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Trigonometric Equations
1.

Definition : - An equation consisting of the trigonometric functions of a variable angle R is


called a trigonometric equation.

2.

sin = 0 = n, where n z.

3.

cos = 0 = ( 2 n + 1)

4.

tan = 0 = n where n is any integer.

5.

The solution of sin = k (|k|1) lying between

, where n z.
2

and is called the principle solution of the


2
2

equation.
6.

The solution of cos = k (|k|1) lying between 0 and is called the principal solution of the equation.

7.

That solution of tan = k, lying between

8.

The general value of satisfying cos = k (|k| 1) is given by = 2n where nZ.

9.

The general value of satisfying sin = k (|k| 1) is given by = n + (-1)n where nZ.

10.

The general value of satisfying tan = k is given by = n + where n Z. (in each of the above
cases, is the principal solution).

11.

If sin = k, tan = k are given equations, then the general value of is given by
is that solution lying between 0 and 2.

12.

The equation a cos + b sin = c will have no solution or will be inconsistent if |c| > a 2 + b 2

13.

cos n = (-1)n , sin n = 0.

14.

If sin2 = sin2 or cos2 = cos2 or tan2 = tan2, then = n; nZ.

and is called the principal solution of the equation.


2
2

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= 2n + where

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PROBLEMS
Very Short answer Questions
1.

Solve the following equations


5 +1
[0, 2 ]
4

(i) cos 2 =

(ii) tan 2 = 1 [ , ]
(iii) sin 3 =
(iv) cos 2 =

3
[ . ]
2

3
( 0, )
4

Solution :

(i)

5 +1
9 11 19
,
,
2 = ,
4
5 5
5
5

cos 2 =

[ 0, 2 ] [ 0, 2 ] 2 [ 0, 4 ]
=
(ii)

,
,
,
10 10 10 10
tan 2 = 1 tan = 1

(iv)

3
5 4 2 7 8
3 =
,
,
,
,
2
3
3
3
3 3
5 4 2 7 8
=
,
, ,
,
,
9
9 9 9 9 9
sin 3 =

cos 2 =

2.

= / 4 : 3 / 4

3 3
,
, ,
4
4 4 4

(iii)

9 11 19

3
3
cos =
4
2

,
6 6
Find the general solution of the following equation
1
(i) 2sin 2 = 3cos (ii) sin 2 cos =
4
2
2
(iii) 5cos + 7sin = 6
(iv) 3sin 4 x + cos 4 x = 1

Solution :

(i)

2 sin 2 = 3cos 2 1 cos 2 = 3cos 2 cos 2 + 3cos 2 = 0

2 cos 2 + 4 cos cos 2 = 0 ( 2 cos 1) ( cos + 2 ) = 0


1
cos = 2 not possible [ cos 1]
2
= 2n / 3

cos =

(ii)

sin 2 cos =

1
4sin 2 4 cos = 1
4

4 1 cos 2 4 cos = 1 4 cos 2 + 4 cos 3 = 0


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4 cos + 6 cos 2 cos 3 = 0 ( 2 cos 1) ( 2 cos + 3) = 0


2

1
3
cos = not possible
2
2
= 2n / 3
cos =

(iii)

5cos 2 + 7sin 2 = 6 5cos2 + 7 7 cos 2 = 6


2cos2 = 1 cos2 =
cos 2 = cos 2

(iv)

1
2

= n / 4

3sin 4 x + cos 4 x = 1

3 sin x

) + ( cos x )
2

=1

1 cos 2 x
1 + cos 2 x
3
+

=1
2
2

3 1 + cos 2 2 x 2 cos 2 x + 1 + cos 2 2 x+ 2 cos 2 x = 4

3 + 3 cos 2 2 x 6cos 2 x + 1 + cos 2 2 x + 2cos 2 x = 4


4cos 2 2 x 6cos 2 x + 1 + cos 2 2 x + 2cos 2 x = 4
4 cos 2 2 x 4 cos 2 x = 0 4 cos 2 x {cos 2 x 1} = 0
cos 2 x = 0 : cos 2 x = 1

1 2sin 2 x = 0

1 2sin 2 x = 1

1
sin 2 x = 0
2
x = n / 4 x = n
n z

sin 2 x =

3.

