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EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

AIRWORTHINESS NOTICE

VERSION
:
DATE OF IMPLEMENTATION :
OFFICE OF PRIME INTEREST :

09/04/2015

3.0
09-04-2015
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTORATE

AWNOT-078-AWEG-3.0

EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

NAME

DESIGNATION

Engr. ARSALAN
SHAFIQ

Deputy Director Airworthiness


(66/147)

Engr. M. KAMRAN
KHAN TAREEN

Deputy Director Airworthiness


(66/147)

REVIEWED BY

Engr. AHMAD
MASOOD MAHFOOZ

Joint Director Airworthiness


(WG Member SARI
Part 66/147)

VERIFIED BY

Engr. SANAULLAH
MALIK

Add. Director Airworthiness


(Regulations)

APPROVED BY

Engr. SYED SHAUKAT


HAMEED

Director Airworthiness

TYPE OF
DOCUMENT

AIRWORTHINESS NOTICE (AWNOT)

STATUS OF
DOCUMENT

CONTROLLED

SIGNATURE

PREPARED BY

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AWNOT-078-AWEG-3.0

EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

A.

AUTHORITY:

A1.
This Airworthiness Notice is issued under the authority vested in DG CAA vide Rule No. 4 of Civil
Aviation Rules, 1994 (CARs,1994).

B.

PURPOSE:

B1.
The purpose of this Airworthiness Notice is to explain the procedure and requirements of basic
and type B1 and B2 knowledge examinations conducted by ANO-147 approved training organizations.

C.

SCOPE:

C1.
This Airworthiness Notice is applicable to all ANO-147 approved training organizations intend to
conduct basic knowledge examinations and type B1/B2 course examinations.

D.

DESCRIPTION:

D1.
DEFINITIONS: The following terms when used in this AWNOT have the meanings, assigned to
them respectively. However, any term used in this AWNOT but not defined herein shall have the same
meaning as given in the Civil Aviation Ordinance 1960, Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority Ordinance 1982,
Civil Aviation Rules,1994 (CARs,1994) and/ or relevant ICAO Annexes, as the case may be, accordingly.
D1.1.

Aircraft means any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of
the air other than reactions of the air against the earth's surface;

D1.2.

Certifying staff means personnel responsible for the release of an aircraft or a component
after maintenance;

D1.3.

Aircraft Maintenance Engineer License (AML) shall have the same legal meaning as defined
for Aircraft Maintenance License in relevant SARI/EASA documents.

D2.

BACKGROUND:

D2.1.

Refer Para ANO.066.A.25 which states that, An applicant for an Aircraft Maintenance
Engineer license or the addition of a category or subcategory to such an Aircraft Maintenance
Engineer license shall demonstrate, by examination, a level of knowledge in the appropriate
subject modules in accordance with Appendix I to ANO-066. Moreover, the basic knowledge
examinations shall be conducted by a training organization appropriately approved under
ANO-147 or EASA Part-147.

D2.2.

Also Refer Para ANO.066.A.45 sub-para f, which states that, Completion of approved
aircraft type training, as required by paragraphs (b) to (e) of ANO.066.A.45, shall be
demonstrated by an examination. The examination shall comply with Appendix III to ANO066. The examinations in respect of category B1 or B2 or C aircraft type ratings shall be
conducted by training organizations appropriately approved under ANO-147, or the training
organisation conducting the approved training course.

D2.3.

Through this notice, PCAA has explained the procedure and requirements for basic and type
B1 and B2 knowledge examinations conducted by ANO-147 approved training organizations

D3.

PAPERLESS EXAMINATIONS:

D3.1.

All basic and type examinations must be conducted Paperless through a customized
software running in main server with a backup server to be placed at different location,
preferably in different building, from that of main server. However, in all scenario, the overall
responsibility for the secrecy and security of both servers and examination Question
Database (QDB) shall lie with Examination Manager.

D3.2.

Despite of paperless examination, Examination Manager must ensure to secure hardcopies of


complete examination process including question paper, trainees answer sheets, question
paper analysis etc, for further review by PCAA auditors at any time.

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EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

D4.

COMMON STANDARDS FOR BASIC AND TYPE TRAINING EXAMINATIONS:

D4.1.

All examination MCQ papers shall be made by "Computer Random Selection (CRS)" through
a customized software. All approved examination unit shall develop a "Question Database
(QDB)" for this purpose, which generate identical paper for all trainees appearing at one time
for the same examination.

D4.2.

The Question Bank for each course should be shown to concerned Airworthiness Officer upon
request. The question bank must be updated/revised on regular basis and record of such
revision must be maintained.

D4.3.

Examination Manager shall nominate Invigilators who shall be present during all examinations
to ensure the integrity of the examination. Presence of concerned module/course instructor
shall not be allowed in the examination hall during examinations in any case.

