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1. What are the advantages of a turnkey contract?

Turnkey refers to something that is ready for immediate use, generally used in the
sale or supply of goods or services.
Turn key in construction and architecture is a type of project that is constructed so
that it could be sold to any buyer as a completed product. This is contrasted with
design-build or build-to-order where the constructor builds an item to the buyer's
exact specifications, or when an incomplete product is sold with the assumption
that the buyer would complete it.
A primary benefit of a turnkey contract is that the solution is ready to use as
soon as the project is completed. A turnkey contract also has a fixed price
included in the contract.
The client also normally does not pay for the solution until it is finished.
A turnkey responsibility makes the contractor responsible for the quality
design and completion of the project or solution. This responsibility gives the
buyer peace of mind to know that the developer has an incentive to do the
job right.
The buyer also does not have to worry about the pressure of making design
It is typically created with general guidelines to allow flexibility to various
types of buyers.

2. What are the various current practices in Project execution?

BOT (Build- Operate-Transfer)

BOOT (Built-Own-Operate-Transfer)
BOO (Build-Own-Operate)
BLT (Build-Lease-Transfer)
DBFO (Design-Build-Finance-Operate)
DCMF (Design-Construct-Manage-Finance)

3. What do







Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration
arising from the
interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects ofculture.
Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including
the rise of the telegraph and its posterity the Internet, are major factors in
globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural
The term globalization has been in increasing use since the mid-1980s and
especially since the mid- 1990s.
In 2000, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects
of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements,
migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.
Further, environmental challenges such as climate change, cross-boundary
water, air pollution, and over-fishing of the ocean are linked with
Globalizing processes affect and are affected by business and work
organization, economics, sociocultural resources, and the natural

This is the integration of economies, industries, markets, cultures and policymaking around the world.
Globalisation describes a process by which national and regional economies,
societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network
of trade, communication, immigration and transportation.
In the more recent past, globalisation was often primarily focused on the
economic side of the world, such as trade, foreign direct investment and
international capital flows, more recently the term has been expanded to
include a broader range of areas and activities such as culture, media,
technology, socio-cultural, political, and even biological factors, e.g. climate

4. Writes short notes on GATS?

The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is a treaty of the World

Trade Organization (WTO) that entered into force in January 1995 as a result
of the Uruguay Round negotiations.
The treaty was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service
sector, in the same way the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
provides such a system for merchandise trade.
Services are covered by GATS:
GATS considers education as a tradable service. GATS covers 12 service
sectors (Business; Communication; Construction and Engineering;
Distribution; Education; Environment; Financial; Health; Tourism and Travel;
Recreation, Cultural, and Sporting; Transport; "Other".).
Two exceptions are services in the exercise of governmental authority and air
traffic rights
Laws are covered by GATS:
GATS applies to all measures affecting trade in services. GATS defines
measures as all laws, regulations and practices from national, regional or
local government or non-governmental bodies exercising powers delegated
to them by government that may affect trade.
How can services be traded?
GATS defines 4 ways that all services can be traded based on modes of
1. Consumption abroad of service by consumers travelling to supplier country
(e.g. students studying abroad);
2. Cross border supply of a service to consumer country without the supplier
(e.g. open and distance education);
3. Commercial presence of a supplier in consumer country (e.g. offshore foreign
universities); and
4. Presence of Natural Persons from supplying country in consuming country
(e.g. professors, researcher working outside their home country).
Rules does GATS have?
GATS has two broad categories of rules. The first category are general rules
which apply, for the most part, to trade in all services. The second category
are rules applicable to national commitments in specific service sectors.

5. What do you understand by a dummy activity?

An activity, which is used to maintain the pre-defined precedence

relationship only during the construction of the project network, is called a
dummy activity.

Dummy activity is represented by a dotted arrow and does not consume any
time and resource. An unbroken chain of activities between any two events
is called a path.

Dummy activities can be used to maintain precedence relationships only

when actually required. Their use should use be minimized in the network

6. Mention any four rules to be followed for drawing a network

Rules for drawing network diagram
Rule 1: Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow in the network.
Rule 2: No two activities can be identified by the same end events
Rule 3: Precedence relationships among all activities must always be maintained.
Rule 4: Dummy activities can be used to maintain precedence relationships only
when actually required. Their use should use be minimized in the network diagram.
Rule 5: Looping among the activities must be avoided.

