffusion-equation may be a good approximation to study
model of river pollution. We assumed that the river is linear and it has a uniform cross-sectional area. The river
cross-section portion considered under study is one with an arbitrary interior and endpoints at = 0 = .
These equations account expansion of the pollutant and the dissolved oxygen concentrations
respectively are as
RG s ( x, t)
t

( R G s ( x , t ))
p

with boundary conditions


R Fs ( x , t )
t

( w A R G s ( x , t ))

G s (0)

( R F s ( x , t ))
2

(3 )

r
kR

( w R F s ( x , t ))
x
Fs ( 0 ) S

with boundary conditions

M G s ( x, t )dx

(S

F s ( x , t )) d x

(4)

r
kR

2
The first equation includes the mass transferred of solid to the water (river) in m /day, and it is the
concentration of pollution. The second equation is a mass balance for dissolved oxygen, with addition through
the surface at a rate proportional to the degree of saturation of dissolved oxygen (S-F),
G s (0)

with boundary conditions


R Fs ( x , t )
t

( R F s ( x , t ))
2

with boundary conditions F s ( 0 )

kR
( w R F s ( x , t ))

( S F s ( x , t ))

(5 )

r
kR

For these the only variation is with the distance downstream on the river and so we write
(, ) = () and (, ) = ().

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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)


To simplify the equations, we will consider only the steadystate solutions.
where
- Polluted length of river
dispersion coefficient of dissolved oxygen in the x direction.
dispersion coefficient of pollutant in the x direction
- cross-section area of the river
- Saturated oxygen concentration(less than 5)
- Mass transfer of oxygen from air to water of the river
- Mass transfer of solid (solute) to the water of the river
- Degradation rate coefficient
Rate of pollutant addition along the river
Water velocity in the x- direction.

2016

(15787m)
(m2/ day)
(m2/day)
(m 2)
(kg/m3)
(m2/day)
(m2/day)
(per Day)
(kg/m/day)
(m 2)

II. ANALYTIC STEADY-STATE SOLUTIONS FOR SPECIAL CASE (ZERO DISPERSION)


Consider the equation (5), when dispersion = 0, with boundary conditions G s ( 0 )

kR

[that is no pollution upstream because of the absence of dispersion.]

d ( w R G s ( x , t ))

M G s ( x ,t ) 0

dx
wR

d ( G s ( x , t ))
dx

d ( G s ( x , t ))

M G s ( x ,t ) 0

dx

wR

G s ( x ,t ) 0

Appling Elzaki transform on both sides, we get


M
d ( G s ( x , t ))
E
E [ G s ( x ,t ) ] 0

d
x
w
R

T (u )
M
u .G s ( o )
T (u ) 0 ,
by
u
wR

T (u )

u.

kR

initial condition G s ( 0 )

r
kR

T (u )

wR

1
u wr

k (w R uM )
2

T (u )

Now, by appling inverse Elzaki transform on both sides, we get


E

[T ( u ) ]

wr

[ T ( u )]

w kR

Gs (x)

u wr

(
w
R

u
M
)

M
u
1
wR

x
wR

.e

kR
M

x
wR

G s ( x ) C .e

,W h ere

kR

This shows that the pollutant concentration downstream of the river.


If = 0, then Gs(x) = G s ( 0 )

If = , then Gs(x) = G s ( )

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and

kR
r

(6)

kR

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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

2016

The solution of the equations result reveals that the amount of pollutants are found to be increased at =
than = 0.
Now, consider the equation (6), when dispersion = 0 with boundary conditions

Fs ( 0 ) S

r
kR

[for this case there is no pollution upstream because of the absence of dispersion.]

d ( w R F s ( x ))
dx

d Fs ( x )
dx

wR

( S F s ( x )) 0

Fs ( x )

wR

Appling Elzaki transform on both sides , we have

d Fs ( x )
S
E
E [ F s ( x )] E

wR
wR
dx
T (u )
u
T (u )
u

.T ( u ) E

wR

wR

S
u. S

.T ( u ) E

kR w R

wR

where F s ( 0 )
T (u )

u .Fs ( 0 )

