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COMPRESSIBILITY OF SOIL

ST = Sc + Ss + Sc
A.

Primary Settlement
Normally Consolidated Clay:

+
Sc =

Where:

Sc = primary consolidation
settlement
Cc = compression index
H = thickness of clay layer
P = ave. increase of effective
stress in clay or overburden pressure
Po = ave. stress in the mid-height
of clay layer
eo = in-situ void ratio
Over-consolidated Clay:
when Po + P < Pc

+
Sc =

when Po + P > Pc

+
Sc =

+
Nagaraj and Murthy
log Pc =

B.

. .

el = (LL/100) Gs
Pc = pre-consolidation pressure
Pc = pre-consolidation pressure in kPa
Po = in situ average overburden pressure
Secondary Settlement
Ss =

ep = eo - e
e =

4.

..

2. Cs = 1/5 to 1/10 Cc
Time Rate of Consolidation
Compression Index:
+
e1 = void ratio at pressure 1
Cc =

Se = (

e2 = void ratio at pressure 2

Coefficient of Compressibility

av =

Coefficient of Volume Compressibility



mv =
eave =
mv=

(+ ) ( )
+

(+ )

Coefficient of Consolidation

Nagaraj and Murthy


Cc = 0.2343 (LL/100) GS
Park and Koumoto

Cc =

NO = in situ porosity of soil


Swell Index:
1. Nagaraj and Murthy
.
Cs =

Cv =

Ss = secondary consolidation
settlement
Cd = secondary compression index
T2 = time after completion of primary
settlement
T1 = time for completion of primary
settlement
ep = void ratio at the end of primary
consolidation
Immediate Settlement

Se = (

3.

Where:

C.

= Poissons ratio of soil


ES = modulus of elasticity of soil
Ip = influence factor
Compression Index:
1. Skemptous Equation
Cc = 0.009 (LL-10)
LL = liquid limit
2. Rendon-Herrero
+
Cc = 0.041 GS 1.2 ( ).

Where:
Cs = shape of foundation rigidity factor
B= width of foundation or diameter of
circular foundation
q = P/B2 (net vertical pressure applied)

Ultimate Bearing Capacity


Square footing
qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.4 B Ny
Rectangular footing
.
qult =cNc ( +
) + qNq + B

Ny( +

Cv = coeff. of consolidation
mv = coeff. of volume compressibility
w = unit weight of water
TERZAGHIS BEARING CAPACITY
A. General Shear Failure
Strip footing
qult =cNc + qNq + 1/2 B Ny

Ultimate Bearing Capacity


Square footing
qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.4 B Ny
Rectangular footing
qult =cNc ( +

c = cohesion of soil
c = q/2
qu = unconfined compressive strength
= unit weight of soil
q = Df
Nc, Nq, Ny = bearing capacity factors that are non
dimensional anf are only functions of soil friction
angle
B = dimension of each side of foundation
= angle of internal friction
Bearing Capacity Factor
1. Ressner Formula
Nq = tan2 (45 + /2) etan
2. Prandtl Formula
Nc = (Nq-1) cot
3. Vesic Formula
Nc = 2(Nq+1) tan
4. Meyerhof Formula
Nc = (Nq-1) tan(1.4)
Allowable Bearing Capacity= qult/ F.S.
Allowable Load , qall =( qult/ F.S.) (A)
B. Load Shear Failure
(For loose sand and soft clay)
c =2/3c
tan = 2/3 tan
Strip footing
qult =cNc + qNq + 1/2 B Ny

Ny( +

) + qNq + B

Circular footing
qult =1.3cNc + qNq + 0.3 B Ny
Where:

Circular footing
qult =1.3cNc+ qNq + 0.3 B Ny
Allowable Loads Carried by the Foundation
1. Gross Allowable Load

=
2.

..

Net Allowable Load


=

..