Find the general solution of the following equations

(i)

sin =

3
2

cos =

1
2

The principal value of satisfying the two given equation = =


General solution = 2n + 2 / 3
(ii)

tan x =

sec x =

n z

3
3
Principal value of x = / 6 / 6

General solution of x = 2n
(iii)

cos ec = 2 cot = 3

Principal value of = / 6

General solution = 2n / 6

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2
= 2 / 3
3

4. If x is acute and sin ( x + 10


Sol.

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) = cos ( 3x 68 ) then find x


Given sin ( x + 10 ) = cos ( 3 x 68 )
sin( x + 10) = sin ( 90 + 3x 68)
= sin ( 22 + 3x )
x + 10 = n + ( 1) ( 22 + 3x )
0

If n is even, then
x + 10 = n + ( 220 + 3 x )
n -12
which is not acute
2
If n is odd, then
x=

x + 10 = ( 2k + 1) ( 220 + 3x ) , n = 2k + 1
x = ( 2k + 1)

4
If K=0, then x=370.

-80

5.

If Sin (2700 X) = COS 2920 then find x in (0, 3600)

Sol.

Sin (2700 X) = COS 292


- cos x = cos180+112)
- cos x = - cos 112
cos x = cos 112
x = 1120or x = 360-112 =2480

6.

Sol.

If x <900 and sin( x+280) = cos (3x 780), then find x.

sin ( x + 280 ) = cos ( 3x 780 )

= sin ( 900 -3x + 78 ) = sin (1680 3 x )

x + 28 = 168 3x + 2n
or x + 28 = 1800 (168 3x ) + 2n
4 x = 140 + 2 n or 2x = 16-2n

or 8- n
2
x= 350 or 80
x = 35 + n

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Short Answer Questions


1.

Solve the following equations

(iii) 1 + sin 2 x = ( sin 3 x cos 3 x )

(iv) 2sin 2 x+ sin 2 2 x = 2

Solution :
6 tan 2 x = 4cos2 x 1
(i)

6 sin 2 x = cos 2 x 4 cos 2 x 1 6 1 cos 2 x = 4 cos 4 x cos 2 x

4cos4 x + 5cos2 x 6 = 0 4cos4 x + 8cos2 x 3cos2 x 6 = 0

} {

4 cos 2 x cos 2 x + 2 3 cos 2 x + 2 = 0

cos 2 x = cos 2
4
6
x = n / 6

cos 2 x =

Solution :
(ii)
4 cos 2 + 3 2 3 cos 2 cos = 0
2 cos {2 cos 1} 3 {2 cos 1} = 0

{2 cos

1
3
: cos =
2
2
n z

1} 2 cos 3 = 0 cos =

= 2n / 3 or = 2n / 6
Solution :

(iii)

1 + sin 2 x = ( sin 3 x cos x ) 1 + sin 2 x = sin 2 3 x + cos 2 3 x sin 6 x


2

1 + sin 2 x= 1 sin 6 x sin 6 x + sin 2 x = 0


6x + 2x
6x 2x
2 sin
cos

= 0 sin 4 x . cos 2 x = 0
2
2

sin 4 x = 0 or cos 2 x = 0

or 2 x = ( 2n + 1) / 2

4 x = n

x = ( 2n + 1) / 4

x = n / 4

n z

Solution :
2sin 2 x + sin 2 2 x = 2
(iv)

2sin 2 x + 4sin 2 x cos 2 x 2 = 0 4sin 2 x cos 2 x 2cos 2 x = 0

cos 2 x = 0

sin 2 x =

2 co x 2 x 2sin 2 x 1 = 0

(ii) 4cos2 + 3 = 2 3 + 1 cos

(i) 6 tan 2 x 2cos 2 x = cos 2 x

1
2

x = ( 2n + 1) , x = n , n z
2
4

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2.

