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CONTENTS
Chapter

page No.

PART I. FUNDAMENTALS OF SOIL MECHANICS


Introduction

l.l.

Definition of soil,

l;

1.2. Definition of soil mechanics, 2;


1.3. Definition of Soii Engineering and
ceotechnical Engineering, 2; 1.4. scope oi
soil Engineering, z;'r.s.'olgin of Soils, 4; 1.6.
Formation of
soils'5; r.7.Transportationof

_12

t.s.tvtaiors;lDep;;i;;il;;,z;

soirs,ri

r.9.comparisonof soirswith
8; I .l l. r:..rliorogy of different types of soils, g;
Bri"iHi;;t oi s^oii'ing,n".ring, 1r; probrems, 12.

other materials' 8; I l o' Limitations of


Soil Engineering
'
1.12. cohesive and cohesionress so's,
ro; i.rs.

2.

Tests

Basic Definitions and Simple


2'

l' Introduction'

13; 2'2 voh'metric Relationships, 14:


2.3 water conrcnt, rs; 2.4. units, l; 2.5 volume
Mass Relationship, 16; 1,.6. Volume-weight
R"rutionst ips, 17,
berween nanr, ,no weight
units' 18; 2'8' specific. Gravitv of sotioi' ts;
z.s Th;;-ph";; orrgt"r inn Term of Void rario. 20;
2.10.
Three-Phase Diagra.m in Terms of Ro.osity,'22:2.1
. fxpressions-iJ.'t,tug Density in Terms of Water
Contant,23;2.l2.ExpressionformassO"nrliyintermsoiwater.ont"nr,24:2.l3.Relationshipbetween
Dry Mass Density and percenrage air VoiJs,'ZS;
2.14. Water Coni"ni'O"r"rminarion, X: Z.lE.Specific
Gravity Determination 30;2.16. Measurement
of Mass Density, lz; z.tz Determination of
'
void Ratio,
Porosity and Degree of Saturation, fO; fllustraiive
Examples, 37; problems. 42.

B*44

2zl;;-;h,ion

3.

Particle Size

Analysis

45 _ 6g
Introducrion, 45; 3.2. Mechanical Anatysis,,4{;
:..:^. S^ie_vlanalysis, 46;3.4. Stokes,
Law,47;3.5.
Preparation of suspension for sedimentation'anafys:s,
49:,3.6. Th;"ry;f Sedimenration, 50: 3.7. pipette
Method' 51; 3'8' Hydrometer Method, sz;
s.g. ielationship s"t*""i percentage Finer
and Hydromerer
Reading,55; 3.10. Limitation of SeOimentaiion
analysls, iZ, f.il. ComUineO Sieve and Sedimenration
Analysis' 57;3'12' Particle size Distribution
Curve, si;3.ls. Uses of pariicle size DistriLrurion
curve, 59;
R"iu;i;;;"n'itv,
3. 1.

oo;l.io.'b"*,,"in",ion or Rerative neJtv, er;

iil,l;i,1TJtf"#jif;;il;*,,i;.

4.

Plasticity Characteristics of Soils


4'l' Piasticirv of soils,
ff; I.za-coqistency Limits, 69;4.3.Liquid l_imit, 70;4.4.cone
Method'

69*88

penerrometer
73; 4'5' Plastic Limit, 73; 4.a. shrintage
Limit,74:+.2. .qttem;tive Methor! for dererrnination
of
shrinkage limit, 25; 4.g..Shrinkage poru',.t
o*jO; 4.9. plasticity, irq";lry and Consistency
4. 10. Flow Index, 78; 4.1 L Touglner.
rni.*, is; +. t Z. tvteasureireiriJionrirr"ncy, 80: 4.1 Indexes, 7E;
3. Sensitivity,

3X;i,l,1,Tl3llr"J,l"l,i;1.'s'-Activitv

5.

Soil

oisor'.

81; 4.r6. uses or-"oi,i*tency Limirs, 82; rlustrative

Classification

g9 _ 106

l.

Inrroduction, 89; 5.2. particle Size Classification,


E9; 5.3. Textural Classification, 9l;5.+.AASHTO
classification Systern, 92; 5.s. unified soil
ciassificatron' System, 72; s.o. con]pu,ison
of AASHTO and
USC systems, 95; 5.7. Indian SrandarO Ctassitication
Sy.t#, lS; S.i.loundury Classification, 99; 5.g.
Field Identification
5.

of soils, 101;

6,

5.

l0'

Iilustrative Examples, 103; problems, l0$-

General chaiacteristics

Clay Mineralogr and Soil Structure


6'l' Introduction' 107: 6'2. Gravitational and surface

of ioits of Ditrerent Groups,

103;

1A7
forces, l0?; 6.3. primary valence Bonds,
l0g; 6.4.
fiuri.'iou"**t Units of Clay Minerats,

ll4drogen Bond, 109; 6.5. Seiondary Vur.n"e


nonar, 110;

;;.

