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Resins in Electrical




Ication characteristics of these

physical electrical a
complex materials.Two good general reference books on
epoxy resins are cited [3] for anyone wishing further
details. Contrary to many other classes of plastics, such
as polyethylene, polypropylene, polyearbonate, polymethyl methacrylate, etc., the epoxy resins are a much
more diverse class of resins chemically and in their physical
properties. They have one common chemical characwhich is the epoxy carbon-oxygen-carbon threeteristic,
IN this paper we will review the present state of the
group in the unpolymerized molecule
application of epoxy resins in electrical apparatus.
These resins have seen some commercial use for more than
25 years so they cannot be considered new babies, but
their application in electrical apparatus must still be
considered in its youth. Their use has been growing steadily
over the past two decades. While the volume of use of This ring can be opened by chemical reaction to link two
these resins is small compared to resins like polyethylene, adjoining molecules
the quantity is still impressive. For example, the epoxy
production for all uses was 99 000 metric tons in 1973
[1], 19 percent greater than 1972. Of this total, 9 percent
is attributed to electrical laminates and 8 percent to
casting and molding resins, part of which was in electrical
applications. This can be compared to 1.25 million metric
tons of high-density polyethylene and 2.6 million metric
tons of low-density polyethylene produced in 1973. The This reaction is catalyzed by a great many organic acid
total use of all plastics in the electrical industry was or basic compounds, which often combine with one (or
743 000 metric tons in 1973, of which only 1-2 percent both) of the two reactive "free" bonds produced by the
ring opening.
was epoxy resins.
Some of the differences between the thousands of epoxy
Epoxy resins have found application where their unique
or superior properties would warrant a somewhat higher resin types exist in the primary epoxy compound. Another
cost. They are castable into rigid, strong, three-dimen- wide degree of variation results from the selection of acid
sional structures, and impregnable as fluids into porous or basic "hardener" which is used to react to open the
reinforcing structures, where they are converted by epoxy ring. A third order of variation is an accelerator
polymerization to solid, which effectively fills the pores, compound which is sometimes, but not always, added
properties which the thermoplastic resins do not have. (usually in much smaller proportion) to speed up the
They are also used as coatings for conductors, etc. Atten- reaction. Most, if not all, of these components end up
tion should be drawn to the survey of cast and molded chemically reacted or combined into the final solid mass
resin applications in high-voltage power systems, which which is, in effect, one giant molecule. Often both the
appeared in the 1972 CIGRE Proceedings [2]. This primary epoxy and the hardener molecules are difunesurvey, covering a large part of European and U.S. ap- tional, having, respectively, two epoxy rings or two reacplications, classified the applications as bushings, cable tive basic groups, thus permitting linkage to other moleterminations, instrument transformers, various post and cules in four directions. The possible permutations of
support insulators, and parts for circuit breakers. A molecular growth are often so great that the exact strucmajority of the uses were epoxy, although butyl or ethyl- ture of any one resin is so complex as to defy determination
ene-propylene-type rubbers competed with them for except in a general way. Nevertheless, if the same proportions of starting components are used and the same schedapplication to small instrument transformers.
ule of curing time and temperatures are used, the resulting
solid-resin characteristics can be reproduced quite well
A brief explanation of the chemistry of epoxy resins timxe after time.
can guide the "lay" electrical engineer to understand the
It is important to the various possible electrical applications to know the main types of resin used and how
Manuscript received March 18, 1974.
they relate to the resulting physical and electrical characThe author is with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation,
teristics. Some of the initial epoxy compounds are liquid
Pittsburgh, Pa. 15235.

Abstract-This summarizes the important physical and electrical

characteristics of these diverse and highly useful insulating materials. Factors of chemical structure which influence the resulting
resin properties are discussed. The great variety of properties which
can be achieved through variations in this one class of resins is
emphasized. A range of applications of these resins is mentioned
and illustrated.