D4.4.

Bags, coats, calculators, books, charts, mobile phones, ipads, and any other digital devices
shall not be allowed in examination hall.

D4.5.

Photographic proof of identity must be placed on the desk and shall be checked during every
exam. The photographic ID may be a passport, company employment card, CNIC,
computerized driving license, or ASF airport entry pass.

D4.6.

Candidates will not be permitted to bring their own pen or pencil and they will not be allowed
to have any items on their examination desk other than those provided by the examination
staff.

D4.7.

Candidates appearing in examination shall be separated from each other with the minimum
spacing of 1.5m on right/left and 1m on front/back, so that they cannot read each other's
examination papers and they will not speak to any person other than the invigilator or
examiner.

D4.8.

Candidates who are proven to be cheating shall be banned from taking any further
examination of any module (or incase of type examination for the same phase) within 12
months of the date of the examination in which they were found cheating.

D4.9.

No basic examination can be conducted without prior intimation to local Airworthiness field
office and HQ Airworthiness at least 05 working days before the date of examination

D4.10. All examination results shall be announced within 24 hours of its conduct and a copy of result
shall be submit to local Airworthiness field office and Airworthiness Dte., may be, through an
email.
D4.11. A failed basic module will not be retaken for at least 90 days following the date of the failed
module examination, except in the case of an ANO-147 organization, which conducts a
course of retraining tailored to the failed subjects in the particular module when the failed
module may be retaken after 30 days.
D4.12. The maximum number of consecutive attempts for each basic module is three. Further sets of
three attempts are allowed with a 1 year waiting period between sets.
D4.13. The maximum number of consecutive attempts for each failed phase of type training course is
three. Further sets of three attempts are allowed with a 1 year waiting period between sets. A
waiting period of 30 days is required after the first failed attempt within one set, and a waiting
period of 60 days is required after the second failed attempt.
D4.14. An absent module or phase of type training course, will not be retaken for at least 30 days,
only in case of prior intimation to examination manager with some valid and authentic reasons
(such as death of blood relative, medical emergency, etc) and upto the satisfaction of quality
manager. In all other cases, the absent module or phase of type training course will be termed
as failed.
D4.15. The examination pass mark is 75%.
D4.16. The minimum attendance to sit in any PCAA approved course examination shall be at least
80% of the relevant tuition hours. This minimum percentage is also applicable on the trainees
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EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

who are undergoing through ANO-147 approved basic courses and appearing in modular
examinations as part of their approved basic course.
D4.17. The minimum participation time for the trainee to meet the objectives of the course should not
be less than 90% of the tuition hours of the theoretical training course. Additional training may
be provided by the training organisation in order to meet the minimum participation time. If the
minimum participation defined for the course is not met, a certificate of recognition shall not
be issued.
D5.

RELIABILITY OF QUESTION PAPER

D5.1.

In order to ensure the reliability and authenticity of all new questions, prepared by the
knowledge instructors, these questions shall be carefully vetted and reviewed by relevant
qualified knowledge examiners against ANO-066 knowledge levels and approved syllabus
requirement. Only then, these questions should be entered in the question database.

D5.2.

Examination Manager shall keep the record for all such entries alongwith the name of
knowledge instructor and knowledge examiner, for further review of PCAA.

D5.3.

After each examination, Question Paper Analysis (QPA) shall be carried out through
examination software to assess the validity of questions. The questions which are answered
incorrectly by more than 50% of candidates shall be further reviewed by a committee to find
any inconsistency with ANO-066 syllabus or the requirements given in this notice.

D5.4.

In case the question/s is proved to be invalid, that question shall be modified or removed from
QDB immediately. The review committee shall recommend suitable action against concerned
knowledge examiner who validates that question/s for entering into QDB.

D5.5.

In case if more than 25% questions of any examination are proved to be invalid, the complete
examination process will be considered as invalid. A written report for this effect shall be
submitted to Director Airworthiness office within 48 hours for further necessary action.

D6.

TYPE TRAINING EXAMINATION STANDARD: All examination must comply with the following:

D6.1.

Format of the examination is of the multiple-choice type. Each multiple-choice question must
have three alternative answers of which only one must be the correct answer. The time for
answering is based upon a nominal average of 120 seconds per level 3 question and 75
seconds per level 1 or 2 question.

D6.2.

The examination must be of the closed book type. No reference material is permitted. An
exception will be made for the case of examining a B1 or B2 candidate's ability to interpret
technical documents.

D6.3.

The number of questions must be at least one question per hour of instruction. PCAA will
assess number and level of questions on a sampling basis when approving the course.

D6.4.

Penalty marking is not to be used to determine whether a candidate has passed.

D6.5.

Phase examinations cannot be used as part of the final examination unless they contain the
correct number and level of questions required upto the satisfaction of PCAA.