_flg

(viii)
LII;6.7.Isomorphous Substitution, Ll2;6.8. Kaolinite Mineral, ll2;6.9. Montmorillonite N{ineral,

112;

114;
6.10. Ilite Mineril, 113; 6.11. Electrical charges on clay rninerals, 113;6.12. Base Exchange Capacity'
116,
Problcms,
Structures,
Soil
6.15.
Water,
116;
6.13. Diffuse Double l-ayer,ll4;6.14. Adsorbed

118

7,

Capillary

Water

120

133

121;
?.1. Types of Soil Watbr, lZQ;7.2. Surface Tension" 120;7.3. Capillary Rise in Small Dibmter Tubes,

7.a. Capillary Tension, 122;7.5. Capillary Rise in Skriis, 123; 7.6. Soil Suction,'L25;7.'7. Capillary
potential, t2S;7.8. Capillary Tension-During Dryingoi.Soits, 126; 7.9. Factors Affecting Soil Suction,
126;1.La. Measurement of soit Sucrion, IZI; l.tt.:zFtqst H.eirye, 128;7.12. Irrct Boil, 129;7.I3.
prevention of Frmt Action, L29;7.L4. Shrinkage and F$plkrg br soits, 129;7.15, Slaking of clay, 130;
2.16. Bulking of Sand, L3I;7.17. Capiilary Siphoningf'Bl; illustrative Examples, 131; Problems, 132.

E.

134-162

Permeability of Soil
Laq

136;
8.1.. Introduction,lS4;8.2. Hydraulic Head, 134; 8.3. Darcy's l:w, 135; 8.4. Validity of Darcy's
8.7.
Test,
137;
Permeability
Head
g.5.
8.6,
Constant
of Creffrcient of Permeability, 136;

Determinadon
Variable-Head Permeability Test, 138; 8.8. Seepage Velocit;v, 140; 8.9. General Expression for
1411 8.tr0. kminar Flow through Porous Media, 142; 8.11, Factors affecting_ Permeability of .Soils,
Flow,'8fi.
Coefficient of Absclute PErmeability, 145; 8.13. Pumping Out Tests, 146; 8.14' Pumping in
f4g;
148; 8.15. Coefficient of permeability by Indirect Methods, 151; 8.16. Capillarity- Permeability Test,
tesis,'S.tZ.
pentlebility of Straiified Soil
154; Illiistrative Examples,.i56; Problems, 160.
1S2;

t{Tillt

lipcis,

9.

Seepage Analysis

163

- 188

9.1^ Introduction, 183; 9.2. laplacr's equation 164; 9.3. Stream and Potential Functions, 165; 9.4.
Characteristics of FIow Net, 167; 1.5. Craptrical Method, 168; 9.6. Electrical Analogy Method, 168;9'7'
Soil Models, 171; 9.8. Plastic Models, L72;9.9. Flow Net bi Solution of L-aplac4's Equation, 172; 9'I0
Flow Net in Earth Dams *'ith a Horizontal Filter, 1?3; 9.11. Seepage through Earth Dam with sloping
Discharge face, 175; 9.12. Se.epage through Earth Dam with Discharge angle less than 30", 1"76; 9.13.
SeepagJthrough Earth Oam witf,Oischarge angle greater than n",l!!;9.14. Uses of Flow Net,'178;
9.15. Flow Net for Anisoftopic Soils, 180; S.tO. eoeincient of Permeability,in an Inclined Direction, 182;
9.17. Flow Net in a Non-homogeneous Soil Mass, 182; Illustrative Examples, lM; Problems, 185.

10. Effective Stress PrinciPle

L89

-217

10.1. Introduction, 189; 10.2. Effective Stre;s Principle, 189; 10.3. Nature of Effective Stress, 190; 10.4.
Effect of Water Table Fluctuations on Effective Stress, 192; 10.5. Effective Stress in a Soil Mass under
llydrostatic Conditicns, 193; 10.6. Increase in effec-tive Stresses due to surcharge, 195; 10.7. Effective

in Soils saturated by Capillary Action, 195; 10.8. Seepage Pressure, 197; lO'9. Force Equilibrium
in Seepage problem-q, 198; 10"10. Effective Stresses under Steady Seepage Conditions, 200; 10.11' Quick
Sand b-on6ition 201; 10.12. Seepage Pressure Approach for Quick Condition, 203; 10.13' Effect of
Surcharge on euick Conditions, ZOS; tO.f+" Failures of Hydraulic Structures by Piping, 204; 10'15.
preventi-on of Piping Faiiures, 206; 10.16. Design of Graded Filter, 207; t0.tl . Effective Stress in Partially

Stresses

Saiurated Soils. 209; Musirative Exainples, 210; Problems, 215.