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and others are low-melting solids, the latter having to be

melted to produce polymerization. This is also the case
with the hardener component. Amine-type hardeners are
usually liquid and often anhydride hardeners are solid, the
latter having to be dissolved or melted into the epoxy
compound to produce the reactive mixture. The structure
of the primary epoxy or anhydride molecule determines
whether it will be a semicrystalline solid. Simple regular
polar molecule structures crystallize more readily, whereas
compounds having a very complex irregular shape, or
considerable portion of hydrocarbon (-CH2-CH2-CH2-)
chain are more likely to be liquids. In the case of epoxy
monomer liquids, the viscosity increases with molecular
size,'and these higher molecular weight compounds are
more difficult to use as impregnating compounds because
they flow slowly through pores. Increased temperature
to reduce the viscosity during impregnation or casting
facilities, may be absolutely necessary, in such applications.
Polymerization rates are determined by the type of
hardener and accelerator, if used. Amine hardeners produce rapid polymerization and are used for room temperature cure resins. Anhydride hardeners require higher
temperatures to initiate polymerization reactions. With
anhydride resins, the epoxy and hardener mixture/solution
must usually be heated to 100'C or higher to produce
polymerization. The rate of polymerization increases
with the temperature, as is typical of chemical reactions.
Further curing or polymerization and associated physical
and electrical changes may proceed slowly (perhaps in
service) long past the initial curing time, if it was too
short for the temperature used.
Epoxy resins, as do all resins, increase in density or
shrink during polymerization. This is due to replacement
of many intermolecular spacings with closer interatomic
bonds or intramolecular spacings, which contracts the
structure. In this respect, epoxy resins are usually superior
to polyester resins since the latter are usually formed from
lower molecular weight, smaller molecules, whereas most
epoxy monomer molecules are initially higher molecular
weight. Thus fewer new interatomic bonds will be formed
in converting epoxies to high-molecular weight resins.
Typically, polyester resins incorporating styrene shrink
8-10 percent on polymerization, whereas epoxy resins
shrink 1-5 percent, depending, of course, on the initial
molecule. This shrinkage is further reduced to levels of as
low as 0.25 percent apparent by the incorporation of a
high-volume percent of a nonshrinking filler such as
silica. Some of the shrinkage with fillers may be distributed
on a microseopic basis throughout the body of the filled

Resin shrinkage during casting or impregnation is an

important consideration in the resulting application since
it can produce internal separation o_f the resin from solid
parts into which it is cast. It can also introduce significant
mechanical stresses within the resin, and pressure on
solid embedded parts. Part of the total shrinkage of the
order of 2 or more may occur while the resin is still liquid.
This liquid shrinkage will not cause internal separations
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or stresses. After the resin starts to "gel" or form a threedimensional network, then internal stress may develop
and lead to cracks. Thermal contraction shrinkage also
occurs after curing or polymerization of the resin. The
magnitude of this is dependent on the curing temperature

(including overheating from the heat of polymerization)

difference above the operating temperature. This is reduced by the amount and type of filler. Avoiding adverse
effects from this is part of the application technology.
The wide variety of epoxy resins have correspondingly
wide ranges of properties. Therefore, only the range of
properties (see Table I) and their dependence on resin
type, curing conditions, etc., can be indicated in a short
survey such as this.
The filled resin density, of course, decreases in proportion to the filler density and its percentage. As much as
80-percent silica by weight can be incorporated, but the
higher percentages are increasingly more difficult to cast
and mix. Correspondingly, the coefficient of thermal
expansion is reduced by the filler and its own coefficient. It
is possible to match the expansion coefficient of copper,
aluminum, or steel over a fairly wide temperature range
using proper fillers and percentages. Matching the thermal
expansion coefficient of internal embedded conductors,
etc., can be very important in electrical applications to
avoid stress cracking or separation of the resin from the
metal, which might lead to partial discharges. The thermal
conductivity can be more than doubled with high percentages of fillers having higher thermal conductivities
than the resin itself.
Epoxy resins can be reinforced, of course, with fibrous
fillers to achieve very high tensile strengths. Fibers such
as glass, which have a higher elastic modulus, as well as
strength, than the resin itself, are the most effective. The
strength to weight ratio which can be achieved is higher
than with steel.
The physical strength of resins increases throughout
the curing cycle, as more interatomic linkages develop,
but tends to level off with an optimum curing time and
temperature. Further heating at elevated temperature


Density, gins/cc



Coefficient of thermal expansion,



Thermal conductivity



10-5 (cm/cm/C)

