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Replication is a set of technologies for copying and distributing data and database objects

from one database to another and then synchronizing between databases to maintain
consistency. Using replication, you can distribute data to different locations and to remote
or mobile users over local and wide area networks, dial-up connections, wireless
connections, and the Internet.
Replication is the process of sharing data between databases in different locations. Using
replication, we can create copies of the database and share the copy with different users
so that they can make changes to their local copy of database and later synchronize the
changes to the source database.

Terminologies before getting started:


Microsoft SQL Server 2000 supports the following types of replication

Publisher is a server that makes the data available for subscription to other servers. In
addition to that, publisher also identifies what data has changed at the subscriber during
the synchronizing process. Publisher contains publication(s).

Subscriber is a server that receives and maintains the published data. Modifications to the
data at subscriber can be propagated back to the publisher.

Distributor is the server that manages the flow of data through the replication system.
Two types of distributors are present, one is remote distributor and the other one local
distributor. Remote distributor is separate from publisher and is configured as distributor
for replication. Local distributor is a server that is configured as publisher and distributor.

Agents are the processes that are responsible for copying and distributing data between
publisher and subscriber. There are different types of agents supporting different types of
replication.

Snapshot Agent is an executable file that prepares snapshot files containing schema and
data of published tables and database objects, stores the files in the snapshot folder, and
records synchronization jobs in the distribution database.

An article can be any database object, like Tables (Column filtered or Row filtered),
Views, Indexed views, Stored Procedures, and User defined functions.

Publication is a collection of articles.

Subscription is a request for copy of data or database objects to be replicated.

Replication Types
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 supports the following types of replication:

Snapshot Replication
Transactional Replication
Merge Replication
Snapshot Replication
Snapshot replication is also known as static replication. Snapshot replication copies and
distributes data and database objects exactly as they appear at the current moment in
time.
Subscribers are updated with complete modified data and not by individual transactions,
and are not continuous in nature.
This type is mostly used when the amount of data to be replicated is small and data/DB
objects are static or does not change frequently.
Transactional Replication
Transactional replication is also known as dynamic replication. In transactional
replication, modifications to the publication at the publisher are propagated to the
subscriber incrementally.
Publisher and the subscriber are always in synchronization and should always be
connected.
This type is mostly used when subscribers always need the latest data for processing.
Merge replication
It allows making autonomous changes to replicated data on the Publisher and on the
Subscriber. With merge replication, SQL Server captures all incremental data changes in
the source and in the target databases, and reconciles conflicts according to rules you
configure or using a custom resolver you create. Merge replication is best used when you
want to support autonomous changes on the replicated data on the Publisher and on the
Subscriber.

Replication agents involved in merge replication are snapshot agent and merge agent.

Implement merge replication if, changes are made constantly at the publisher and
subscribing servers, and must be merged in the end.

By default, the publisher wins all conflicts that it has with subscribers because it has the
highest priority. Conflict resolver can be customized

Before starting the replication process:


assume that we have 2 server:

EGYPT-AEID: is the publisher server ( contains HRatPublisher )


SPS: is the subscriber server ( contains HRatSubscriber ) use SQL server Authentication
mode for login
on the publisher database i created table: Employees with fields of (ID, Name, Salary) to
replicate its data to the subscriber server.

i will use publisher as subscriber also

Note: Check that SQL Server Agent is running on the publisher and the subscriber
Steps:
Open SQL Server Management Studio and login with SQL Server Authentication to
configure Publishing, Subscribers, and Distribution

a- Configure the appropriate server as publisher or distributor.

b- Enable the appropriate database for merge replication

2- Create new local publication from DB-Server --> Replication --> Local Publications
--> Right Click --> New Pub
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then choose the database that contains the data or objects you want to replicate

then choose the replication type and then specify the SQL server versions that will be
used by subscribers to that publication like SQL Server 2005, SQL mobile Edition, SQL
for Win CE ....etc

after that manage the replication articles, data and db objects, by choosing objects to be
replicated

Note: you can manage the replication properties for selected objects
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