If x + y = 2 / 3 and sin x + sin y =

3
find x and y
2

Solution:
x + y = 2 / 3 2 / 3 x
3
2

sin x + sin
x = 3/ 2
2
3

2
2
sin x + sin
cos x cos
sin x = 3 / 2
3
3
sin x + sin y =

sin x +

3
1
3
cos x + sin x =
2
2
2

3
3
3
cos x + sin x =
2
2
2

1
3
3
cos x +
sin x =
2
2
2
cos ( x / 3 ) =

x / 3 = 2n

3
2

6
x = 2n + / 2 : x = 2n + / 6
x + y = 2 / 3
2
2n / 2
or y = 2 / 3 2n / 6
3
y = / 6 2n or y = / 2 2n

y=

3.

Solving the following and write the general solutions

(ii) sin 3 sin = 4cos2 2

(i) sin 7 + sin 4 + sin = 0

(iv) sin 4 x sin 2 x = 2


(iii) sin x + 3 cos x = 2
Solution :
(i)
sin 7 + sin + sin 4 = 0 2sin 4 . cos 3 + sin 4 = 0
sin 4 {2 cos 3 + 1} = 0 sin 4 = 0
4 = n

cos 3 =

1
2

3 = 2n 2 / 3

n
4

2n 2

n z
3
9

Solution :
sin 3 sin = 4cos2 2
(ii)

2 cos 2 . sin 2 2 cos 2 1 = 0

2 cos 2 sin 2 cos 2 = 0 2 cos 2 {sin 1} = 0


cos 2 = 0

2 = ( 2n + 1) / 2

sin = 1

= n + ( 1) / 2
n

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= ( 2n + 1) / 4

= n + ( 1) / 2 n z
n

Solution :

(iii)

1
3
1
sin x +
cos x =
2
2
2

sin x + 3 cos x = 2

{by dividing both sides with

a 2 + b 2 i.e., 12 +

( 3)

i.e., 2}

sin x sin / 6 + cos x cos / 6 = cos / 4

cos ( x / 6 ) = cos / 4

x / 6 = 2n / 4 x = 2n +

5
12

or x : 2n /12

Solution :

(iv)

1
1

=2
cos 4 x cos 2 x
cos 2 x cos 4 x = 2 cos 4 x cos 2 x

sec 4 x sec 2x = 2

cos 2 x cos 4 x = cos 6 x + cos 2 x

cos 6 x + cos 4 x = 0 2 cos 5 x . x cos x = 0

cos 5 x = 0 or cos x = 0

5 x = ( 2n + 1) / 2
x = ( 2n + 1)
(or) x =
4.

x = ( 2n + 1) / 2
: x = ( 2n + 1)

10

n z

2n
/10 x = 2n / 2
5

Solve the following equations


(i) tan + sec = 3 0 2

(ii) cos 3 x + cos 2 x = sin


(iii) cot 2 x

3x
x
+ sin
2
2

3+ 1 cot x + 3= 0 ( 0 < x < / 2 )


0 < x < 2

(iv) sec x cos 5 x + 1 = 0


Solution:

(i)

tan + sec = 3

1 + sin
= 3 cos sin = 1
cos

( 3 ) + ( 1)
2

Dividing both sides with

i.e., with 2

3
1
1
1
cos sin = cos cos / 6 sin sin / 6 =
2
2
2
2

cos ( + / 6) = cos / 3

+ / 6 = 2n
+ / 6 = 2n

(or ) + / 6 = 2n / 3
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n z

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= 2n + / 6
0 2

or = 2n / 2

n z

= / 6 , 3 / 2
But for = 3 / 2 tan , sec are not defined
= /6

Solution :

(ii)

3x
x
+ sin
2
2
5x
x
x
2cos . cos = 2sin x . cos
2
2
2
5x
x

2 cos cos
sin x = 0
2
2

x
5x
2 cos = 0 cos
= sin x
2
2
x
5x

= cos x
cos = 0 cos
2
2
2

x
5x
= x =
= 2n ( / 2 x )
2 2
2
5x
5x
= 2n + / 2 x (or)
= 2n / 2 + x

2
2
3x
= 2n / 2
7 x / 2 = 2n + / 2 (or)
2
2
2
x = ( 2n + / 2 ) or x = {2n / 2}
7
3
cos 3 x + cos 2 x = sin

n = 0 x = /7,n = 0: x =

n =1
n=2
n=3

5
7
x = 9 / 7
x = 13 / 7

does not in the given domain.