11. Stresses Due to Applied l-oads

21E

11.1 lntroduction, 218; 11.2. Sress-strain Parameters, 218; 11.3. Geostatic Stresses, 2I9; 11.4. Vertical
Stresses Due to Concentrated lrads, 22L; t1.5. Horizontal and Shear Stresses Due to Conentrated Loads,
2/3., L1.6. Isobar Diagram,225;1L.7. Vertical Stress Distribution on a Horizontal Plane, 225; 11'8.
Influence Diagram, 226; t1.9, Vertical Stress Distribution on a Vertical Plane,227;11.10. Vertical Stresss
Due na Une-t-oad, 227:lL.ll.Vertical StressesUndera Stripi.oad,229;11.12. Maximum ShearStresses
at a Pcint Under a Strip l-oad, ?32; ll.l1. Vertical Streses Under a Circular Area,233; 11.14. Vcrtical
gtess Under Csner of a Recangular A,rea, 234; 11.15. Vertical Stress at any Point Undcr a Reclangular
-t*.:- 1-6: i1.16. ).Iorroark's Influence Chars, 237; 11.17. Comparison of Stresses Due to l.oads on arcas
:f
1-19 11.18. Vertical Stresss Under friangulal [,oad, 240; lL.l9. Vertical Stress tIn<!cr
T:mrrca I-.-:ais 2Jl: 11.10. Srresss Due to Horizontal tnads, 242;.L1.21. Stresses Due to Inclin'cd
\[esergaard's Solution, 243; 11.23. Fenske's Charts, 244; ll,?A. Approximate
!.;lli&

Djs: *,;rs

l. l1*
ffuq,:{5. li*i Ciftrxl Pressrire Dstribution, 247; lL.?6. Limitations
Ilire Eg@gb, f{)" hlem. 1$.

of Elasic Thcories,248;

-255

(,x)

12. Consolidation of

Soils

2s6

305

356

375

12.l.lntroduction.256: i2.2. Initial. Prirnary and Sec-ondary Consolidation.25i:12.3. Spring Analogy for
Prirrary Consoliclirtion, 257 12.4. Behziviour ol'Saturated Soils Llnder Pressure, 258; 12.5. Consolidation
]'est,259; 12.6^ Detelmrnotion ol Void Ratio aI Various Load Increments,26l; 12.7. Consolidation Test
Resulrs. 263 12.8. Basrc Detinitions, 265; 12.9. Terzaghi's Theory cf Consoliclation,267', 12.10. Solution
of Basic Ditierentill Ec;uation, 271; l2.ll. Detennination of Coetticient of Consolidation, 277:12.12.
Pleconsolidatiori PLessure.280; 12.13. Causes ofPreconsolidation in Soils,281:.12.14. Final Settlement o1'
a Scil Deposit in the Ficld,28t l2.l-5. Time Settlement Curve.283; 12.16. Field Consolidation Curve,
284 12.17. Secondaly Consolidation. 285; l2.lll. 3-D Consolidation Equation in Cartesian Coordinates,
287 12.19.3-D Consolidation Equation in Cylindrical Co-ordinates, 289:12.2A. Sand Drains, 291 12.21.
Etl-ect of Lateral Strain on Consolidatittrt,294', lllustrative Examples, 295; Problems, 302.

13. Shear Strength

306

13.1. iniroducrion.306; 13.2. Stress Systern with Princrpal Planes Parallel to the Coordinate Axes,306;
13.3. Mohr's Circle.307: 13.4. Principal planes inclined to the coordinate axis,308; 13.5" Stress system
with Verticai ancl Horizontal Planes not Pnncipal Planes,309; 13.6. lmportant Characteristics crf N'lohr's
Circle. 311: 13.7. N4ohr'-Coulomb Tl.reory, 312: 13.8. Revised Mohr- CoulomLr equation, 313; 13.9.
Ditt'erent Types of tests anc! Drairrage Conditions,3l3l l-1.10. N4ocle of Application of Shear Force 314;
l3.ll. Direct SirearTest. 311 13.12. Presentation of Results of Diiect ShearTest.316; i3.13. Merits and
Denerits oiDilcct ShearTest;318; 13.14. Triaxial Compression Apparrtfrrs,31tl; 13.15. Triaxial Tests on
Cohesive Soils,32l; 13.16. Triaxial Tests on Cohesicnless Soils,322: 13.17. Mcrits iind Demerits of
Triaxial Test, 323; 13.18. Computation of various ParirmeteLs, 324 13.19. Presentation oi Resuits of
Triaxial Tcsts, 325 13.20. Etl'ect of Consolir.liition Pressure on Ljndrained Strength 328; 13.21. Relatiorrship
Between Undrailed Shear Strength and Etfective Overburcien Pressurc, 329:; 13.22. Unconflned
Cirmpression Test.330; 13.23. Vane Shear Test, 332:13.24. Pore Pressure Parameters. 333; 13.25.
Molrr-Coulonib Failule Criterron, 337 13.26. Modifled Failure envelope. 338; 13.27. Stress Path, 339;
l3.2tj. Shear Strcngth of Partially Saturated Soils,341; 13.29. Hvorslev's Strength Theory. 342;13.30"
Liqr4gfirction of Sancls. 343; li.3 l. Shear Characteristics of Colresionless Soils, 344; 13.32. Shear
Char-acteristics of Colresive Soils, 345; 13.33. Choicc ol Test Conditions and Shear Parameters, 347:
Illustrative Examples. 347; Problems, 353.

