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Overview of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell

Activities in the United States


Amgad Elgowainy
Energy Systems Division
Argonne National Laboratory
Chicago, IL, USA

Presentation at ADB Transport Forum


September 16, 2016

Overview & All of the Above Energy Strategy


Weve got to invest in a serious, sustained, all-of-the-above
energy strategy that develops every resource available for
the 21st century.
- President Barack Obama

As part of an all-of-the-above energy


approach, fuel cell technologies are paving
the way to competitiveness in the global
clean energy market and to new jobs and
business creation across the country.
- Secretary Moniz,
U.S. Department of Energy

Secretary Moniz at DC Auto Show


Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

Sustainable Transportation Sector

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells


Transportation Efficiency

Vehicles

Diverse Fuel Sources


Domestic & Renewable

Bioenergy
National Energy Goals
&
Climate Action Plan
Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

Net Oil
Imports
50% by 2020

GHG Emissions
>80% by 2050

H2 Infrastructure Status Production and Distribution

Centralized H2
Production Facilities
(source: NREL)

1600 miles of H2 pipeline

9 Liquefaction plants in North America

~10M metric tons produced/year


Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

NE states, California, and Hawaii have H2 infrastructure efforts underway

California ZEV mandate drives deployment of FCEVs

10% car purchases are ZEVs by 2015


25% car purchases are ZEVs by 2020
100% car purchases are ZEVs by 2050
1.5M ZEVs by 2025
As of Sept. 2016 >200,000 ZEVs (>700 FCEVs) on the road in CA
Credits for vehicles
(2009-2017)

ZEV
(Gold)

Definition

Example

Type I

50-75 mile Electric Range (ER)

Limited Range BEV

Type I.5

75-100 mile ER

City Electric Vehicle

2.5

Type II

100-200 mile ER

Full function BEV

Type III

200 mile ER, or 100+ER with fast refueling

FCEV or BEV

4 (3 cr. 2018+)

Type IV

200+ mile ER with fast refueling

FCEV

5 (3 cr. 2018+)

Type V

300+ mile ER with fast refueling

FCEV

7 (3 cr. 2018+)

1.25 multiplier for vehicles sold. $5000 penalty per ZEV credit if obligation is not met!
https://www.opr.ca.gov/docs/Governor%27s_Office_ZEV_Action_Plan_%2802-13%29.pdf
http://arbis.arb.ca.gov/msprog/zevprog/factsheets/2008zevfacts.pdf
5

California LCFS can also generate credits for H2


production pathways
Hydrogen will be a mandatory reporting fuel in California
LCFS credits recently trading at $120/MT of CO2e
Can reduce H2 cost by $2-$3/kgH2
1 kgH2 = 1 GGE

Today, with volume purchases,


H2 can be delivered to refueling
station for $6-$8/kgH2

http://www.arb.ca.gov/fuels/lcfs/dashboard/dashboard.htm
June 2016

H2 infrastructure needed
for FCEV deployment

HRS roll out with public support is needed to


overcome challenges of early markets
Market Phase

Public
Support?

[1] Demonstration Yes


[2] Early/
Precommercial
[3] Commercial

Yes
No

HRS
HRS
HRS
Profitable? Reliable? Sustainable?
No
Yes
Yes

No

No

No

Pseudo
Sustainable*

Yes

Self
Sustainable

* i.e., with public support

H2 Station Expansion Underway


State Plans:
CA- 100 stations, ~$100M
planned through 2023

8 State MOU- 3.3M ZEVs by 2025

Northeast States Air Liquide & Toyota


partnering. First 4 stations out of 12
announced:

Hartford, Connecticut
Braintree and Mansfield, Massachusetts
Bronx, New York

California
Connecticut
Massachusetts
Maryland
New York
Oregon
Rhode Island
Vermont

Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

NE states, California, and Hawaii have H2 infrastructure efforts underway

California H2 Station Status


Where?

How Many?
Total:

51
H2 Stations*
*In Process

Open:

27
As of August 18, 2016

H2 Stations

Credit: Chart is from CaFCP, Sept. 2016

Expect >30 hydrogen stations to be open by the end of the year.

10

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Overview


Mission

2020 Targets by Application

To enable the widespread commercialization


of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies
Fuel Cell Cost
Durability

$40/kW $1,000/kW*

$1,500/kW**

5,000 hrs 80,000 hrs

H2 Storage Cost
(On-Board)

H2 Cost at Pump

$10/kWh

1.8 kWh/L, 1.3 kWh/kg

<$4/gge
<$7/gge (early market)
*For Natural Gas
**For Biogas

Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

Integrated approach to widespread commercialization of H2 and fuel cells

Public-industry partnership is needed to overcome


challenges of infrastructure deployment in early
markets

*Representative sample of member logos

12

Key Early Market Challenges Addressed by H2USA


Station Cost Reduction

- Fueling resources & delivery


- State and local regulations

Station Locations

- Identify and prioritize markets


- Regulatory barriers (zoning)
- Station rollout timing

Investment and Finance


- Private sector financing
- Government support

Market Support and Acceleration


- Product launch and timeline
- Codes and standards (non-vehicle
related)
- Public education

Photo Credits Top: NREL, Middle: NREL, Bottom:


Hexagon Lincoln

Environmental Impacts of
H2 and FCEVs

Renewable sources are key for sustainable H2 production

Assuming 26 mpg for gasoline ICEV and 55 mpgge for H2 FCEV

Vision for The Future of U.S.


