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1.

0 WIND LOADING
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The building under consideration can be termed as a mid-rise structure. Since it has a height of about 25
metres, wind loading acting on it needed to be catered for. In Mauritius, we dont have any local standard
to calculate the forces due to the prevailing winds. Being a former British Colony, we have always used
the BS CP3 (1972) Code of Practice. However, this standard has been superseded long ago by BS EN
1991:2005 Wind Actions. However, since the latter code uses data based on 10-s gusts, it could not be
used since Mauritius has yet to record meteorological data based on those 10-s gusts. We still use the 3-s
gusts data.
Excelsior Consulting Engineers deemed it best to use the Australian Standard AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 since:

Australia enjoys similar climatic conditions as Mauritius.


The wind pressures are calculated for 3-s gusts and such data are locally available.

The following parameters were taken into consideration in the design code:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Wind speed at site.


Direction of wind.
Terrain condition.
Any possible shielding by neighbouring buildings.
Topography of land.

Some of these parameters were assumed in order to adapt them to the local conditions.
1.2 METHOD STATEMENT
The steps to be followed to calculate wind loads are given in Clause 2.1 of AS/NZS 1170:2002.
1. The site wind speeds are given by the following equation.

V sit , =V R M d (M Z ,cat M s M t )
Where: -

V sit , = site wind speed defined by the cardinal direction

-VR = regional 3-s gust wind speed in m/s (= 77.8 m/s highest wind speed recorded
during the passage of Gervaise cyclone in 1975)
-Md = directional multiplier (in the absence of appropriate meteorological data, this was
assumed to be 1.0)

-MS = terrain height multiplier calculated from Table 4.1 (B) of the standard.
2. To choose the relevant region, Table 3.1 of the code of practice was used. It was observed that
cyclonic region D matches the 77.8 m/s local cyclonic wind speed.
3. The building was assumed to be found in an urban area and a terrain category of 2 was applicable
according to Clause 4.2.1.

4. From Table 4.1 (B), M Z ,cat

at different floor heights, was calculated.

5. MS and Mt were assumed to be 1.0 due to the absence of data. The hill-shape multiplier and Leezone multiplier were not applicable in this case.

6. The next step was to calculate the design wind speed ( V des ,

from the following equation.

V sit , =V R M d ( M Z , cat M s M t )=V des ,


V des , =77.8 x 1.0 x M (Z , cat ) x 1.0 x 1.0

V des , =77.8 M Z ,cat

Note: The effect of the cardinal direction was ignored since there was insufficient data to
interpolate from given graphs / tables in the code of practice.
7. The final wind pressure, P, was given by the following equation.

P=0.5 air x V 2des , x C fig x C dyn


Where: - P = wind pressure
- air = density of air (assumed to be 1.2 kg/m3)
- C dyn

= dynamic coefficient (assumed to be 1.0 since building was not deemed to be

dynamically sensitive)
- C fig

= aerodynamic shape factor coefficient

For external pressures:

C fig=C p , e K a K c K i

For internal pressures:

C fig=C p ,i K c

Where: -

C p , e = external pressure coefficient

- Cp, i

= internal pressure coefficient

-Ka = area reduction factor (assumed as 1.0)


-Kc = combination factor (assumed as 1.0)
-Ki = local pressure factor (assumed as 1.0)
8. Since the building under consideration is a braced one, the wind pressures were converted into
point loads acting at each floor levels.
1.3 RESULTS
The wind loads were calculated for both the longer and shorter sides of the building. The results are
tabled in the following sections.
The detailed calculations are found in Annex XXX.
1.3.1 WIND LOADS ON LONGER WINDWARD SIDE
Floor level
GF
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Roof

Height (m)
0
3.5
7
10.5
14
17.5
21
24.5

Wind pressure (kPa)


0.00
3.25
3.25
3.30
3.64
3.95
4.22
4.41

Area (m2)
0
168
168
168
168
168
168
84

Point force (kN)


0
546.1
546.1
554.0
611.1
663.7
709.4
370.6
4001

1.3.2 WIND LOADS ON SHORTER WINDWARD SIDE


Floor Level
GF
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
5th
6th
Roof

Height (m)
0
3.5
7
10.5
14
17.5
21
24.5

Wind Pressure (kPa)


0
2.6
2.6
2.64
2.91
3.16
3.38
3.53

Area (m2)
0
55
55
55
55
55
55
27.5

Point force (kN)


0.0
143.0
143.0
145.2
160.1
173.8
185.9
97.1
1048.0