14. Compaction of Soils


14. l. IntrodLtction,35T: i4.2. Standrrd

357

15. Soil Stabilisation

3X6

Proctor Test,358; 14.1. Modified Proctor Test,360: 14.4.


Cornpaction of Sands; 361; 14.5. Jodhpur Vlini Compactor Test, 362 |4.6. Harvard Miniature Cornpaction
Test, 362; 14.?. Abbot Compaction Test.362l 14.8. Factors Al'f'ecting Cornpaction, 362; 14.9. Eifect of
Cornpacrion on Properties of Soils, 364: 14. 10, Methods of'Compaction Used in Field, 366, 14.ll.
P:.,cenrent WeterContent.36T;14.12. Relative Cornpaction,363: la. 13. Compaction Control,368; 14.14.
vrbroff i;tation lVlcthocl, 369; 14. 15. Terra Probe lvlethod, 370: 14.16. Compaction by Pounding, 37{}l 14.17.
Cornpzrction by Explosrves, 371; lzl.lt{. Precontpression, 37ll 14. 19. Cornpaction Piles, 371:- 14.24.
Suitability oi Valiolrs Methcrds ol Compactiorr, 371: Iilustrative Examples, 372; Prcblerns, 374.

-390

15.1. inrloducrion. ST6l 15.2. lv'lech:inical Stabilisation,3T6: !5.3. Cet:rent Stabiiisation,3TT; 15.4 Lime
Stabilisation.380; 15.5. Bitr-rrninous Stabiiisation,33l: 15.6. Chernical Suibilisation,3S2; 15.7. Thermal
Stabilistrtion,3S3; 15.8. Eiectrical Stabilisation,3S4; l-5.9. Stabiiisation by grouting,384;15.10.
Stabilisarion bv Geotoxtile and Fabrics,385: l5.l l. Reinforced Earh.387; Problenrs,3[19.

16. Drainag" De-watering and \Yells


16.1. Introcluoirxr, Sgl; 16.2. Interceplcl Ditchcs,39l;

391-414

16.3. Single Stage Well Points,392; 16.4.


Mulrisrage \Vell Points,393; 16.5. !'acuurr.r Wcll Points,393; 16.6, Shallow Well System,394; 16.7. Deep
Well Systern,394; 16.8. Horizontal \\'ells,394; i(r.9. Electro-Osnrosis,394; 16.10. Permanent Drainage
Alier Construction, 3951 l6'li' Desi-cn of Dewatering systems' 396; l6'12' Discharge l'rom a Fully
Penetrating SIot.396: l(.l. 13. Discharge il-otr n Partially Penetrating Slor,3991 10.14. Discharge in a Slot
t-rarn Borh sicles,4001 16.i5. Well Hydraulics,40l; I6. I6. Terrns Used in Well Hydraulics,402; 16.17.
Dischirrge Frorn a Fully Penctri',ting'irell.403; 16. 18. Dischrrrge From I Partrally Penetrating Well,404;
16.19. lntert'erence arrong Wells,4{!5; 16"20. Spherical Fiow in a Well, 407 16.21. Discharge Fronr an
Open Well, &7; 16.22. Aclverse Etl'ects of Drarnage. 4(D; lllustrative Eramples, 409; Problems, 412.