Energy Sector: H2@Scale

Conceptual H2 at Scale Energy System*

*Illustrative example, not comprehensive

Thank You!
aelgowainy@anl.gov

Link to Argonnes HRSAM and HDSAM infrastructure models:

http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/h2a_delivery.html
Link to Argonnes GREET models:

https://greet.es.anl.gov/
18

Backup Slides

19

State Incentives - Examples

: ZEV State

: ZEV state w/
incentive

Source: NCSL

: Non-ZEV state w/
incentives

Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

9 states (4 ZEV states) offering incentives for FCEVs and H2 station deployments

State Incentives - Examples


California: Assembly Bill 8

More than $2B for clean-vehicle incentives & $20M/year for H2 station deployment through end of 2023.
$5,000 FCEV purchase rebate.

Connecticut: The Connecticut Clean Fuel Program

Funding for municipalities/public agencies that utilize alt fuel/advanced tech vehicles, including H2 vehicles.
CHEAPR program - $3,000 vehicle rebate plus $300 dealer incentive for FCEVs.

Massachusetts

$2500 in purchase incentives for FCEVs/BEVs and HOV lanes/parking incentives

Rhode Island

HOV Lanes and / or Parking Incentives

Hawaii

2015 Legislature bill allocating portion of oil barrel tax toward providing hydrogen infrastructure support.

Texas

Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grants


Texas Clean Fleet Program: Grants may be awarded for up to 80% of the cost of purchasing the new vehicle
AirCheckTexas Drive a Clean Machine Vehicle Replacement Assistance Program: Up to $3,500

Georgia

ZEV Tax Credit: An income tax credit for purchase or lease of a new ZEV; HOV lane access.

Income tax credit of 50% of incremental/conversion cost for qualified AFVs up to $19k for businesses & individuals.
Tax credit for 50% of equipment/labor costs for purchase/installation of alt fuel infrastructure on qualified property.

Washington DC
Colorado

Low Emission Vehicle Sales Tax Exemption: Vehicles/ parts used for reducing emissions exempt from state sales tax.
Credit: slide is from DOE, June 2016

The GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use


in Transportation) Model
GREET 1 model:
Fuel-cycle (or well-to-wheels, WTW)
modeling of vehicle/fuel systems

Stochastic
Simulation
Tool

Algae Process
Description
(APD)

Carbon Calculator for


Land Use Change from
Biofuels (CCLUB)

GREET 2 model:
Vehicle-cycle modeling for light-duty vehicles

https://greet.es.anl.gov/

22

GREET development has been supported by several DOE


Offices since 1995
- Vehicle Technology Office (VTO)

- Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO)

- Fuel-Cell Technology Office (FCTO)

- Geothermal Technology Office (GTO)

- Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA)


GREET has been in public domain and free of charge since it inception in
1995- Updated and expanded annually
Examples of major uses of GREET
DOE, USDA, and the Navy use GREET for R&D decisions
US EPA used GREET for RFS and vehicle GHG standard developments
CARB developed CA-GREET for its Low-Carbon Fuel Standard compliance
DOD DLA-Energy uses GREET for alternative fuel purchase requirements
Energy industry (especially new fuel companies) uses it for addressing sustainability of
R&D investments
Auto industry uses it for R&D screening of vehicle/fuel system combinations
Universities uses GREET for education on technology sustainability of various fuels
23

There are ~ 30,000 registered GREET users globally

24

C2G GHG Emissions for current and future vehiclefuel pathways


Improvement in vehicle efficiency and
switching to low-carbon fuels are key to deep
carbonization of the transportation sector
https://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-c2g-2016-report

25

Carbon-free electricity prices


Contract
Price
cents/kWh 12

Capacity
(GW)

10
8
6
4
Source:
2
(Arun Majumdar)
1. DOE EERE
Sunshot Q115 Report
2. DOE EERE Wind
Report, 2015

$.02/kWh

2008

2010

2012

2014 15

Energy System Challenges

Over half of U.S. CO2


emissions come from
the industrial and
transportation sectors

Multi-sector requirements
Transportation
Industrial
Grid

Denholm et al. 2008

Renewable challenges

35,000

Variable
Concurrent generation

25,000

PV
Gas
Turbine
Pumped
Storage
Hydro

Generation (MW)

30,000

20,000

Combined
Cycle
Imports

15,000

Coal

10,000

Nuclear
Wind

5,000

Geo

0
-5,000

Exports
Base
(no PV)

2%

6%

PV Penetration and Hour

10%

The Economics of Renewable H2 Illustrative Example


Fuel Cell R&D has
decreased projected
costs by 80%

Intermittent
integration
R&D
Advances

Steam
Methane
Reforming
(SMR)