(10-4 cal/sec/cm2/C/cm

Tensile strength,


Elongation, (%)
Compressive strength, (psi)
Heat distortion temperature,

(264 psi stress)











would lead slowly to degradation, particularly in the

presence of oxygen.
The elastic modulus and softening temperature can be
varied widely with selection of the primary epoxy resin
type. Aromatic epoxies are usually stronger, have higher
elastic moduli and softening temperatures than aliphatic
epoxies. Flexibility is introduced by using epoxies which
produce fewer crosslinks between molecular chains and
longer aliphatic: (-CH2-CH2-CHI-) lengths which have
lower intermolecular attractive forces.
The epoxy resins usually have fairly good chemical
solvent and water resistance, much better than polyester
resins or many common thermoplastics. There are, of
course, exceptions. Flexibilized resins are more likely to
be swelled by solvents, and aliphatic amine cured resins
are attacked more readily. It is best to check references
on the particular resin if there is a serious exposure situation, because of the wide differences between different
Similarly, the thermal stability of different epoxy
resins varies widely. For example, it is not usually expected
that low-temperature curing or flexible resins would have
high-temperature thermal stability. Rigid aromatic anhydride cured epoxies can be made with 130 and 1550
Class long time lives. In recent years, 1800 Class rigid
epoxy resins have been reported.
Some epoxy resins have excellent weathering characteristics, and more will be said about this later in the
paragraphs on outdoor application of epoxy insulation.
The dielectric constant and loss tangent of epoxy resins
vary widely with the type of resin. Aliphatic amine cured
resins are generally high in loss tangent, dielectric constant, and conductivity, but the aromatic amine cured
resins are somewhat better. The higher conductivities
associated with aliphatic amines are attributed to the
formation of amine salts, or adducts with water, which
are more highly dissociated into separate ions than either
organic carboxylic acids or amines themselves. In the
presence of inorganic acids, aliphatic amine cured resins
may become quite conducting. The best dielectric properties are obtained with aromatic anhydride cured resins.
Hardness and high-softening temperatures are usually
associated with lower electrical conductivity, dissipation
factor, and dielectric constant, because the internal ionic
and dipole mobility is reduced. Conversely, flexible resins
are more likely to have higher dielectric losses. The presence of ionic-type contaminants, and water may contribute
appreciably to the ac and dc conductivity of more flexible
resins and others at elevated temperature.
The typical 60-Hz dielectric loss tangent variation with
temperature of epoxy resins is illustrated in Fig. 1, schematically. It consists sometimes of a lower temperature
tan 8 peak followed at higher temperatures with a flat or
slightly rising section, and at the highest temperature
with a rapid increase in tan 8. The temperature at which
the high-temperature increase begins can often be corAuthorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Downlade on May 10,2 at 19:087 UTC from IE Xplore. Restricon aply.


Fig. 1.

Temperature _
Typical temperature variation of tan 5 of epoxy resins.

related with a softening temperature of the resin. Flexibilizing the resin shifts the high-temperature peak toward
lower temperatures. Further curing of the resin, (if it is
not sufficiently cured), will shift the peak toward higher
temperatures. Increasing the test frequency will also shift
the curve to higher temperatures. Increasing the polarity
and ionic content of the resin can raise the whole curve
upward. The lower temperature peak, which is not always
observed with all resins, is attributed to small polar side
groups in the solid three-dimensional molecular network.
These can sometimes rotate or oscillate, as in a cage,
independently of the whole structure. With proper attention to resin formulation, it is possible to achieve
low-dissipation factors at elevated temperatures. Values
of 0.01 to 0.02 tan 8 at 150C have been achieved.

Data on the dielectric strength of epoxy resins and
laminates when tested in a conventional ASTM D149
test manner, using a plate between electrodes (immersed
in oil to prevent flashover) is not remarkably different
from many other resin sheets and laminates, showing
values in V/mils which vary about as the inverse square
root of the thickness, being for 1/8-in thickness about
400 V/mils. Tests of sheet materials in oil or other insulating fluids usually occur with prebreakdown discharges in
the fluid at the electrode edges. These discharge streamers
have high-electric stresses at their termination on the
resin surface and result in lower breakdown voltages, and
declining breakdown stresses with increasing thickness.
Of particular interest is the dielectric strength of cast
epoxy resins with embedded electrodes, a condition which
can be readily achieved with these vacuum castable
materials. Furthermore, this condition of embedded
conductors is typical of many cast resin applications.
With embedded conductors or electrodes, predischarges
in the immersion medium are avoided and strengths more
representative of the resin itself are achieved. Fig. 2(a)
and 2(b) are cast epoxy breakdown values published by
Professor Kind's Laboratory at the Technical University
of Braunschweig [4]. These figures show several points.
1) The low-frequency 50- (or 60-) Hz breakdown volt-





