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is any musical instrument which

produces sound primarily by way of a
vibrating stretched membrane. It is
one of the four main divisions of
instruments in the original HornbostelSachs scheme of musical instrument
classification. Most
membranophones are drums.

is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet

drum played with bare hands,
originally from West Africa. According
to the Bambara people in Mali, the
name of the djembe comes from the
saying "Anke dj, anke b" which
translates to "everyone gather
together in peace" and defines the
drum's purpose.

(Stringed instruments)
is a musical instrument that makes
sound by way of a vibrating string or
strings stretched between two points.
It is one of the four main divisions of
instruments in the original HornbostelSachs scheme of musical instrument

any stringed
musical instrument whose strings are
the same length as its soundboard.
The European zither consists of a flat,
shallow sound box across which some
30 or 40 gut or metal strings are

(Wind instruments)
is any musical instrument that
produces sound primarily by causing a
body of air to vibrate, without the use
of strings or membranes, and without
the vibration of the instrument itself
adding considerably to the sound.

are musical instruments in the
percussion family. A type of drum,
they consist of a skin called a head
stretched over a large bowl
traditionally made of copper. They are
played by striking the head with a
specialized drum stick called a timpani
stick or timpani mallet.
is another name for the bowed string
musical instrument more often called
a violin. It is also a colloquial term for
the instrument used by players in all
genres, including classical
music. Fiddle playing, or fiddling,
refers to various styles of music.


are a group of musical
instruments based on the principle of

the closed tube, consisting of multiple

pipes of gradually increasing length
(and occasionally girth). Multiple
varieties of pan flutes have long been
popular as folk instruments.

board (often fitted with a resonator)

with attached staggered metal tines,
played by holding the instrument in
the hands and plucking the tines with
the thumbs. The mbira is usually
classified as part of
the lamellaphone family, and part of
the idiophone family of musical

The shekere is an instrument from
West Africa consisting of a
dried gourd with beads woven into a
net covering the gourd.

(Resonant solids)
is any musical instrument that creates
sound primarily by the instrument as a
whole vibratingwithout the use of
strings or membranes.

or thumb piano is an African musical
instrument consisting of a wooden

is a type of
percussion instrument which produces
a sound when shaken. Rattles are
described in the HornbostelSachs
system as Shaken Idiophones
or Rattles (112.1). Rattles include:
Shac-Shac, as known in Trinidad,
Dominica and the French Antilles.

is a musical instrument in the
percussion family that consists of

wooden bars struck by mallets. Each

bar is an idiophone tuned to a pitch of
a musical scale, whether pentatonic or
heptatonic in the case of many African
and Asian instruments, diatonic in
many western children's instruments,
or chromatic for orchestral use.