{r)

PART

II. EARTTI RETAINING

STRUCTURES AND
rO-UNDATTON ENGINEERING

17. Site Investigations

4L5

439

477

515

549

569

17.1. Inhoduction, 415; i7.2. Planning a Sub-Surface Exploration Programmes, 4161, t7.3. Stages in
Sub'surfae Explcrations, 416; L7.4. Reconnaissance, 411; lV.5. Depth of Exploration, 4I1; L7.6. l-atenl
Extent of Exploration, 419;17.7. Open Excavation Methods of Exploration, 420; 17.8. Borings for
Ex$oration, 420; 17.9. Auger Boring, 420; 17.10. Wash Boring, 420; 17.17. Rotary Drillin g, 422; 17.L2.
Perq:ssion Drilling, 422; t7.I3. C.ore Drilling, 422; t7.t4. 1'ypes of Soil Samples, 423; L7.L5. Design
Features Affecting the Sample Disturbance, 423; 17.16. Split- Spoon Sampiers, 424; 17.I7.
Scraper-Bucket Sampler, 425; 17.18. Shelby Tubes and Tfiiii Walled Samplerg 425; 17.19. Piston
Samplen, 426; t7.2A. Denison Sampler, 426: 17.21. Flanel{arved Samples, 426; L1.22. Standard
Penetration Test, 427; 17.23. C-one Penetration Tesn, 429; 17.2. In-situ Vane Shear Test, 431; 17.2-5.
In-situ Test Using a Pressure Meter, 431; 17.26" Observation of Ground Water Thble 432; 17.27.
Geophysical Methods, 433; I7.?A. Seismic Methods, 433; 17.29. Electrical Resistivity Methods, 435;
17.30. Sub-Soil Investigation Reports, 437; Problems, 438.

1& Stability af Slcpes

440

4;

18.2. Ba-sis of Analysis, 441; 18.3. Different Factors of safety, 44I; 1.8.4. T,Vpes of
SlopeFailures,442; 18.-5. Stability of an Infinite Slope of Cohesionless Soils, 444; 18.6. Stability Analysis
of an Infinite Siope of Coheslve Soils,-416; L8.7. Wedge Failure, 447; 183..Culmann's Method, 44{l; 18.9.
4u = 0 Analysis, 450; 18.10. Friction Circle Method, 45ft 18"11. Stability Charts, 453; 18.12. Swedish
Circle Methcd, 455; 18.i3. Stability of Slope Under Sleady Seepage Condition, 460; 18.14. Sability of
Slope Under, Sudden During Construction, 461; 18.1,5. Stability of Slopes During Constrvction, 4621'
18.1. Introdur,tion,

1ri,16. Bishop's Simpiiried Method, 463; 18.17. Other Methods


Stability of Slopes, 467; Illushative Examples, 467; Pr-bblems, 475

19. Earth Pressure 'Iheories

of

,A;ralysis,

466

18.18- nmproving

478

19.1. Intro<luction, ,178; 19.2. Different types of l.ateral Earth Pressure, 478; 19.3. Earth Pressure at Rest.
480; 19..1. F.ankin+'s Earth Pressure Theory, 4S1; 19.-5- Rankine's Earth-Pressure when the Surface is
Inclined, 485; 19.6. Rankine's Earth Pressure in Cohesive Soils, 491; 19.7. Coulomb's trVedge Theory, 494;
19.8. Coulomb's Active Pressure in Cohesionless Soils, 494; 19.9. Rehbann's Construction for Activc
Pressure, 4971 19.1S. Cuimann's Construction for Active Presrure, 501; 19.11. Coulomb's Active Earth
Pressure for Cohesive Sciis. :5S2; 19.L2. Trial Wedge Method; 503; 19.13. Coulomb's Passive Earth
Pressure for Cohesionless Soil, 504; 19.14. Passive Pressure By the Friction Circle Method, 505; 19.15.
Determinatian of Shear Strength Parameters, 50?; Illustrative Exampl6, 508; Problems, 515.

20. Design of Retaintug \Valls and

Bulkheads

5I7

20.1. Introduction, 517; 2C.2. Typcs of Retaining Walls, 517; 20.3. Principles of the Design of retaining
Wails, 517: 20.4. Giavity Retaining Walls, 520; 20.5. Cantitever Retaining walls, 521; 20.6. Counterfort
Retaining tl''e!i..:, 5?3: tti.7. Other Modes of Failure of Retaining Wails, 524; 20.8. Drainage from thc

S2T;20.fl.Cantilever
Backfill,52-s;ztl.g"TypesofsheetpileWalls,52620.10.FreeCantileversheetpiie,
Sheet Pile in Coliesionless Soils, 528; 20.12. Cantilever Sheet Pile Penetrating Clay', 530; 20.L3. Anchored
Sheet Piie with Free Earth support, 532;2tt.14. Rowe's Moment Reduction Curves, 53{; 20.15. Anchored
Sheet Pile with Fixed Earth Support,535;2O.t6. Design of Anchors,536; Itlusfative examples, 538:
Problern,s 5J7.

