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ADB TRANSPORT

FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells

Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell applications in


Transport

ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Fabio V. MATERA
Institute of Advanced Energy Technologies Nicola Giordano
National Research Council of Italy

Transportation and Oil


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Facts about transportation


Transportation: 25% of global worldwide greenhouse emissions globally
increasing despite green policies and the global economical crisis because
passenger car transport mode is expanding in developing countries
Current vehicle technology is the only power technology relying almost
completely on fossil fuels (95% of km travelled in EU)

Fossil fuel production has a very negative impact on environment and high
hidden costs - emissions and efficiency must be accounted properly
Hydrogen and biofuels are part of the energy diversification strategy
The shift to hydrogen and fuel cells is disruptive: no business-as-usual
model applies

Electric Vehicles are here (to stay)


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Battery cars have demonstrated to be:

Reliable
Cost effective
Performing and appealing - the Tesla Motors case
Keep an high value over the time

The market is growing

Challenges: Policy, Social and Technical


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines

Policy
Longsighted policy needed for long term strategies: regulations important
Research plays a key role non PGM catalysts, patents

Social
Habits and lifestyle change: car-sharing against traffic and TCO1
Technology awareness and understanding: education required at all levels
Fake expectations: water as a free fuel?

16 September 2016

Technical
Disrupting technology large investments needed and in-house
competition with existing vehicles (like the battery vehicle case)
High technology cost due to low volume: subsides needed
Infrastructure development and cost
1

Total Cost of Ownersh

Fuel Cell Vehicles


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines

Both the benefits of battery and gasoline cars:


Emission-free, noiseless and high performance vehicles
Fast refuelling (no recharge)

High efficiency (40-50%), even higher in urban driving.


conventional passenger car: 10% (urban) - 20% (highway) (source: US DOE)
Further 40% improvement with braking energy recovery

Safe: very few incidents reported due to hydrogen (while leakage is the
most reported failure mode)

Scalable, modular, easy maintenance and easy reuse/recycle of stack


components

Innovative vehicle design

16 September 2016

Example of vehicle platform design


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Fuel cell vehicle status


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

A new technology must be more


Reliable
Safe
Cost-effective and competitive (under the same assumptions)

Status

PEFC (or PEMFC) is the dominant technology


Lifetime: +5000 hours / 150.000 km demonstrated
Durability issues in CO-polluted environment
On-board storage: performance, testing and standardisation improved
(influence range and safety perception)
Cost still too high: mass-market needed

Global Fuel Cell Market


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

The cost is rapidly decreasing:


Forecast: by 2025-2030
Current price close to 2.000 $/kW (turnpoint: 1.500 $/kW for PV
market, final target: 50 $/kW under specific assumptions)
All application fields help each other in overall cost reduction,
deployment and technology improvement

Fuel Cell Vehicles market


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Passenger vehicles
ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Purchase
options
Markets
Units
Performa
nce

Stack
power
Hydrogen
tank
Price

Honda Clarity

Toyota Mirai

Hyundai Tucson Fuel Cell

Lease,
Government/Busines

Sale, Lease

3 years Lease

2016: Japan - 2017: UK,


DK

2017 Europe: DK, D, UK

California (USA) only

200 (first phase)

50-100 (first phase)

130 kW AC, 300 Nm

113 kW AC, 335 Nm

134 HP (100 kW) AC, 300 Nm


(221 lbs ft)

103 kW PEFC + Li-ion


battery

114 kW PEFC (3,1 kW/l)


+ Ni-MH battery

100 kW PEFC (3,1 kW/l) + 60


Ah Li-Polymer battery

141 litres - 27 l (front) +


117 l (rear), 70 MPa, 5
kg(H2)

122,4 litres - 60l (front)


+ 62,4l (rear), 70 MPa, 5
kg(H2), 5,7 wt%

140 litres - 10.000 psi/70 MPa


- 5,63 kg(H2)

7,660,000 yen

66.000 EUR (+VAT) (D)

2.999 USD + 499 USD/month


Fuel included

Bus and public transport


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines

16 September 2016

Low speed, up-hill driving (100-200 kW max


power)
Silent, emission-free, more space available
over the roof and under the floor than cars
Closed loop route: braking energy recovery
and centralized refuelling
Many demonstration projects worldwide
Actual high cost (limited numbers), price
parity with hybrid-diesel by 2025-2025
28.000 urban bus announcement by
2030 (South Korea, CNG switch) + 300
units (China)
Light rail may be the next market due to
electric infrastructure savings (19%) in
expanding networks

Fuel cell bus: typical architecture


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Heavy Duty Trucks and Delivery vans


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells

Pushed by normative
Fossil fuel car ban (Norway, by 2025)
Sleeping cab interdiction (France,
Belgium)

Daihatsu FC Deco Deck (concept, 2013)

Fuel Cells APU


Heavy-duty cargo sleeper cabins
3 kW (EU) / 5-6 kW (US)

Cooling power (engine off)


Short-range urban delivery (<100 km)
Rubbish trucks, Fire trucks

ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Zero-Emission TYRANO hydrogen fuel cellelectric trucks (2012, USA/DoE)

Benefits
Regulation compliancy
Increased range and no recharge
downtime compared to battery electric
vehicles
Nikola Motor Company concept heavy duty
hydrogen truck (announced by Dec 2016)

Other applications to transport


ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Conclusions
ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Pollution is global and has a cost that MUST be evidenced - Lifecycle analysis is
one instrument
Sustainable Transport must be part of an integrated strategy involving single
Countries in a worldwide vision with social, economical and technology
challenges
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are a disruptive technology - Commitment and large
investments required for industry transformation and cost reduction
Electric transportation is cost-effective and appealing
Technology is well proven and will improve in the future
Education is a key aspect
Electric vehicles do not solve the traffic issue (= waste of lifetime) improved
alternative transport mode required
Hydrogen/Fuel Cell vehicles will improve life quality and wont flood the planet

ADB TRANSPORT
FORUM 2016
Workshop on
Paving Clean and Low
Carbon Energy and
Transport Systems
using Hydrogen and
Fuel Cells
ADB Headquarters
Manila-Philippines
16 September 2016

Thank you
want to collaborate with us?
Fabio Matera
fabio.matera@itae.cnr.it