Anda di halaman 1dari 5

CHEE3005: 2nd Mid Semester Test 2007

Q1. This is an isothermal reactor with no change in the number of moles (so q is
constant), so the average residence time can be calculated from:

V
55

2 min
q
27.5

Now since we know the radius (1 cm) of the reactor, the length of the reactor is:
L

V
55

17.507cm
2
r

The velocity is then given by:


v

L 17.507

8.754cm / s

So now we can calculate the Peclet number:


Pe

Lv 17.507 0.1459

2.554
DL
1

Using the TRAM solution for an axially dispersed reactor:


1 X

1 e
2

where 1
X 1

4
2
1 e Pe 1

Pe 1 2

4k
4 1 2
1
2.033
Pe
2.554

3.033 e
2

4 2.033
2
1.033 e 2.554 1 2.033

2.554 1 2.033 2

8.132
0.763
34.406 0.022

b) Now to model as CSTRs in series, we need to calculate how many CSTRs, n, are
required to approximate this reactor. This can be done using the equation for the
variance:

2
2
2 Pe 1 e Pe
n Pe

1
2

2.554 1 e 2.554 0.5002


n 2.554 2
n 2

Using the equation for an isothermal CSTR with a first order reaction the outlet
concentrations of the first and second CSTR (C1 and C2 respectively) are given by
(where each reactor has a residence time of /2):
C1

C0
1 k / 2

(1)

C2

Combining equations 1 and 2 gives:


C2

C0
1 k / 2 2

Now in terms of overall conversion:


X 1

C2
1
1
0.75
C0
1 1 2

A reasonable approximation of the PFTR.

C1
1 k / 2

(2)

Q2. For the zero order liquid phase reaction A B, the rate equation is:
dC A
rA k 1.6 1010 e 8200 / RT mole / lit.h Now:
dt
X 1

CA
C A0

dX
1 dCa

dt
C A0 dt

E / R 82000 / 8.314 9863K


C A0 1mol / l

So:

dX
1.6 1010 e 9863 / T
dt

(mass balance equation)

Now the energy balance equation starts from:


V CiC pi

dT
dQ
VH A rA
dt
dt

System is adiabatic and with constant volume, a constant heat capacity for the mixture
and constant total concentration of equal to the initial concentration of A, so:
C A 0C p

dT
dX
H AC A 0
dt
dt

Multiply by dt and integrate both sides to get:


T T0

H B
20000
X
X 100 X
C pm M w
4 50

T T0 100 X

H A H B

T increases with X as expected for an exothermic reaction

Sub this into the mass balance gives


dX
16 1010 e 9863 /( 400 100 X )
dt

So the time for complete conversion is:


1

t 6.25 10 11 e 9863 /( 400 100 X ) dX


0

Use trapezoidal rule t ( f i f i 1 )


i 0

x
2

Answer depends on the number of steps. 5 is the minimum to use, answers are:

n = 5, t = 0.623
n = 10, t = 0.576
Exact answer is 0.56 (if someone uses an integrating calculator).

Q3. The reaction A 2 B has the following mechanism:


A x k1 , k1 ' A.x
A.x k 2 , k 2 ' 2 B x

(1)
(2)

Reaction 1 is much faster than reaction 2 and can be considered to be at equilibrium.


Now using the notation of an over-bar indicating an adsorbed component:
where K1

C A K1C ACv

k1
and Cv is the number of vacant
k1 '

adsorption sites.
We can relate C A and Cv using the maximum adsorption capacity Cm :
Cm C A Cv K1C ACv Cv

Cm
1 K1C A

Cv

That rate of production of B is:


rB 2k 2C A 2

k2 2
C B Cv
K2

1 2
rB 2k 2 K1C AC A
C B Cv
K2

rB

2k 2 K1Cm
1
CA
C B2

1 K1C A
K1K 2

b) At equilibrium rB = 0. So:
CA

1
C B2
K1 K 2

C2
K overall K1 K 2 B
CA

eq