MEYERHOFS BEARING CAPACITY


A. Vertical Load
qu = cNcScdc + qNqSqdq + 0.5BNSd
B. Inclined Load
qu = cNcScdc ic+ qNqSqdqiq + 0.5BNSdi
Shape and Depth Factors:
For = 0
Sc = 1 + 0.2 B/L
Sq = S = 1.0
dc = 1 + 0.2 Df/B
dq = d = 1.0

qult = ultimate bearing capacity

CEIT-02/ FOUNDATION 2016

For 10
Sc = 1 + 0.2 Kp (B/L)
Sq = S = 1.0 + 0.1 Kp (B/L)
dc = 1 + 0.2 Df/B
dq = d = 1.0 Df/B
Load Inclination Factors:
ic = iq = (1-/90)2
i = (1- /) 2
where:
k = tan2 (45 + /2)
= angle of resultant measured from vertical
axis
HANSENS BEARING CAPACITY
qu = cNcScdc icbcgc+ qNqSqdqiqbqgq+ 0.5BNSdibg
Shape Factors:
For failure along base width B:
Sc = 0.2 icb (B/L)
Sq = 1+sin B (iql/L)
S = 1 0.4 (B(ib) / L (il)
For failure along base length L:
Sc = 0.2 icb (L/B)
Sq = 1+sin (L(iql)/B)
S = 1 0.4 (L(il) / B (ib))
Base and Ground Inclination Factors:
bc =

bq = e-2vtan
b = e-2.7vtan
gc =

gq = g = (1-0.5tan)5
where:
v = base of footing inclination
= ground inclination
Depth Factors:
For Df B
dc = 0.4 (Df/B)
dq = 1 + 2tan (1-sin)2(Df/B)
For Df > B
dc = 0.4 arctan (Df/B)
dq = 1 + 2tan (1-sin)2 arctan (Df/B)
d = 1.0
Load Inclination Factors:
For v=0
ic = 0.50 0.50 1 /
iq =[ 1-0.5 H/ V + Ac cot ]5
For v > 0
i = [1-(0.7 - V / 450) H/ ( V + Ac cot )]5
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST
when B 1.22 m.
qall (net) = 19.16 Ncor Fd (Se/25)
when B 1.22 m.
qall (net) = 11.98 Ncor (
where:

. +
.

qall (net) = net allowable pressure


Ncor = corrected standard penetration test
Fd = depth factor
B = width of footing
Se = tolerable elastic settlement in mm.
Depth Factor:
Fd = 1 +
Correction Factor:

Unit Weight: =

Cn = correction factor to be applied to number


of blows per ft.
= overburden pressure at the depth observed
when < 24 kPa, equation is not valid
when > 24 kPa, use the correction factor
when = 96 kPa, no correction should be made
SPT N-value
Relative Density
0-4
Very Loose
4-10
Loose
10-30
Medium
30-50
Dense
Over 50
Very Dense

SPT N-value
<2
2-4
4-8
8-15
15-30
>30
CONE PENETRATION TEST METHOD

.
( )

= 17.6 + (

Porosity: n =

Moisture Content: =

(Peck)

where:

Void Ratio: e =

Degree of Saturation: S =

Cn = 0.77 log

SOIL COMPOSITION:

Dry Unit Weight: =


Sat. Unit Weight: =

or

(+)

Moist Unit Weight: =

+
(+)
+

or

= DRY (1+)

CONSTANTS & CONVERSION:


1 in = 2.54 cm
1 ft = 12 in = 0.3048 m
1 m = 1000 mm
1 m = 100 cm
1 kN = 0.102 tonne 1 kPa = 0.0104 tons/ft2
1 psi = 6.89476 kPa 1 kg = 2.20462 lbs
1 kPa = 20.885 psf
water = 9.81kN/m3
water = 62.43 lb/ft3

Consistency
Very Soft
Soft
Medium
Stiff
Very Stiff
Hard

=effective soil overburden pressure


qc = resisting force divide by the projected area of the cone
Pa = one atmosphere ; 100 kPa or 2 ksf
= angle of internal friction
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST METHOD
tan = tan-1 (

( ).

[.+. (

.
)]

N60 = blow count for Standard Penetration Test resulting from 60


standard 60 blows
SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOIL
For normally consolidated clay, c=0
=
= shearing stress; = normal stress; = angle of inter. friction
For over consolidated clay
h=
=c + ; c = cohesion of clay

)Fd (Se/25)

CEIT-02/ FOUNDATION 2016