n =1 x =

x=

Solution :
(iii)
cot 2 x 3 cot x cot x + 3 = 0

( cot x 3 ) ( cot x 1) = 0
tan x =

or tan x = 1
3
x = / 6 or x = / 4

Solution :
(iv)
sec x cos 5 x+ 1 = 0 0 < x < 2

cos 5 x
+1= 0
cos x

cos 5 x + cos x
=0
cos x
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cos 5 x + cos x = 0
cos 3 x = 0

2 cos 3 x cos 2 x = 0

cos 2 x= 0

= / 6, / 4, 3 / 4, 5 / 6, 5 / 4, 7 / 6, 11 / 6, 7 / 4

5.

If tan ( cos ) = cot ( sin ) then prove that cos ( / 4 ) =

Solution:

tan ( cos ) = tan sin cos = n + / 2 sin


2

{cos + sin } = n +
2

1
2

cos +

1
2

cos ( / 4 ) =

2n + 1

sin =

2 2

2n + 1
2
1

For n = 0 cos ( / 4 ) =

2
3

for n = 1 cos ( / 4 ) =

>1

Not possible
for n = 2, 3 cos ( / 4 )
Has no value
For n = -1 cos ( / 4 ) =

for n = -2, -3, -4,..

cos ( / 4 ) < 1 Which is not possible


cos ( / 4 ) =

6.

1
2

Find the range of if cos + sin is positive

Solution: cos + sin > 0

1
2

cos +

1
2

sin > 0

sin ( + / 4 ) > 0
0 < + /4 <

< < 3

2n

< < 2n + 3

4
4

= 2n , 2n + 3 , n z
4
4

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1
2 2

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Long Answer Questions

1.

Solve sin x + sin 2 x + sin 3 x = cos x + cos 2 x + cos 3x

Solution:
sin x + sin 3 x + sin 2 x = cos x + cos 3 x + cos 2 x
2sin 2 x .cos x + sin 2 x = 2 cos 2 x. cos x+ cos 2 x

2 sin 2 x {2 cos x + 1} 2 cos 2 x ( 2 cos x + 1) = 0


2 cos x + 1 = 0 sin 2 x = cos 2 x

cos x =

1
2

tan 2 x =1

x = 2n 2 / 3

12.

x=

n
+ /8 n z
2

If sin 3x + sin x + 2 cos x = sin 2 x + 2cos2 x find the general solution

Solution:
sin 3x + sin x + 2cos = sin 2 x + 2cos2 x

( 2sin 2 x + 2 cos x ) = 2sin cos x + 2 cos 2 x


2sin 2 x cos x 2sin x cos x + 2cos x 2 cos 2 x = 0
2 cos x {sin 2 x sin x + 1 cos x} = 0
3x
x
x
. sin + 2sin 2 = 0
2
2
2
x
x
3x
+ sin = 0
cos x = 0 2 sin cos
2
2
2
x
3x
x
sin = 0
cos
= sin
2
2
2
x
3x
n = ( 2n + 1) / 2
= n
cos = cos ( / 2 + x / 2 )
2
2
3x
x = 2n
= 2n ( / 2 + x / 2 )
2
3x x
3x x

= 2n + / 2 :
+ = 2n
2 2
2 2
2
x = ( 2n + 1) / 2 ; x = 2n ; x = 2n + / 2 ; x = n / 4 n z
cos x = 0

3.