7. Explain the impact of information technology on architectural


Architectural design requires immense amount of information for inspiration,

creation, and construction of buildings. The process from the initial
conception to the finished product involves substantial knowledge and
involvement of multidisciplinary agents, such as architects, engineers, and
planners as well as their collaboration.
As buildings become more complex due to the introduction of innovative
technologies and increased awareness of social and communal needs, design
process requires significant modifications of previous practices to respond to
newly emerging requirements.
Improved environmental sensitivity, energy efficiency, integrated building
systems, lifesafety and security measures, as well as high performance are
the driving factors at present. These factors might not result in the
development of new building types, but rather they change the nature of
architectural discourse and practice and impact the design process.
In particular, integrated practice, use of virtual building, simulations,
modeling, and analysis of design decisions have become crucial.
Recent developments in information technology are providing means and
methods for improvement of current practices to respond to these changes.
Energy and thermal simulations, modeling of structural behavior, improved
design representations, and enhanced collaboration using digital media are
being utilized in the design process.
Traditional CAD programs present data based on geometric entities,
capturing the spatial relationships but not the domain-specific information.
Building Information Model (BIM) provides a common database of
information about a building including geometry and attributes.

The goal of BIM is to provide a common structure for information sharing that
can be used by all agents in the design process and construction, as well as
for the facility management after a building is constructed and occupied.
BIM allows designers to fully use the concepts developed during the
schematic design phase, advance data transfer into the design development
phase, and integrate visualization efforts into project development.
Design process can be perceived as a successive concretion of the
description of future characteristics of an artifact, and it leads from the
incomplete to complete, abstract to concrete, and conceptual to precise

8. Explain the implications of foreign Architects entry in India.

Entry of foreign architects in India

Indian Architects keep foreign players out
After the tussle between local and foreign auditors and lawyers, it's now the
turn of architects.
TheCouncil of Architecture (CoA), the regulatory body for the profession, has
stepped up its fight against foreign architects practicing in India attracting
severe criticism from several countries, including the US.
Although foreign architects are not allowed to practice in India, several
entities were rendering services in the country, either directly or through tieups with local players.
A 1972 law explicitly prohibits any foreign firm architect and the
government, despite its keenness, has refused to open up the sector despite
negotiations at the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Last year, as reported first by TOI, the Delhi high court had ruled that the
approval granted by the Foreign Investment Promotion Board ( FIPB) to RSP
Architects, Planners and Engineers, a Singapore-based firm, was not in line
with the law.
This provided fresh ammunition to the CoA, which recently issued a public
notice saying "... no foreign architect/consultant (not registered with CoA) be
appointed for architectural works, without following the procedure under the
(Architects) Act". It said that it had issued the advertisement after it received
complaints about appointment of foreign architects, without prior approval of
the government.
This largely went unnoticed in India but has evoked strong reaction from
foreign lobby groups and architects, which have raised a banner of protest
and have gone to the extent of drawing parallels with the retrospective
amendments to tax laws.
They have told Indian ministers that the issue once again highlights India's
unwillingness to open up its markets to foreign competition. Overseas
architects are keen to tap into the booming real estate and infrastructure
sectors in India.
CoA president Uday C Gadkari could not be reached for comment but council
member Inderjit Singh Bakshi told TOI that the regulatory entity had taken
up the issue with the government as "only those registered with the council
can practice in India".
Apart from those with degrees from recognized Indian architecture schools,
the Architect's Act also recognizes qualifications from certain countries on a
"reciprocal basis".
Government officials agreed with the CoA stance and said the law clearly
bars foreign architects from practicing in India. "It is not part of our