21, Braced Cuts anrl Coffer Dams

550

1i.1. Inrrodnciion, 55{}; 21.2.L-atenl Earth

Prcssure on Sheetings, 551. 21.-3. Differeot Types,of Sheeting


ard Bracing Svsterns, 553; 21.4. Design of Vadous Components of Bracing, 55.1; 2i.5, \-pes of Coffer
Daror ,t<6: 21.6. Design of Cellular Coffer darns on Rock, 559;2I.7. Design of Cellular Coffer darns on
!:r I. 561: Illr.r-qrative Example, 564; Problems, 568"

la

Sbfts" Tunneb and Underground Conduits


s70 .. sE6
.
\'!dtrit1'
9res
rn
Sorl
rn
Llr
Vertical
Soil
around
2al
of
Shait, 570: 22.2 Stresses in
Tunnels, 5'lL;22.3. '
c"
\-6 d F:rrl Tr.rrcels 572:. T 4. A;ching in Soils, 573; 22.5. Types of Underground @Crtt3,

(xi)

575; 22.6. Ditch conduits, 5?51 22.7. Positive Projecting Condilits, 577; 22.8. Negative Projecting
Conduits, S8A;22.9. lmperf'ect Ditch Conduit, 582: 22.i0. Tunneled Conduits, 582:'22.11 . Loads on
Conduits Due to Surlace Loads, 58.3; 22.!2. Construction of Conduits, 583; lllustrative Examples, 584;
hoblerns, 585.

23. Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

587

635

670

23.1. Introduction, 587; 23.2. Basic Deirnitions, 581;2s.3. Gross and Net tboting Pressure. 588; 23.4.
Rankine's Anaiysis,590;23.5. Hogentogler and Terzaghi's Analysis, 591;23.6. Prandtl's Analysis,592;
23.7."ferzaghi's bearing Capacity Theory, 593; 23.8. Types of Shear Failures, 596; 2-1.9. Ultimate Bearing
Capacity in case of Local Shear F'ailure. 597',23.10. Efibct of Water tabie on Beanng Capacity,600; 23.t L
Bearing Capacity of Square and Circular Footings, 601; 23.12. Meyerhof's Bearing Capacity Thecry, 602;
23.13. Hansen's Bearing Capacity Theory, 604;23.14. Vesic's Bearing Capacity Theilry,605; 23.15. IS
Code Method 606 23.16. Skemptcn's Analysis tbr Cohesive Soils, 607; 23.17. IS Codc h{ethod tbr
Cohesive Soil,608; 23.18. Heave of the Bqttonr o1 the Cut in Clay, 6lll 23.19. Foundations on Layered
Clay,610; 23.20. Bearing Capacity liom Standard Penetration test.610; 23.21. Eccentrically loaded
Foundations. 6ll 73.22. Settlement of Foundrtions.612',23.23. Loads f-cr Settlement Analysis, 613;
23.24. lmmectiate Settlement of Cohesive Soils.613; 23.25. lmmediate Settlement of Cohesionless Soils,
67{23.26. Consoliclation Settlement in Clays, 615,23.27. Settlement of fbundations on Cohesionless
Soils, 616: 23.28. A.ccuracy of l'oundation Settlemcnt Prediction, 617',23.2r). Allowable Settlement, 6171
23.30. Allowarble Soil Pressure lbr Cohesioniess Soils,618; 23.3 l. Allowable Soil Pressure for Cohesive
S6ils, 621; 23.32. Presunrptive Be:rring Capacity, 62I:23.33. Plate Load Test, 621; 23.34. Housel's
Method tbr design of Fotindation, 625; Illustrative Examples. 6251 Problems' 625.

24. Design of Shallow Foundations

636

24.1. Types of Shallow fbundations, 636 24.2. Depth of Footings, 637;24.3. Foundation Loading, 639;
24.4. Principle of Desi-sn of Footings, 610 24.5. Proporrioning Footings tbr Equal Settlement, 641:24.6.
Design of Strip Foorings, 641'24.7. Desi-qn of Spread Footings. 643:,24.8. Design of Eccentrically loaded

spreadlbotings,644 24.g.ComtrinedFootin-rs.645:24.10.RectangularCombinedFootings,64524.ll.
Trapezoidal Footing 647;24.12. StrapFootings,64S;24.13. Principlesof Designof MatFoundations,649;
24.14. Common Types of Mat Foundation, 651; 24.15. Design Methods tbr Mat Foundation. 653;24.16.

Conventional Design ol Raft Foundations,653; 24.17. Design of combined fboting by Elastic Line
Methoct, 655 24.1tt. Finite Ditl-erence Method fbr combined Footings, 656:24.19. Elastic Plate Method,
657: 24.2A. Finite Ditfbrence Method tbr Mats. 658; 24.21. Coefhcient of Subgrade Reaction, 659;
Illustrative Erarnples, 660; I'}roblems, 669.