D6.6.

If a trainee fails in any four (04) consecutive phases of type training course, then his/her
training will be ceased immediately and the trainee will have to re-attend the complete type
training course again.

D7.

MCQs GENERATION:

D7.1.

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The following principles should be observed when developing multiple choice questions:
D7.1.1.

The examination should measure clearly formulated goals. Therefore, the field and
depth of knowledge to be measured by each question must be fully identified.

D7.1.2.

Questions that require specialized knowledge of specific aircraft type, should not be
asked in a basic license examination.

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EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

D7.1.3.

The use of abbreviations and acronyms should be generally avoided. However


where needed only internationally recognized abbreviations and acronyms should
be used. In case of doubt use the full form, e.g. angle of attack =12 degrees instead
of a=12

D7.1.4. Questions and answers should be formulated as simply as possible: the


examination is not a test of language. Complex sentences, unusual grammar
and double negatives should be avoided.
D7.1.5.

A question should comprise one complete positive proposition. No more than 3


different statements should appear among the suggested responses otherwise the
candidate may be able to deduce the correct answer by eliminating the unlikely
combinations of statements.

D7.1.6.

Questions should have only one true answer.

D7.1.7.

The correct answer should be absolutely correct and complete or, without doubt, the
most preferable. Responses that are so essentially similar that the choice is a matter
of opinion rather than a matter of fact should be avoided. The main interest in MCQs
is that they can be quickly performed and this is not achieved if doubt exists about
the correct answer.

D7.1.8.

The incorrect alternatives must seem equally plausible to anyone ignorant of the
subject. All of the alternatives should be clearly related to the question and of similar
vocabulary, grammatical construction and length. In numerical questions, the
incorrect answers should correspond to procedural errors such as corrections
applied in the wrong sense of incorrect unit conversions: they must not be mere
random numbers.

D7.1.9.

Calculators are not allowed during examination. Therefore, all calculations should be
feasible without a calculator. Where a question involves calculations not feasible
without a calculator, such as 10, then the question should specify the approximate
value of 10.

D7.1.10. All basic examination questions must be referred to ANO-066 Appendix I


examination syllabus.
D8.

ESSAY QUESTION GENERATION:

D8.1.

The purpose of the essay is to allow PCAA to determine if candidates can express
themselves in a clear and concise manner in the form of a written response, in a technical
report format using the technical language of the aviation industry. The essay
examination also allows to access, in part, the technical knowledge retained by the
individual and with a practical application relevant to a maintenance scenario.

D8.2.

Each essay question requires the preparation of a written answer on A4 size page/s. The
purpose of the essay is to allow the examiner to determine if candidates can express
themselves in a clear and concise manner in the form of a written response, in a technical
report format using the technical language of the aviation industry. The essay examination
also allows assessing, in part, the technical knowledge retained by the individual and with a
practical application relevant to a maintenance scenario.

D8.3.

Each essay question will have a model answer drafted for it, which will also include any
known alternative answers that may be relevant for other subdivisions.

D8.4.

The pass mark for each essay question is 75% in that the candidates answer must contain
75% of the required key points addressed by the question and no significant error related to
any required key point.

D8.5.

New essay questions shall be raised at least every six months (06) and used questions
withdrawn or rested from use. A record of the questions used shall be retained in the records
for reference.

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D8.6.

Questions should be written so as to be broad enough to be answered by candidates for all


license category or sub-categories (Cat A, B1 & B2) and comply with the following general
guidelines.
D8.6.1. The question topic selected should be generic, applicable to mechanical as well
as avionics license categories and have a common technical difficulty level as
indicated in ANO-066, Appendix 1.
D8.6.2. Cover technology applicable to most areas of aircraft maintenance.
D8.6.3. Reflects common working practices.
D8.6.4. It is not type or manufacturer specific and avoids subjects which are rarely found
in practice.
D8.6.5. When drafting a question there is a need to ensure consideration is given to the
limited practical experience that most candidates will have.

D8.7.

In order that the questions and the marking procedures are as consistent as possible, each
question and model answer, with the required key areas, details of which is mentioned below,
should be reviewed independently by the examination manager and at least one examiner.

D8.8.

When raising questions the following should be considered:


D8.8.1. A complete A4 side is provided for each question and answer, if required the
answer can be extended to reverse side of the page.
D8.8.2. The question should not be ambiguous but should seek a broad reply rather
than be limited in scope for answer.
D8.8.3. The question should lend itself to be written in a technical report style, in a
logical sequence (beginning, middle and end), containing the applicable and
relevant technical words needed in the answer.
D8.8.4. Do not ask for drawings/sketches to support the essay.
D8.8.5. The question must be relevant to the category and level of difficulty listed in the
syllabus, e.g. a description of a typical general aviation system may not be
acceptable for a typical commercial aeroplane.
D8.8.6. Subject to obvious constraints in relation to the topic being addressed the
question should have a strong bias towards the practical maintenance of a
system/component and the answer should show an understanding of normal
and deteriorated conditions of an aircraft and its systems.
D8.8.7. Variations on alternative possible answers which have not been thought of may
have to be taken into account to aid the examiner when marking. If considered
relevant, the model answer should be amended to include these new points.