commitment to WTO and can only be done if there is qualification

equivalence or mutual recognition," an official said.
This means that architects from a foreign country can be allowed to practice
in India on a reciprocal basis if the professional qualifications are accepted or
architects from either country clear the stipulated professional tests. For this
to happen, CoA and its foreign counterpart have to come to an agreement.
While foreign lawyers are explicitly banned from practicing in India, the
Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has entered into mutual
recognition agreements with its counterparts in the UK, Canada and Australia
for reciprocal membership arrangements.
Although the government has repeatedly tried to open up the professional
services market to foreign players, industry bodies have prevented it from
going ahead, citing threat to livelihood. Despite the "ban" foreign players
have thrived with audit firms such as EY, KPMG and Deloitte taking over
domestic firms.
They have used their brands to get business but use the local firms for
signing off on accounts. In case of law firms, several Indian players have tieups with overseas solicitors, who advise them but cannot appear in court.
Example current scenario
Foreign Architects in India
The profession and practise of architecture in India has undergone a
complete transformation in this decade. The last eight years have been a
boom time, not seen since the heady days of Post Indipendance India.
The booming economy and the burgeoning middle class has prompted
developers to bring in foreign architects with foreign fees to design
everything from airports to residential and office towers and bungalows and
Foreign architects bring in the tried and tested processes and function
precision to bring about a complete turnaround in the way projects are
designed and built. They pair up with Indian firms who have the expertise on
the ground to get things done and built.
Foreign architects for the most part are bringing in foreign solutions and
design principles which may not all work in India, but the public does not
think a second before lapping it all up.
We are literally bringing New York, Chicago, Tokyo or Shanghai to Bombay,
Delhi, Calcutta, Madras and countless other towns and cities.
Only time will tell if this is successful in the long term. India is not the only
place in the world where this is happening. China is way ahead of us in
transplanting urban fabric from the West into their cities.
Time was when there was only the occasional eruption of concrete. Today,
Indias skyline is a work in progress. But while the towering new skyscrapers,
sprawling IT parks, glitzy airports and swanky townships reflect desi
aspirations, the blueprint, more often than not, is foreign.
Be it a slum redevelopment project in congested Mumbai or Kolkatas new
museum of modern art, the global imprint on the countrys fast-changing
urban landscape is evident.
Made in India but designed by a clutch of foreign architects looking to cash in
on the countrys real estate boom.
For Edinburgh-based RMJM, the company behind the distinctive Scottish
Parliament, a foray into India four years ago has translated into business of
1 billion.
That, the company says, is unprecedented for a UK architecture firm doing
business in India.

Theres a cue here for UK business we need to be in India in a very big

way, says RMJM CEO Peter Morrison. RMJM, which currently has 38 projects
under way in India, is now looking to establish a permanent base in Mumbai.
Many others have taken the cue. Celebrated British architect Lord Norman
Foster, who shaped Londons skyline with buildings such as the Gherkin and
designed the Reichstag in Berlin, has entered India in a tie-up with a Mumbai
real estate firm, the Neptune group.
Other big UK names in India are Laing ORourke, Davis Langdon and Mott
MacDonald. Not just UK, firms from Canada (Arcop) to Australia (Omiros One)
have designs on India.
But does India really need foreign architects or is it just about getting a
brand on the brochure? Most builders agree its as much about star power as
it is about international quality.
After all, well-heeled buyers respond to designers with international
reputations as much as they respond to a luxury label like Gucci or Prada.
When people purchase an expensive apartment, a famous architect is extra
validation theyre making a good choice, says Kunal Banerji of Ansal API
which signed up US firm Chelsea West to design Manhattanstyle condos at
its Aquapolis project in Ghaziabad.
The Mahindra groups real estate arm Mahindra Lifespaces, which has roped
in US-based architect and design firm HOK (of Dubai marina fame), says their
reasons go much beyond the brand. The selection of an international
architect or planner is driven by the unique needs of the project. For
instance, the 325-acre Mahindra World City project is one of the largest such
developments under implementation and to that extent the width and depth
of on-ground implementation experience is currently available only with
international firms who have conceived and implemented such projects in
different parts of the world, says Anita Arjundas, COO of Mahindra
Size does matter and with Indian developers going beyond stand-alone
commercial blocks and residences to converting huge swathes of land into
townships and IT parks, a foreign hand does come in handy. Foreign firms
can visualise and handle massive scale.
Also, their designs are very innovative. They create landmarks and not just
buildings, says Shantanu Malik, DGM-Architect, Unitech Ltd.
Its a win-win for Indian architects as well. Working with foreign firms gives
us exposure to international standards.
There is a lot to learn from their use of detailing and modern materials,
adds Malik.
Unitech often hires multiple design firms for a single project. For instance, it
has 10 global architecture and design consultants for the $3 billion Unitech
Grande, a super-luxury residential complex spread over 347 acres along the
Noida expressway. This project draws on the expertise of US-based mall
designer Callison, landscape artists SWA and EDAW, Britains RMJM for
architecture and interiors and HOK for floor plans, besides a course designed
by Australian golfer Greg Norman.
With so much demand, it isnt surprising that Mark Igou, director in the US
architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill Llp (SOM), has been shuttling
between New York and India over the last three years. I spend more than
three months a year in India, familiarizing myself with the ground situation.
And ground reality is what SOM the firm which has designed the Burj
Dubai, which will be the worlds tallest skyscraper when it is finished in 2009
is faced with in Mumbai where it is designing homes for slum dwellers in

