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EMBRYO. LAB. 4.

3 DEVELOPMENT OF CHICK EMBRYO


(Part 1 24 HR CHICK EMBRYO)
(WHOLE MOUNT)

1) Area Opaca periphery of blastodisc


- surround area pellucida
- in direct contact with yolk (makes it opaque)
- (during early devt) 3 zones:
1. Margin of Growth (MoG) peripheral; where cells proliferate without adhering to yolk
2. Zone Junction (ZJ) intermediate region; where cells cut free from yolk
3. Germ Wall (GW) inner; its cells are from ZJ (thus, has yolk); marks transition from area
opaca to area pellucida
a. Area Opaca Vasculosa inner; where splanchnic mesoderm thicken into blood
islands
b. Area Opaca Vitellina outer; initially lacks blood islands

2) Area Pellucida center of blastodisc


- where primitive streak forms
- lies over subgerminal cavity
- appears transluscent (due to thinness of blastoderm)
Blastoderm consist of:
Epiblast outer; differentiates into ectoderm and mesoderm
Hypoblast inner
3) Primitive Streak longitudinal cleft on surface of amniote blastodisc
- formed by cell convergence
- gastrulation begins when epiblast cells migrate into the streak
1. Primitive Groove central furrow
2. Primitive Ridges margins of primitive streak @ sides of primitive groove
3. Primitive Pit indented region @ anterior end of primitive streak
4. Hensens Node / Primitive Knot named after Viktor Hensen (1835-1924)
- thickened area @ anterior end of primitive streak
- thru it, cells invaginate, forming notochord
- homologous to dorsal lip of blastopore of amphibians

4) Proamnion anterior to avian embryo


- surrounds head
- contains endoderm and ectoderm
- later involved with mesoderm, then with amnion
- amnion is the membrane around the fetus

5) Neural Folds margins of neural plate


- about to fuse @ mid-dorsal region
6) Neural Groove median longitudinal groove
- formed by rolling up neural plate
7) Head Fold folded part of blastoderm
- dark crescentic line (boundary of head)
8) Notochord longitudinal band of cells
- extends from neural folds to Hensens node
9) Foregut 1st part of digestive tract
- w/ definite floor
- endodermal
- dome-shaped
- lies inside the head
10) Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP) opening of foregut
- prominent arched line beneath neural folds
- continuous with lateral walls of foregut
- moves posteriorly as gut elongates
- ultimately becomes part of yolk stalk

11) Mesenchyme of Head loose network of cells


- found between foregut and heads ectoderm
12) Mesoderm
1. Anterior Border of Mesoderm faint line across area pellucida
- @ level of anterior end of notochord
2. Thickened Splanchnic Mesoderm dark lines @ lateral borders of anterior intestinal portal
- formed by delamination of lateral plate mesoderm
- becomes heart, part of circulatory system, etc.
13) Somite division of dorsal mesoderm
- 3 or 4 pairs of somites lateral to neural folds
14) Unsegmented Mesoderm undivided part of mesoderm
- posterior to somites

(TRANSVERSE SECTION thru Pharyngeal Membrane)


1) Head Ectoderm cuboidal cells (cuboidal in origin also); encloses head
2) Neural Folds neural epithelium margins
- have NOT fused @ midline yet
3) Anterior Neuropore - temporary external opening of neurocoel
4) Neural Groove median longitudinal groove
- formed by rolling up neural plate
5) Prechordal Plate mass of chordamesodermal cells
- anterior to notochord
- forms head mesenchyme
6) Notochord small medial cell mass; between foregut and neural plate
7) Foregut dorsoventral flattened tube
- endodermal cells
- beneath neural plate
8) Oral Plate / Oropharyngeal Membrane foregut floor is in contact w/ neural ectoderm of head
- (in lateral devt) breaks open to form mouth
9) Mesenchyme loosely scattered cells
- fill up spaces between foregut and neural plate
10) Proamnion - blastoderm beneath head; ectoderm + endoderm
11) Subcephalic Pocket cavity beneath head as head fold develops
12) Somatopleure membrane (ectoderm + somatic mesoderm)
- forms part of body wall, chorion, and amnion
13) Splanchnopleure splanchnic mesoderm + endoderm
- forms into part of body wall, yolk sac, and allantois
14) Coelom cavity formed when somatic mesoderm and mesoderm separates
15) Subgeminal Cavity space beneath hypoblast, w/in area pellucida
- gives rise to midgut

(TRANSVERSE SECTION thru Intestinal Portal)

Neural tube formed


@ level of open foregut
Endoderm of foregut is continuous w/ rest of endoderm
Anterior Intestinal Portal (AIP) opening of closed foregut
Prospective Cardiac Mesoderm - thickened splanchnic mesoderm @ sides of AIP

1) Neural Tube formed by thickening & rolling up of neural plate (during neurulation)
- forms into brain and spinal cord of animal
2) Neural Crest - @ edges of neural plate
- lies above neural tube
- form ganglia, pigment cells, part of gill arches, etc. (by migration thru the embryo)
3) Head Fold marked by downward bend of membranes around the head
4) Anterior Intestinal Portal opening of foregut
- moves posteriorly as gut elongates
- ultimately becomes part of yolk stalk
5) Amnio-Cardiac Vesicle (ACV) part of coelom
- gives rise to amnion and heart
Amnion formed by dorsal wall of ACV, composed of somatopleure
Heart formed by thickened splanchnic mesoderm making up proximal wall of SCV

(TRANSVERSE SECTION thru Midgut)


1) Midgut middle part of gut w/ yolky floor (yolk removed due to fixation)
- floorless region of gut posterior to AIP

(TRANSVERSE SECTION thru a Pair of Somites)

Neural folds not yet closed


Somites - from dorsal mesoderm (D)
- located on sides of neural folds and notochord
Intermediate Mesoderm (I) lateral and adjacent to somites
- small region of mesoderm
- becomes kidneys
Lateral Plate Mesoderm (L) lateral to I
- delaminates to form somatic and splanchnic mesodermal layers

1) Somites segmented mesodermal blocks


- @ sides of spinal cord
- arise from dorsal mesoderm
2) Nephrotome / Intermediate Mesoderm / Mesomere / Nephromere
- stalk-like connection between somites and L
- anteriorly forms pronephros
- posteriorly forms mesenchyme w/c develops into mesonephros and metanephros
3) Hypomere part of mesoderm distal to nephrotome
- 2 layers: somatic and splanchnic mesoderm

(TRANSVERSE SECTION thru the Primitive Streak)

Note the ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

1) Primitive Streak longitudinal cleft


- @ surface of amniote blastodisc
- formed by convergence of cells
- gastrulation begins as epiblast migrates into the streak
1. Hensens Node (HN) / Primitive Knot named after Viktor Hensen (1835-1924)
- thickened area @ anterior end of primitive streak
- thru it, cells invaginate, forming notochord
- homologous to dorsal lip of blastopore of amphibians
2. Primitive Pit depression, a bit deeper than primitive groove
- posterior to HN
3. Primitive Groove (PG) central furrow
- Posterior to primitive pit
4. Primitive Ridges thickened margins on each side of PG