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EMBRYO. LAB.

Organogenesis (Part 2 4 MM FROG)


4 MM FROG
(WHOLE MOUNT)

Criteria:
N otochord
T ail
S egmented mesoderm
N eural tube
F in folds
Embryonic Brain Regions:
P rosencephalon
M esencephalon
R hombencephalon

1. Epiphysis slight mid-dorsal evagination of the brain vesicle


- will become the pineal body
2. Olfactory Placodes thickenings on the lateral surface of the heads anterior
3. Olfactory Pits cavities formed due to evagination of olfactory placodes
4. Lens Placodes anterior to olfactory pits
- paired thickening of the heads ectoderm
- evaginates to form lens vesicle, then, eye lens
5. Otic Placodes at the level of rhombencephalon
- forms the otic lens
6. Notochord extends from midbrain to posterior end
7. Somites segments on each side of notochord
8. Stomodeum ectodermal rudiment of mouth
- formed by invagination of antero-ventral ectoderm of head
9. Oropharyngeal Membrane separates stomodeum and endodermal foregut
- ruptures to form the mouth
10. Suckers ectodermal thickenings ventrolateral to the oral region
11. Diverticulum of foregut median posteroventrally directed
- precursor of liver
12. Yolk endodermal; for nutrition
13. Proctodeum ectodermal invagination
- breaks to open into the hindgut as the anus
(!) Heart is mesodermal in origin (specifically beneath the floor of the foregut, anterior to mass of yolk)

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Level of Prosencephalon & Nasal Rudiments)

1) Prosencephalon anterior part of embryonic brain


- cavity: Prosocoel
2) Mesenchyme embryonic connective tissue; from mesoderm and neural crest cells
- may become epithelial / muscular / nervous tissue
3) Head Mesenchyme fills spaces between skin ectoderm (presumptive epidermis) and walls of
prosencephalon
- mesodermal + a bit of neural crest
4) Olfactory Placodes paired pigment invaginations
- located on either sides of prosocoel
5) Epidermis outermost; derived from ectoderm

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Level of Mesencephalon & Optic Cups)

1) Mesencephalon middle region of embryonic brain; w/ thick roof


- cavity: mesocoel
2) Oral Cavity - @ cranial end of digestive tract
- spherical in appearance
3) Oral Plate a.k.a. Pharyngeal plate / Oropharyngeal membrane
- thickened region where the cranial part of the digestive tract comes in contact with the
ectoderm part of the head
4) Stomodeum ectodermal rudiment of the mouth
- formed by invagination of ectoderm @ the anteroventral region of head

5) Hypophysis solid ingrowth / nodular aggregation of cells


- found between oral and brain cavity
- used in 2 different senses:
a. Embryonic it is an invagination of the stomodeum which fuses w/ the infundibulum,
forming the pituitary gland (a.k.a. here as Rathkes pocket)
b. Adult it is the pituitary gland

6) Infundibulum funnel-like depression of prosencephalon


- forms posterior part of pituitary gland
- smaller, ventral component of the diencephalon w/ thin roof and thick sides

7) Mandibular Arch most cranial branchial arch


- forms caudal border of stomodeum and the maxillary process (cranial to stomodeum)

8)
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Adhesive Gland a.k.a. Cement glands / Mucous glands / Oral suckers


paired ectodermal thickenings
@ ventral surface of animal
secrete adhesive mucus (for attachment to floating objects)

9) Optic Vesicle evagination from prosencephalons lateral wall


- 1st indication of eye formation
- its walls give rise to ectodermal parts of eye except the lens and cornea
10) Optic Cup double-walled
- formed by invagination of distal part of optic vesicle
- thicker inner layer
11) Optic Stalk connection of optic cup to the brain

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Level of Rhombencephalon)

1) Rhombencephalon caudal part of embryonic brain


- a.k.a. Hindbrain
- cavity: Rhombocoel
2) Notochord round structure
- mesodermal in origin
- dorsal to the gut, ventral to the hindbrain
- defines anterior/posterior axis
- for skeletal support
3) Pharynx broad region of foregut (at this level)
- its paired evagination results to pharyngeal pouches
4) Otic paired invagination of otic placodes
- laterally located, slightly ventral to the brain
- forms inner ear
- a.k.a. Auditory Vesicle

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Through Embryonic Heart)
HEART
-suspended w/in pericardial coelom/cavity
-suspended by dorsal mesocardium
-located beneath enlarged foregut

Includes the:
Rhombencephalon
Notochord
Somites
Pharynx
1) Pericardium membrane enclosing the heart
- formed by migration of heart mesoderm to the midventral region of the pericardial cavity
2) Endocardium inner layer / endothelial lining of the heart
- from mesenchymal cells of mesoderm of heart
3) Epimyocardium outer layer
- forms muscle of heart

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Rhombencephalon
Notochord
Intestine
Heart region
Pericardial cavity
Heart tube
Endocardium
Myocardium
Fixation artifacts

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Through Liver Diverticulum)
1) Mesomeres paired bulges of tissue
- just below horizontal level of notochord
2) Pronephros a.k.a. Pronephric kidney
- developed by mesomeres
3) Liver Diverticulum rudiment of the liver
- Extremely deep groove @ floor of pharynx

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Through Pronephros)
<!> (In this region) Pharynx narrows into midgut; increased mass of yolk endoderm

1) Spinal Cord cavity that replaces hindbrain


- smaller than hindbrain
- thick lateral sides
2) Pronephros paired structure
- @ lateral side of specimen
- appear as spherical (sometimes, elongated), clustered structures
- initial excretory organ
- functional in larval amphibians and fish
- replaced by mesonephric kidney (adults)
3) Somites - @ either side of spinal cord
- arise from dorsal mesoderm
- differentiates into:
a. Sclerotome located above neural tube and notochord; forms part of axial skeleton
b. Myotome forms muscle
c. Dermatome forms dermis

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Neural tube (spine)


(Somite) Derma & Myotome
(Somite) Sclerotome
Notochord
Ectoderm (epidermal)
Yolk
(probably) Ear vesicle

4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Through Midgut)
<!> Spinal cord tapers off
<!> Diameter of spinal cord = that of notochord
1) Subnotochordal Rod transient structure
- endodermal in origin
- unknown function
- later disappears
- small knot of cells (part of SR) found between notochord and midgut
4 MM FROG
(TRANSVERSE SECTION Through Hindgut)
1) Dorsal Fin flat extension of body wall
- @ dorsal midline
- Degenerates during metamorphosis of tadpole
2) Hindgut form cloaca, colon, small intestine, rectum
3) Proctodeum ectodermal invagination
- meets with endoderm of hindgut
- @ ventral side of trunk at the base
- forms anus
4) Cloacal Membrane delicate strand of tissue between proctodeum and hindgut
- forms posterior opening of digestive tract