67r -705

25. Pile Foundations

25.1. lnrroduction,6Tl; 25.2. Necessity of Pile Foundation,6Tl; 25.3. Clessitlcation of Piles, 672:25.4.
Pile Driving. 674',25.5. Constluction of Bored Piles,675; 25.6" Driven Cast-in-situ Concrete Piles,676
25.7. Laa1 Ciirying Capacity of Prles, 677;25.8. Static Methods tor Driven Piles in Sand, 677; 2.5.9.
Static N{ethocl trr Driven Piles in Saturatrcl Clay,681; 25.10. Stzrtic Method tbr Bored Piles,683;25'll.
Facror of Safet),,684; 25.12. Negative Skin Friction,684 25.13. Dynamic Formulae,685;25.14. Wave
Equation Analysis. 687:25.15. In-situ peneiration tests tbr Piie capacity, 688; 25.16. Pile Load Test, 688;
25.17. Orher types of File Load test,690; 25.18. Croup Action of Piles,690 25.19. Pile Croups in Sand
and gravef , 69t;25.2A. Pile Croups in clay, 692 ?5.21 . Settlement of Pile Croups,692:'25.22 Sharing of
l,oaris in a Pile Croup. 694 25.23. Tension Pilcs, 694; 25.24. Laterally Loaded Piles, 696; Illustrative
Examples, 6971 Prohlems, 704.

26. Drilled Piers and

Caissons

7A6-nl

l. [ntroducrion,706; 26.2. DrilledPiers, T06; 26.3. Construction oiDrilled Piers 708; 26.4. Advantages
and Disadvantages oi Driiled Piers, 109 26.5. Design of open Caissons , 7L0:. 26.6. Construction of open
.Caissons. 713; 26.'7. Pneunratic Caissons, 714, 26.8. Construction of Pneumatic Caissons, 715;26.9.
Advantirges iin{ Disadvantages of Pneutnatic Caissons, 715 26.10. Floating Caissons, 716:' 26'11.
Stability of Ftoating Caisstrns, 716;:=?{'. 12. Advi-rntages and Disadvantages of Floatiilg Caissons, 717;
lllustrativc Exarnples. 717, pr6b1smfq20.
26.

27.

VYell Foundations

122

-754

(xii)

on the Well Foundation, 724:27.5. Terzaghi's Analysis, 725:27.6. Banerjee and Gangopadhyay's
Analysis, 728; 27.7. Simplified Analysis for Heavy Wells, 733; 27.8. IRC method, 734; 27.9.Individual
Components of the well, 739; 27 .10. Sinking of Wells, 742;2'1.11. Measures for Rectification of Tilts and
Shifts. 7441 Illustrative Examples. 746: Problems. 754.

28. Nlachine Foundations

755

28.1. Introduction, 755; 28.2. Types of Machine Foundations, 755:283. Basic Definitions,756;28.4.
Degree of Freedom of a Block Foundation, 757 28.5. General Criteria fbr design of Machine founclations,
758;28.6. Free Vibration 759;28.7. Forced Vibration, 761; 28.8. Vibration Analysis of a Machine
Foundation, 763; 28.9. Determination of Natural Frequency, 765, 29.1A. Design Criteria for Foundations
of Reciprocating Machines, 766 28.11. Reinforcement and Construction Details, 767; 28.12. Weight of
FounCation, 767;28.13. Vibration Isolation and Control, 767; Illustrative Examples, 768; Problems, 771.

29. Pavement Design

-772

773

-787

I Types of

Pavements. 773; 29.2. Basic Requirements of Pavemenrs, 775 29.3. Functions of DifTerent
Components of a Pavenrent , 774: 29 .4. Factors Affecting Pavement Design, 77 S: 29.5. California Bearing
29.

Ratio Test, 775;29.6. Design of Flexible Pavements, 777;29.7. Croup Index Merhod, 777 Zg.B. CBp'
Method, 778: 29.9. California Resistance Value Method 778 29.10. Mcleod Merhod. '779:29.'l l. Triaxial
Test Method, 780:,29.12. Burmister's Method, 780: 29.13. Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction, 78t; 29.14.
Westergaard's Analysis, 782 29.15. Temperature srresses in Rigid pavernents. 7g4;29.16. Combined
St,-esses in Rigid Pavements, 785; Illustrative Examples, 785; problems, 286;

30. Laboratory Experiments

788

30'1. To determine the water content of a sample by ovendrying method, 788: 30.2. To cletennine the water
content of a soil by pycnorneter method, 789; 30.3. To detennine the specific gravity of solicls by the
density bottle rnethod, 789;30.4. To detennine the specific gravity of solids by pycnometer method, 791;
30'5. To determine the dry density of the soil by core cutter method, 792;30.6. To determine the in-sifu drv
density by the sand replacement method, 793 30.j. To determine the clry clensity of a soil by
water-displacement metho!, 795; 30.8. To determine the particle size distribution of a scil by sieving, 296;
30.9. To determine the particle size distribution by the hydrometermerhod, 797;3A.fi. To determine the
liquid limit of a soil specimen,800; 30.11. To determine the plasric limit of a soil specimen, S0l;30.12.
To determine the shrinkage limit of a specimen of the remoulded soil, g02; 30.13. To determine the
pertneability of a soil specimen by the constant-head permeameter, S04; 30.14. To detennine the
permeability of a soil specimen by the variable head permeameter, S05; 30.15. To determine the
consolidation characteristics ofa soil specimen,807; 30"16. To determine the shear parameters ofa sandy
soil by direct shear test, 809; 30.1 7. To determine the unconfineel compressive strength of a cohesive soii,
811; 30'18. To determine the compaction characteristic of a soil specimen by Proctor's test, 812; 30.19. To
determine the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of a soil specimen, 813.-