epoxies with embedded or recessed electrodes have been

reported by Kind and Schiweck [8], Milton [9], Goulsbra
et al., Tse et al. [61, to range between 1.5 and 2 MV/cm
with thicknesses of 1-5 mm. All of these investigators
have reported lower dielectric strengths with mineral
filled epoxies. Milton [9] has reported, using recessed
electrodes, a reduction to 2 with 50-percent silica filler.
Schiweck and Goulsbra et al. have reported reductions
due to fillers of about 30 percent with cast in electrodes.
The reduction depends on the amount and type of filler, as
well as the care in incorporating it into the resin. Milton
has also reported a surprising reduction in pulse strength
by a factor of 5 due to use of polytetra fluorethylene
(Teflon) mold surfaces.
The principal advantage in applications of the dielectric
strength of the cast epoxy resins seems to lie in the ability
to easily cast the resins to achieve more uniform field
The partial discharge (corona) resistance of epoxy
resins is not remarkably better than other resins. They are
eroded by surface discharges. Internal discharges with
sharp cavities can lead to treeing-type breakdown. Also,
conducting points develop immediate treeing
stresses. With 60-Hz voltages at lower
Fig. 2. (a) Breakdown voltage Ud and partial discharge inception
voltage for linear rising test voltages for a rod-plane gap (D. stresses than with impulse, treeing breakdown can develop
Kind, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig). (b) Breakdown voltage Ud and gradually. With 60-Hz voltage, sharp gas cavities are
its standard deviation, for linear rising test voltages, plane-plane
gap (D. Kind, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig).
much more likely to result in treeing than if sphere cavities
exist. By avoiding such cavities, however, it is possible to
age is about 70 percent of the pulse value. Similar ratios maintain high stresses safely for many years.
have been measured in the author's laboratory with
recessed silver painted electrodes, as well as with tests
of sheet resins.
2) There is little variation of the dielectric strength
with pulse duration from pulselengths resembling switching surges to pulses simulating lightning. This has also
been confirmed in the author's laboratory.
3) With very short pulses applied to sharp electrodes
[Fig. 2(a)] it is possible to produce partial discharge
"trees" without breakdown. This experience is also well
documented in several papers by Dittmer [5]. The voltage
for onset of these partial discharges can be considered to
indicate the basic strength for the high stress at the electrode edge. If the pulse duration is very short, however,
there is insufficient time for the discharge to propagate
across the whole gap.
A comparison of the average stresses for breakdown
between Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) shows a ratio of about 7 higher
for the more uniform field compared to the nonuniform
field of the rod gap.
Another characteristic of cast epoxy breakdown in
uniform or quasi-uniform fields (with embedded or recessed electrodes) is the almost linear increase in breakdown voltage with thickness in the range of 1-10 mm. This
was determined in the author's laboratory, and reported
also by Kind [4], indicated in tests by Tse et al. [6]. Tests
reported by Goulsbra et al. [7] with 20-mm-diameter
embedded spheres, however, indicate a declining strefigth
(kV/cm) with spacings of 1-5 mm. The uniform or quasiuniform field average impulse strengths of cast uinfilled
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Surface tracking of resins is of primary concern in
outdoor applications or where moisture condenisation is
a part of the environment. Epoxy resins incorporating
benzene ring (aromatic) chemical structures usually track
under moderate wet tracking conditions, but cycloaliphatic
epoxy compounds seldom track. The difference is due to
the fact that benzene rings are more readily converted
to graphitic structures under the high arc temperatures.
Several severe laboratory wet tracking tests, starting
with the dust and fog test [10], followed by the inclined
plane [11] and differential wet track test [12], which
were successively more rapid in operation, showed that
resins could be formulated to be essentially nontracking
under the most severe conditions. Aluminum oxide trihydrate fillers in sufficient percentages upgrade the track
resistance of these resins. Outdoor applications under wet
polluted conditions require a nontracking system, (including resin, filler, and shed design), not just in degree,
but absolutely. Such systems are now available. Under
severe environmental conditions, however, it may be
possible to use reliably, resin systems which have improved track resistance, but which will track, if unfilled,
under the most severe levels of the previously mentioned
Glass fibers incorporated into resins for improving
mechanical strength, if they are not adequately protected,
may lead to development of low-resistance paths along