2 cos

If , are solutions of the equation a cos + b sin = c where a, b, c R and if

a 2 + b2 > 0 cos cos and sin sin then show that


(i) sin + sin =

2bc
a + b2

(iii) cos cos =

c2 b2
c2 a2
(iv)_
sin

sin

=
a 2 + b2
a 2 + b2

(ii) cos + cos =

2 ac
a + b2
2

Solution:
a cos + b sin = c ( b sin )

= ( c a cos )

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b 1 cos = c + a cos 2ac cos


2

(a

+ b 2 cos 2 2ac cos = c 2 b 2 = 0

Since , are solutions cos , cos are roots of above equation


2 ac
sum of roots = cos + cos = 2
Hence (ii) is proved
a + b2
Product of roots = cos cos =

c 2 b2
(iii) is proved
a 2 + b2

a cos = c b sin ( a cos ) = ( c b sin )


2

a 2 1 sin 2 = c 2 + b 2 sin 2 2bc sin

(a

+ b 2 sin 2 2bc sin + c 2 a 2 = 0

Since , are solution sin , sin are roots


sin + sin =

4.

c2 a2
2bc
sin
sin

=
a 2 + b2
a 2 + b2

Find the common roots of the equation cos 2 x + sin 2 x = cot x and 2cos 2 + cos 2 2 x = 1

Solution:
2cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x 1 = 0 2cos 2 x 1 + cos 2 2 x = 0

cos 2 x + cos 2 2 x = 0 cos 2 x {cos 2 x + 1} = 0


cos 2 x = 0 ; cos 2 x = 1

cos x
sin x
cos 2 x.sin x + sin 2 x.sin x = cos x
cos 2 x + sin 2 x =

2 cos 2 x sin x + 2 sin 2 x sin x = 2 cos x


sin 3 x sin x + cos cos 3 x = 2 cos x
sin 3 x cos 3 x = cos x + sin x

Squaring on both sides


1 sin 6 x = 1 + sin 2 x
sin 2 x + sin 6 x = 0

2sin 4 x .cos 2 x = 0 cos 2 x = 0

sin 4 x = 0

Common solution is cos 2 x = 0 2 x = (2n + 1) / 2


5.

Solve the equation

6 cos x + 7 sin 2 x + cos x = 0

Solution:
6 cos x + 7 sin 2 x = cos x

Squaring on both sides


6 cos x + 7sin 2 x = cos2 x
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6 cos x + 7 7 cos x = cos x


2

8cos 2 x + cos x 13 = 0
cos x =

1 1 + 104

16
sin x cos x > 1

This is not possible

(or )

cos x < 1 in this cos x

Hence equation has no solution


6.

If | tan x | = tan x +

1
and x [ 0, 2 ] find the values of x
cos x

Solution:
cos (1) suppose tan x > 0

1
1

= 0 not possible
cos x
cos x
Case (ii) Suppose tan x < 0

tan x = tan x +

tan x = tan x +

1
1
2 tan x =
cos x
cos x
2sin x = 1 sin x =

1
2

x Lies in (iii) or (iv) quadrant

But tan x < 0


x= / 6 (or ) 11 / 6

But x [ 0, 2 ]
x = 11 / 6

2.
Ans:

3.

Solve cos 3 = sin 2


= ( 4 n + 1) /10
n z
( or ) = ( 4 n 1) /10

Solve 7sin 2 + 3cos 2 = 4

Ans: = n / 6 n z
4.

Solve 2 cos 2 3 sin + 1 = 0

Ans: = n + ( 1) / 3 n z
n

5.

Find all values of x in ( , ) satisfying the equation

81 + cos x + cos2 x + . = 34
Ans: / 3 or / 3

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6.

Solve tan + 3cot = 5sec

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Ans: = n + ( 1) / 6
n

7.

Solve 1 + sin 2 = 3sin cos

Ans: = n + / 4 n z
8.

Solve

2 ( sin x + cos x ) = 3

5
or
Ans:
12
x = 2n + /12
x = 2n +

9.

If 1 , 2 are solutions of the equation a cos 2 + b sin 2 = c then find the value of
(i) tan 1 + tan 2

10.

Solve 4sin x sin 2 x sin 4 x = sin 3 x

Ans: x =

11.
Ans:
12.

(ii) tan 1 tan 2

3
9

If 0 < < then solve cos cos 2 cos 3 =

1
4

3 5 2 7
, ,
,
,
,
8 3 8 8 3 8

Solve sin 2 x cos 2 x = sin x cos x

Ans: x = {2n / n z} u

{2n

/ 6 / n z}

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