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Construction Technology Assignment 01

Assignment 01


Construction Technology Assignment 01

- Assignment 011. Define the term bearing capacity give brief descriptions on any
three types of soil tests for bearing capacity.
2. Write a short note description the Foundation. Explain the
following types ofFoundations with their diagrams.
a. Traditional Strip Foundation.
b. Raft Foundation.
c. Combined pad Foundation.
d. Precast Pile Foundation.
3. Explain the following Rubble masonry giving their sketches.
a. Random Rubble Coursed walling.
b. Square Rubble Un-coursed.
c. Ashlars Walling.
4. Define term Concrete Brieflyexplains the Process of Preparing,
placing and curing of Concrete.


Construction Technology Assignment 01

- Answers1. Bearing Capacity

In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support
the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity of soil is the maximum average
contact pressure between the foundation and the soil which should not
produce shear failure in the soil. Ultimate bearing capacity is the theoretical maximum
pressure which can be supported without failure; allowable bearing capacity is the ultimate
bearing capacity divided by a factor of safety. Sometimes, on soft soil sites, large
settlements may occur under loaded foundations without actual shear failure occurring; in
such cases, the allowable bearing capacity is based on the maximum allowable

a.Borehole test
This test is carried out by drilling down the soil by a bore hole machine as per required
depth after drilling the drill tubes are drown out and the soil samples wich are packed
inside the tubes are taken out and send to the geological survey lab and tested. The report
given by the geo lab will show the bearing capacity of that soil at each required depth by
the way it will show the depth of the water table.

b.Loading Test
By this test the area to be tested is load with concrete cubes in layers and the level of the
layers are tested and recorded by the same manner concrete cubes are loaded in each
layer is loaded when any settlement occur the level will be showing the settlement there
after the total load is calculated and divided by the result as kg/cm2 that is the maximum
bearing capacity of the soil in that position.

c.Trial pit
Trial pit of size 1mx1m and to the depth of 2m are duged with vertical sides. A person
having a general knowledge about the nature of the soil will examine the sides for the
condition of the soil layers. Actually no a clear cut idea related to the bearing capacity will
gain guidance towards the construction of yards playgrounds etc.

Construction Technology Assignment 01


A foundation (or, more commonly, foundations) is the element of an architectural
structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the
ground. Foundations are generally considered either shallow or deep. Foundation
engineering is the application of soil mechanics and rock mechanics (Geotechnical
engineering) in the design of foundation elements of structures.

a.Traditional Strip Foundation.

Strip foundations are used where the soil is of good bearing capacity.
The key sizes of a strip foundation for concrete cavity wall construction
and timber frame cavity wall construction are similar. The size and
position of the strip is directly related to the overall width of the wall. The
principle design features of a strip foundation are based on the fact that
the load is transmitted at 45 degrees from the base of the wall to the
soil. The depth of a strip foundation must be equal to or greater than the
overall width of the wall.The width of the foundation must be three times
the width of the supported wall.It is vital that the strip foundation is
strengthened through the inclusion of steel reinforcement.A compacted
hardcore base of minimum 150mm is installed to form a platform for the
subfloor and the subsequent loads of the dwelling. The 150mm concrete
subfloor is poured on the hardcore in order to provide a strong, smooth
platform for the insulation. A radon barrier is installed to form a
continuous seal on the entire footprint of the house. A Damp Proof
Course is installed in order to repel any rising moisture. It is vital that the
DPC is carried up into the blockwork to form a water tight seal over the
entire floor area.The DPC must run through the blockwork at a minimum
of 150mm above finished ground level.


Construction Technology Assignment 01

b.Raft Foundation.
Typically, raft foundations are formed by reinforced concrete slabs that cover a
wide area, often the entire footprint of a building. They spread the load imposed by
a number of columns or walls over a large area, and can be considered to float
on the ground as a raft floats on water.
They are suitable where:

Ground conditions are poor and strip or pad foundations would require
significant excavation, for example on soft clay, alluvial deposits, and
compressible fill and soon.
Settlement or differential settlement is likely.
Where it may be impractical to create individual strip or pad
foundations for a large number of individual loads. In very general
terms, if strip or pad foundations would cover 50% or more of the floor
area, then a raft may be appropriate.

Raft foundations can be fast and inexpensive to construct, as they tend not to
require deep excavations compared to strip or pad foundations and they may use
less material as they combine the foundation with the ground slab. However, they

Construction Technology Assignment 01

tend to be less effective where structural loads are focused on in a few
concentrated areas.
They tend to include steel reinforcement to prevent cracking, and may
incorporate beams or thickened areas to provide additional support for
specific loads, for example, below internal walls. Typically, a thickened reinforced
area is created at the perimeter of the raft to form an edge beam supporting the
external walls of the building. A concrete toe often supports the external leaf of the

c.Combined pad Foundation.