31. Introduction to Rock Mechanics


3

l .l . Introduction, 817;

.2. Geological Classificaticn of Rocks, 817;

.817
3i

.3. Basic

Terminology, glg;

816

837

864

31.4.

Index Properties of Rocks, 819; 31.5. Unit weight (or mass density), 819; 31.6. porosity, g20;31.7.
Permeability, 820; 31.8. Point load strength, 821; 31.9. Slaking and Durability, S22; 31.10. Sonic Velocity,
823; 3 1 . I I . Classification of Rocks for Engineering properties, 824; 31 .12. Strength classification of Intact
Rocks, 827; 31.13. Laboratory tests for determination of strength oi Rocks, 828; 3l .14. Stress-srrain
curves, 829; 31.15. Modes of Failure of Rocks, 831; 31.i6. Mohr-Coulomb Criterion for Rocks, g32;
31.17' Sliear Strength ofRocks, 833; 31,18. Hardness ofRocks, 834; 31.19. In-siru srresses in Rocks, 834:
31.20. Measurement of in-situ stresses, 836; Probtems. 837.

32. Geoteehnical Earthquake Engineering

838

J2.1. Introduction, 838; 32.2. History of Earthquakes in India, 838; 32.3. Seismic Zones of India, 839;
32.4. Magnitude of an Earthquake, 839;32.5.Intensity of Earthquakes, 841; 32.6. Effect of Ground
motion on Structules, 843; 32.7. General Principles of Earthquake-Resistant design, 845; 32.8. Design
Seismic coefficient, 846:' 32.9. Design Seismic forces, 847; 32.10. Site-Specific Response spectra, 84-8;
32'11. Hazards due to Earthquakes,850; 32.12.Liquefaction Phenornenon,85L;32.13. Factois Aff'ectine
Liquefaction, 853:'32.14. Assessment of Susceptibility of a Soil to Liquefaction, 853; 12. 15. prevention oT

(-riii)

IllustrativeExamples' 859; Problemsl862


Liquefacrion, E56; 32.16. Seismic stabiity of a slope 857,

33. Ground Improvement

865

Techniques

ff.s.
33'1. Introduction, 365;33.2. Improvement of cohesivesoils,

Precompressiol,

33.4 Sand
S65; ^

874

893

]:.:
Columis,868; 33.7. Improvement of;Cohesionless soils'

Drains,866;33.5 Wi.{Oruinr, ieTf


g6g; 33.8. Vibroflotation, 368; 33.9. Teria Probe Method,869; 33.10' Dynamic compaction, 369;33'11'
General Methods for Ground
Compaction by blasts, ffia; T,|2' Compaction Piles, 871; -33^.13.
Ground improvement by deep
33'15'
871;
soil,
of
replacement
and
Removal
33.14.
Improvement, Ell;
873'
Problems'
872;
miiing, 572;33,16. Grouting for ground Improvement'
.O. Stone

34. Foundations an Expansive and Collapsible

Soils

875

34.3. Classiflcation of Expansive


34.1. Expansive soils, 8iS;34.2. Paramerers of Expansive soils, 876:
34'6'

Effects of swelling on buildings, 8-79''


soils, g7g; 34.4. Causes of moisture changes in soils, 879; 34.5.
of
preventive *"u*uro ioi"xpansive soils,-880; 34.7. Moditication of F-'pansive soils, 881;J4 8.'.Design
Under3411'
pier'
883;
ggt;34.9. Drilled piers,882;34.iO. Belled driltred
foundarion in r*"1i1g soits,
34.14. Identitlcation of collapsible soils'
reamed piles, gg4; 34.12. Construction of undeneamed piles,886;

gg7; 34.15. oestgn of fbundation on collapsible soils not sl!!e1eO. to wetting' 888; 34'16' Design of
892'
foundations subje-cted to wetting, 889: Illustrative Examples, 890; Problems'

Miscellaneous Objective'Type Questions


Miscellaneous Illustrative Examples
Glossary of Common Terms
References

Publications of Bureau of Indian Standards


Index

894-913

9t4-937
938-942
943

-948
949 -950

951

953