Mumbais Santa Cruz as part of a masterplan for Unitech. Its a unique

design challenge recreating the same sense of community that exists in
their current housing so that people dont want to return to the slums they
left, says Igou. SOM is also using the services of sociologists and cultural
anthropologists to get a sense of the social and cultural aspects of the lives
of those being rehabilitated.
Whether its slum housing or a swanky township, India is essential to the
design inputs.
Education and social interaction are both important to Indians so our
designs will reflect these needs. So residential units would have schools
nearby and public spaces for people to interact, he says. Besides projects
like the Jet Airways headquarters in Mumbai, SOM is also working in Tier-II
cities like Ahmedabad and Nagpur.
Be it the Indian ethos or the vagaries of its climate, Uruguayan architect
Carlos Ott keeps it in mind when he is on the drawing board. Ott, who has
designed a technopark for Tata Consultancy Services at Siruseri, Chennai, in
association with countryman Carlos Ponce de Leon, says, I am constantly
studying the history and traditions of India, hoping to integrate some of its
characteristics in my buildings. And though my work is definitely
contemporary, the clues from the past are integrated in a modern
vocabulary. Ott is building on the work that earlier foreign architects have
done in India.
Apart from Lutyens and Le Corbusier, several other international architects
have showcased their designs in India. Ahmedabads Indian Institute of
Management reflects Louis Kahns trademark style of veering towards
monolithic masses resembling ancient ruins. Christopher Charles
Benningerdesigned the Mahindra United World College of India, near Pune.
Britishborn Laurie Baker planned the Fishermens Village in Poonthura in
Kerala, while American Joseph Stein gave shape to Delhis India International
Now, a new generation of foreign architects has designs on India. And their
glittering computer-generated images look set to redefine the countrys
skyline. "
Construction sounds boom loudly nowadays as the Indian skyline towers with
competing skyscrapers and IT office parks sprawling in outer suburban
More high-tech, high-glitz international airports replete with all the
commercial building associated with major transportation hubs have fulfilled
many Indian intended building goals but the design is often American

9. Explain and analyze the role, function and responsibilities of a

construction manager and a project manager.
With the advent of the new millennium, project
management is
increasingly seen as part of the general management too and its techniques are
employed across all sectors of business and all types of project.

A list of functions carried out by project managers:

Establishment of the clients objectives and priorities
Identification of the way in which the client is integrated into the project.
Design of the project organization structure.
Advice on the selection and appointment of the contribution to the project
and the establishment of their teams of reference

Translation of the clients objectives into a brief for the project team and its
Monitoring and controlling feasibility studies, design and production to
ensure that the brief is being satisfied, including adherence to the budget,
investment and programme plans.
Evaluation of the outcome of the project against its
against interim reports including advice on
future strategies.
Recommendation and control of the implementation of a strategy for
disposal or management of the completed on
arrangements for running
and maintaining it when completed.

A project manager must maintain focus on the relative priorities of time,

cost and quality.
1. Cost
2. Quality
3. Time


Who is a good Project Manager?

Leadership skills
Motivation skills
Decision maker
Forecast and plan
Manage risk
Effective control of resources.

Explain the planning, scheduling and controlling phases of a
project management.

In planning, monitoring and controlling a project, Project Management

focuses attention on cost, time quality/
performance and their trade-offs in
such a way as to optimum efficiency effect and effectiveness.

Tools and Techniques:

Project management Software's ( Primavera, Microsoft project plan, pert

master etc )
Templates for individual deliverables (5 phases of the project)
Regular Meetings