D8.9.

Because of the difficulty in marking an essay answer using key points only, there is a need for
the way in which the report was written to be assessed and taken into consideration.

D8.10. The total points for each question will add-up to 100 and will need to reflect both the
combination of the technical (key point) element and the report style element.
D8.11. Each key point will be graded upon its importance and have point weighting allocated to it.
The total weight will represent 60% of the mark.
D8.12. Key points are the important elements that may be knowledge or experience-based and will
include other maintenance orientated factors such as relevant safety precautions or legislative
practices if applicable. Excessive reference to the need for Maintenance Manual referral or
safety checks may be considered wasteful.
D8.13. The question answer will be analyzed for the clarity and manner in which the essay report is
presented and have a weighting allocated to it, which will represent 40% of the mark.

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D8.14. The answer should show the candidates ability to express himself in technical language. This
includes readability of the language, basic grammar and use of terminology.
D8.15. The report starts in the beginning and has a logical process to reach a conclusion.
D8.16. Supporting diagrams should not be encouraged but if used should supplement the answer
and not replace the need for a broad text answer.
D8.17. The report should not be indexed, itemized or listed.
D8.18. Within reason, the candidate should not be penalized for incorrect spelling.
D8.19. A zero mark should only be given in exceptional circumstances. Even if the student
misunderstands the question and gives an answer to a different question, a sympathetic mark
even if only for the report style should be given, this could up to the maximum percentage
allowed.
D8.20. The two allocated marks should be added together and written into the answer paper.
D8.21. If a question answer resulting in a borderline failure is principally due to written report errors,
the paper should be discussed and the mark agreed if possible with another examiner.
D9.

FACILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR ANO-147 TRAINING ORGANIZATIONS:

D9.1.

Following are the minimum facility requirements that must be available in the examination unit
to be able to conduct ANO-147 approved knowledge examination:
D9.1.1.

For basic knowledge examinations, the organization must be approved to conduct


relevant basic B1 or B2 course.

D9.1.2.

Suitable air-conditioned examination hall with proper lighting and seating


arrangement, meeting the criteria of Para D4.7, must be available.

D9.1.3.

Facility to record each examination (through camera) and secure in DVD format, for
lifetime, must be available.

D9.1.4.

For basic examination, Question Database (QDB) must contain atleast 6 times the
total number of question to be asked in that particular examination.

D9.1.5.

For type training course examination, Question Database (QDB) must contain
atleast 4 times the total number of question to be asked in that particular
examination.

D9.1.6.

When the question is used in one basic or type examination, it must be ensured
through computer software that, the same question shall not appear for at least
three (03) subsequent basic or type examinations.

D9.1.7.

QDB must be updated after each examination by atleast 5% of number of questions


for that examination and used questions withdrawn or rested from use. A record of
such updating shall be retained in the records for reference.

D9.1.8.

Sufficient examination staff must be available.

D9.1.9.

Any other instruction issued by Airworthiness Directorate for this purpose.

D9.1.10. Failure to comply with any of the above mentioned essential requirement will
invalidate the complete examination process.

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EXAMINATIONS OF B1 AND B2 COURSES

E.

EVIDENCES (ACRONYMS / RECORDS / REFERENCES):

E1.

ACRONYMS:
CARs 1994
EASA
PCAA
QDB
SARI

CIVIL AVIATION RULES 1994


EUROPEAN AVIATION SAFETY AGENCY
PAKISTAN CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY
QUESTION DATABASE
SOUTH ASIAN REGIONAL INITIATIVE

E2.

RECORDS:

E2.1

Application for initial/amendment/renewal of AML

E3.

REFERENCES:

E3.1
E3.2
E3.3

ANO-066-AWRG
ANO-147-AWRG
CARs 1994

(CAAF-619-AWRG, PCAA Form 19)

IMPLEMENTATION:
This Airworthiness Notice shall be implemented with effect from April 9, 2015 and supersedes
AWNOT-078-AWEG-2.0 dated 30th December, 2013 and all previous information for the subject
in any PCAA issued ANO, AWNOT, policy letter or any other publication.

(Engr. SYED SHAUKAT HAMEED)


for
Dated:

April, 2015

Director Airworthiness
Director General,
Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority

(Engr. SANAULLAH MALIK)


Add. Director Airworthiness (Regulations)
DatedApril, 2015
File No. HQCAA/2233/1/78/AW

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