Fig. 3. (a) Cast epoxy condenser-type bushings with porcelain
weather sheds (Westinghouse), 25 kV, 1200 and 400 A; 34.5
kV, 400 A. (b) Comparison of paper-Micarta and cast epoxy
condenser bushings, with porcelain weather sheds, 34.5-kV rating

the fibers, followed by internal tracking and eventual

breakdown in wet conditions.
The application of epoxy resins has been expanded
steadily as the technology of formulating improved electrical and mechanical properties and processing techniques
Impregnation of rotating machine insulation with
polymerizable liquid epoxies followed by curing in situ
is an important application. Epoxy resins have superior
properties in chemical and water resistance to previously
used polyester resins. Vacuum impregnation of small pores
is more difficult, however, when the viscosity is high. It is
estimated that a majority of the high-voltage generators
and motors throughout the world are now being impregnated with some form of epoxy resin. Polymerizable,
"B stage," impregnated semisolid mica paper tapes are
also now available for taping coils. These must be consolidated onto the coil with high pressure during curing
to achieve satisfactory dielectric strength.
Epoxy resins are also coated onto paper for winding
condenser bushings, in much the same way as other resins
have been used, (shellac, phenolics, etc.). Improved
results are claimed.
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The epoxy resins are also used widely, often modified

by combination with other types of polymerizable compounds, as wire enamel coatings. A more recent development is the application of uncured solid epoxy resins as a
powder, which is subsequently melted and cured to thick
coatings, to bus bar, and other irregular large and small
conductor shapes. Coatings as thick as 0.04 in may be
applied at one time. The powder is initially adhered to the
conductor surface by sticking by slight melting by heat
of the conductor piece, which is preheated; or it may be
adhered by electrostatic attraction.
The applications involving cast resins and outdoor use
are particularly emphasized in this paper. These applications are outlined in [2] and mentioned in the Introduction. Only a few examples are cited here. See also [13].
Earlier applications of cast epoxy have been indoors or
protected, because of the uncertainty and apprehension
regarding the weathering, tracking, and reliability in
outdoor environments. Among these applications are cast
epoxy condenser bushings shown in Fig. 3 (a) and 3 (b), in
this case supplied in a porcelain weather casing.
More than ten years ago, systematic outdoor exposure
tests under voltage were initiated of a great variety of
bushings and insulator specimens with primary emphasis
on proving the reliability of epoxy resins which had been






Fig. 5.

Fig. 4. (a) Outdoor insulation test station (Westinghouse, Pittsburgh), for 23 and 11.5 kV. (b) Outdoor insulator test strips
under stress (Westinghouse, Pittsburgh).

shown to be track resistant or nontracking in laboratory

tests. Skeptical engineers had to be convinced that epoxy
resins were reliable outdoors. Their skepticism was in
early years reinforced by a few unfortunate trials of poorer
quality epoxy resins. Confidence should have been reinforced, however, by the reliable outdoor service of filled
butyl rubber insulated instrument transformers, which

were introduced in the mid-nineteen-fifties.

An outdoor insulator test station for studying the
performance of plastics at the author's laboratory in a
Pittsburgh suburb is illustrated in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b). In

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115-kV cast epoxy wxeather sheds on SF6 bushing assembly

(prototype experimental) (Westinghouse).