(by initial condition)

kR

u .r

S
u .S

.T ( u )
E [1]

kR
wR

wR

Since E [1] = u2

uw R S 2
u .r
T (u )
u u .S

kR
wR u wR

u
r
2
[S
T (u ) S . u
kR

1
u

wR

T ( u ) S .u

1
u

wR

.
kR

1
u

wR

Now, by appling inverse Elzaki transform on both sides, we have

[ T ( u )] S . E

[u ]
2

.E

kR

F s ( x ) S .(1)

Fs ( x ) S

Fs ( x )

.e

x
wR

1
u

wR

, Since E 1 ( u 2 )

kR
.e

x
wR

kR
.e

x
wR

kR

This shows that the dissolved oxygen concentration downstream of the river.
If = 0 then
If = then

Fs ( x ) Fs ( 0 )
Fs ( x ) Fs ( )

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and

kR
r

.e

(7)

kR

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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

2016

This shows that in the downstream of the river dissolved oxygen being constant and its value is very
close to saturated value , these mathematical results are coincides with the actual facts in most of the cities in
river water but at the upstream of the river, level of D.O. is very good.

III. FIGURES AND TABLES


Parameters in p.p.m.
Limit mg/l

Table-I: Specification limits for drinking river water


D.O. B.O.D. T.D.S Sulphate
Chloride
Sodium
7-11 7-9
0-500 0-192
0-142
0-60

Nitrate
0-20

COD
0-70

Table-II: If we take the corresponding values for some parameters into consideration with help of pollution
control board branch Nasik Maharashtra, then the solution of model-I and model-II are in full agreement with
the solutions.
Parameters in p.p.m.
D.O.
B.O.D.
T.D.S.
Sulphate
Chloride
Sodium
Nitrate
COD

Different Sampling stations


S1
S2
S3
3.0
3.9
4.0
12.7
32.9
33.3
398
458
475
180
232
475
24
41
56
42
53
60
21.6
33
41
69
91
114

S4
4.6
34.8
600
538
62
68
47
122

S5
4.9
45.9
875
567
67
77
53
168

S6
5.9
47.9
914
587
77
83
67
186

Figure-1

Figure-2

Figure-3

Figure-4

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S7
7.2
53.6
1200
612
88
90
85
193

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American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

2016

Figure-5

Figure-6

Figure-7

Figure-8

IV. CONCLUSION
Previously advection-diffusion model was used to get the solution related to problems of the river
pollution. We tried Elzaki transform to get the solutions of advection-diffusion model. It is found that the
solutions obtained by Elzaki transform are same as that of the solutions obtained by using advection-diffusion
model. This reveals that the Elzaki transforms is also applicable for solving such type of problems. It may
conclude that the new integral Elzaki transform is very convenient tool solving this type of mathematical model.
The result shows that at = , the percentage of dissolved oxygen is found increased and it is in best
agreement with the observations obtained using advection-diffusion model.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author offers his grateful thanks to friends and the referee for their help and active guidance in the
preparation of this revised paper.

REFERENCES
[1].
[2].
[3].
[4].
[5].

Tarig M Elzaki: The new integral transform Elzaki Transform, Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 7(1), 2011, 5764.
Application of new transform Elzaki Transform to Partial Differential Equations, Global Journal of Pure & Applied
Mathematics, Tarig M. Elzaki and Salih M. Elzaki.
Tarig M. Elzaki, Salih M. Elzaki and Elsayed A. Elnour, on the new integral Transform Elzaki Transform fundamental properties
investigation and applications.
B. Pimpunchat, W. L. Sweatman, G. C. Wake, W. Triampo and A. Parshotam: Mathematical Model for pollution in a river and its
remediation by aeration, Applied Mathematical Letters, 22 (2009) 304.
Mathematical Model for the Concentration of Pollution and Dissolved Oxygen in the Diwaniya River (Iraq) by Saleem Azara
Husain. American Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 2301- 2005, Issue-78, October, 2012.

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