Whenever two or more columns in a straight line are carried on a single

spread footing, it is called a combined footing. Isolated footings for each
column are generally not economical.
Combined Foundations are proportioned in such a way that the center of
gravity of the loads coincides with the center of gravity of the foundation.
Hence these footings have either a trapezoidal or a rectangular shape
Combined Foundations are provided only when it is absolutely necessary,as
When two columns are close together, causing overlap of adjacent isolated
Where soil bearing capacity is low, causing overlap of adjacent isolated
Proximity of building line or existing building or sewer, adjacent to a building

Construction Technology Assignment 01

d.Precast Pile Foundation.

Precast Concrete Piles may be defined as a reinforced concrete pile which is molded
in circular, square, rectangular or octagonal form. The precast concrete piles are
cast and cured in a casting yard and then transported to the site for driving. In case
space is available, pile can also be cast and cured near the site of works. They are driven
in a similar manner as timber piles with the help of pile drivers. The diameter of the
pile normally varies 1mm 35 cm to 65 cm and their length varies from 45 in to 30 m.
The function of reinforcement in precast concrete piles are to resist the stresses produced
on account of its handling, driving and the loading which the pile is finally expected to
receive. Longitudinal reinforcement usually consists of one bar 20 mm to 50 mm in
diameter at each angle of the section of the pile. The vertical rods are tied horizontally by
bars 6 mm to 10mm in diameter. The horizontal bars may be provided in the form of
stirrups wound around the verticals. For lengths of approximately 90 cm at head and toes,
the spacing of the stirrups should be 8 cm c/c. Circular piles are seldom tapered but when


Construction Technology Assignment 01

tapering of the piles becomes necessary due to site conditions, their length is restricted to

12 m.

a. Random Rubble Coursed walling.
In this type of masonry, the stones used are of widely different
sizes. This is the roughest and cheapest form of stone masonry.
In coursed random rubble masonry, the masonry work is carried
out in courses such that the stones in a particular course are of
equal height.


Construction Technology Assignment 01


Construction Technology Assignment 01

b. Square Rubble Un-coursed.

In this type of masonry stones having straight bed and sides

are used. The stones are usually squared and brought to
hammer dressed or straight cut finish.
In the uncaused square rubble masonry, the different sizes of
stones having straight edges and sides are arranged on face in
several irregular patterns.

c. Ashlars Walling.
In this type ashlar masonry, each stone is cut to uniform size and
shape with all sides rectangular, so that the stone gives perfectly
horizontal and vertical joints with adjoining stone. This type of
ashlar masonry is very costly.

Construction Technology Assignment 01


It can be easily molded/casted in various sizes and
It can easily be modified and changed as per the
requirements of the structure.
It is simple to prepare and place; also readily available.
Preparing Concrete
After procuring the materials and deciding the proportion
(mix-design) following are two methods of mixing
Hand mixing
Machine mixing


Construction Technology Assignment 01

Hand mixing
In hand mixing similar to mortar cement: fine aggregates:Coarse
aggregates. Are taken in desired quantity on water tight clean platform and
dry mixed thoroughly 3 times.
Then water is added as per the water cement ratio and thoroughly mixed by
It is suitable for only small quantities and where quality can be monitored
It has to be consumed within 30 mins of its preparation.
Machine mixing
All the materials are added into the mechanical mixer and rotated for
certain time(1- 4 mins). The mixture is then taken out of the drum and
It is to be noted that if water is added 1st in the mixer it ensures evenly
distribution of water in the mix.
The speed and time of mixing is crucial(important) and has to be supervised
because it affects the quality and strength of concrete.
The concrete discharged from mixer should also be consumed within 30

Placing of Concrete
After transporting the concrete another activity is placing of concrete.
Concrete needs to be placed with great care to avoid segregation and to
achieve proper compaction.
It is advisable to deposit small quantity of concrete at various locations
rather than deposit huge chunk at one location.

Curing of Concrete


Construction Technology Assignment 01

After attaining the final setting time fresh concrete is kept moist for certain
period (min 7 days and max 23 days) so as to promote the hardening of
cement (concrete).
Cement contains C3S, C3A, C2S, C4AF these elements of cement react with
water and hardens the concrete the content of these elements in different
ratio determines the various property of cement
Generally the 7 days curing is of utmost importance because initial 60-80 %

strength of concrete is achieved in this period the other 40-20 % strength of

design concrete is achieved within 23 days.