addition to post insulators with sheds and some bushings,

inany flat strips have been on test here. The continuous
voltage surface stress has been primarily at about 1.5 and
0.75 kV/in. Some insulations have failed as we usually
could predict from the laboratory pretesting; but the
better epoxy resins have now withstood nine years of this
moderately contaminated environment-without failure,
and preserving good appearance, with no serious surface
erosion. Other companies and laboratories, both in the
U.S. and Europe, have also been making outdoor trials
and applications of high-voltage epoxy insulators, with, I
understand, growing confidence in the better epoxy
weather sheds.
A series of higher voltage 115-kV cast epoxy weather
sheds (Fig. 5) [14] made by the author's company for
SF6-type bushings has been in operation without deterioration for more than three years in several locations in
the U.S. The most severe environment from the standpoint of more continuous wet surface contamination
appears to be the west seacoast. Here the only incidents
have been two flashovers, neither of which harmed the
epoxy bushing. In this environment, conventional porcelain must be treated with silicone greases to avoid
High-voltage applications of cast epoxy abroad and in
the U.S. are numerous, withl some outdoor applications.
Examples of such applications are shown in Figs. 6-8
for potential and current transformers. Fig. 9 shows application to medium power transformers, and Fig. 10 to distribution transformers. Spacer-type applications are illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12, and outdoor stand off insulators
in Fig. 13.

The development of epoxy resins which meet the stringent requirements of many types of insulation applications





Fig. 8. Combined potential and current transformer, 110 kV,

Siemens, West Berlin.

Fig. 6. (a) Wall mounted cast epoxy current transformer (Messwandlerbau). (b) 20-kV cast epoxy transformer in North Germany
(Messwandlerbau). (c) 60-kV cast epoxy current transformer in
an outdoor application (Messwandlerbau).

Fig 7. Combination PT and CT's, 72-kV, outdoor service since

1969, Moser Glaser, Ltd., Switzerland (Araldite CY 180).

Fig. 9. Cast epoxy power transformers, 5 MVA, 30 kV, Transformatoren Union, West Germany (Araldite F).

within the electrical industry has reached a high level of

accomplishment. However, the great diversity of epoxy
After more than a decade of laboratory and service
resin types and properties should caution engineers not
testing, the better nontracking epoxy resins have shown
to confuse suitable and unsuitable types.
The volume and variety of applications is likely to continuing good performance for outdoor applications
grow still further as ingenuity in insulation design con- under stress. Therefore, the advantages which epoxies
show in lighter weight and design adaptability over
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Fig. 12. 220-kV transformer tap changer barrier, Bushing, Ltd.,

for Ferranti, Ltd., IJ. K. (Araldite B).

Fig. 10. Cast epoxy foil wound coil for 15-kV, 50-kVA (listribution
transformer (used in oil) (Westinghouse).


Fig. 11. Spacer for 545-kV switchgear conductor, Mitsubishi,

Japan (Araldite B).

porcelain indicates they will find an impressive increase
in outdoor use.

Fig. 13. Stand off insulators for outdoor service (A. B. Chance
Co.). (a) 15 kV. (b) 26 kV.

[1] Mod. Plast., Jan. 1974.
[21 T. W. Dakin et al., CIGRE Rep. 15-04, 1972 Session.
[31 a) H. L. Lee and K. 0. Neville, Handbook of Epoxy Resins.
New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.
b) P. F. Bruins, Ed., Epoxy Resin Technology. New York:
Interscience, 1968.
[4] D. Kind, Electrotech. Z., vol. A91, p. 134, 1970; also 1969 Anni.
Rep. NRC Conf. on Electrical Insulationi, p. 128.
[5] B. Dittmer, Arch. Electrotech. (Berlin), vol. 48, pp. 150, 287,
387, 1963.
[6] F. Y. Tse, M. J. Mulcahey, and W. R. Bell, in Proc. Inst. Elec.
Eng. Conf. on Dielectric Materials, Measurements, and ApplicaAuthorized licensd use limted to: IE Xplore. Downlade on May 10,2 at 19:087 UTC from IE Xplore. Restricon aply.






tions, Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. Publ. 67 (Lancaster, England),

1970, p. 314.
D. Goulsbra, H. M. Ryan, N. Shaw, and R. Wilkins, in Proc.
Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. on Dielectric Materials, Measurements,
and Applications, Inst. Elec. Eng. Conf. Publ. 67 (Lancaster,
England), 1970, p. 266.
L. Schiweck, Ph.D. dissertation, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig,
Braunschweig, Germany, 1969.
0. Milton, Insulation, p. 59, Nov. 1967.
ASTM Standard D2132.
ASTM Standard D2303.
ASTM Standard D233)2.
J. P. Burkhart and C. F. Hofman, IEEE Conf. Paper 74-064-2.
C. W. Upton and J. J. Dodds, IEEE Conf. Paper 74-178-0.