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17.

Kalor dan Hukum I Termodinamika


17-1. Kalor, Energi Termal, dan Energi Dalam
Kalor : Pertukaran energi karena perbedaan temperatur.
Energi Termal: Energi dalam suatu sistem termodinamika karena
temperatur sistem tersebut.
Misal: Gerakan random/acak dari atom/molekul.

N 12 mv 2

3
2

Nk BT

untuk gas ideal

Energi dalam: Semua energi yang dimiliki suatu sistem termodinamik.


Misal: Energi diam, energi termal dll.
Usaha (usaha yang dikerjakan atau dilakukan sistem)
: dikarenakan adanya perubahan energi sistem.
Satuan Kalor: kalori (kal)
1 kal : energi yang diperlukan untuk menaikkan
temperatur 1g air dari 14.5C ke 15.5 C
1 kal

4.186 J

Contoh: Kalori dari makanan yang kita makan

2000 Kal = 2000 1000 kal = 2 106 kal = 8.372 106 J


Usaha yang dilakukan untuk mengangkat sebuah benda massa
m = 50 kg setinggi 2 m
W = mgh

1000 J

17-2. Panas Jenis


Heat Q

Q
T

Change of Temperature

or

dQ
dT

Heat needed to increase T of a system by 1.0 C

For the system mass m

Q
m T

(per unit mass)

Specific Heat

mc T

Specific Heats of Some Substances at 25 C and Atmosphere Pressure


Sustance

Specific heat, c
J/kg C

cal/g C

(Element Solid)
Aluminium
Beryllium
Cadmium
Copper
Germanium
Gold
Iron
Lead
Silicon
Silver

900
1830
230
387
322
129
448
128
703
234

0.215
0.436
0.055
0.0924
0.077
0.0308
0.107
0.0305
0.168
0.056

(Liquid)
Alcohol
Mercury
Water

2400
140
4148

0.58
0.033
1.00

Calorimetry : Thermal energy transfer ( Work

mx
Tx, cx

0)

Final Temperature T, then cx ?

mwcwTw
Water
mw ,Tw , cw

cx

mx cxTx

mwcw

mx c x T

mwcw T Tw
mx Tx T

17-3. Latent Heat and Phase Changes


Solid

Liquid

Phase transition
Q = mL

Gas

Heat Q
Change in the internal energy
without change in Temperature

L : Latent heat

Latent Heat of fusion Lf : Solid


Liquid
Latent Heat of vaporization Lv : Liquid
Gas
Latent Heat of Fusion and Vaporization
Substance
Helium
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Ethyl alcohol
Water
Sulfur
Lead
Aluminium
Silver
Gold
Copper

Melting Point
(C)
-269.65
-209.97
-218.97
-114
0.00
119
327.3
660
960.80
1063.00
1083

Latent Heat of
Fusion (J/kg)
5.23 103
2.55 104
1.38 104
1.04 105
3.33 105
3.81 104
2.45 104
3.97 105
8.82 104
6.44 104
1.34 105

Boiling Point
Latent Heat of
(C)
Vaporization (J/kg)
-268.93
2.09 104
-195.81
2.01 105
-182.97
2.13 105
78
8.54 105
100.00
2.26 106
444.60
3.26 105
1750
8.70 105
2450
1.14 107
2193
2.33 106
2660
1.58 106
1187
5.06 106

Water

Qtot

mi ci Ti

mL f

mwcw Tw

ci = 2.09

103 J/kgC

Lf = 3.33

105 J/kgC

cw = 4.19

103 J/kgC

Lv = 2.26

106 J/kgC

cs = 2.01

103 J/kgC

mLv

ms cs Ts

17-4. Work & Thermal energy in Thermodynamic processes


Work (Gas) : assume Quarsi-Static Movements

dW

F dy

dW

P dV

Vf
Vi

PA dy

P dV

If dV = 0, W = 0.

In P vs V curve

Vf
Vi

P dV

Work = Area under the P-V curve

* Work depends on the path

Engine, Compressor, etc

17-5. The First Law of Thermodynamics


- Energy conservation in the thermodynamics
Energy quantities: Kinetic Energy, Potential Energy, Work, etc.
Thermodynamic Energy quantities:
Internal Energy, Heat, Work, etc
Internal Energy U

Heat Q : Energy transfer between two systems with different T


Work W done by the system

The First Law of Thermodynamics

dU

For an infinitesimal change

Q W

dQ dW

In an Isolated System

Q W

Cyclic Process : The system originates and ends at the same state.

Q W

Heat Engine

17-6. Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics


Adiabatic Process :

U
Isolating
wall

0
Thermally Isolated System

Adiabatic free expansion

F
Q

0
and

T : Constant

Isobaric process

P 0

U W

P Vf

Vi

Isovolumetric process

W
Q

0
U

Isothermal process

(T : constant)

Q W
Ideal Gas

PV
W

nRT
Vf
Vi

Vf

PdV

nRT ln

Vi

Heat

W
Q

Vv
Vl

nRT
dV
V

Vf
Vi

Boiling Process :
Work

PV = constant

: Constant

PdV

Volume changes from Vl to Vv.


V

P V f dV
i

P Vf

Vl

mL

Change of Internal energy

Q W

mL

P Vf

Vl