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DRYING SHRINKAGE OF STEEL-MAKING SLAG CONCRETE

T Fujii*, Okayama University, Japan


T Ayano, Okayama University, Japan
K Sakata, Okayama University, Japan
33rd Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 - 27 August 2008,
Singapore

Article Online Id: 100033014


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33rd Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 25 27 August 2008, Singapore

DRYING SHRINKAGE OF STEEL-MAKING SLAG CONCRETE


T Fujii*, Okayama University, Japan
T Ayano, Okayama University, Japan
K Sakata, Okayama University, Japan

Abstract
Steel-making slag concrete is made of ground granulated blast furnace slag
powder and steel-making slag which is by-product of iron manufacturing. The
cement is not required to produce the steel-making slag concrete. The leaching of
heavy metal from steel-making slag concrete is very little. This type construction
material is called environmental conscious material in Japan. In this paper, drying
shrinkage strain of steel-making slag concrete is compared with that of cement
concrete. Drying shrinkage strain at ultimate drying time of steel-making slag
concrete is much bigger than that of cement concrete. Furthermore, drying shrinkage
strain of steel-making slag concrete develops with a lapse of time. They are due to
the effect of high water absorption of steel-making slag. When drying shrinkage
strain of steel-making slag concrete is predicted by JSCE model, water content in
aggregate must be taken into consideration. As shown in this paper, the deformation
of steel-making slag concrete can be predicted in design. It is possible to utilize the
steel-making slag concrete in manufacturing of plain concrete structure such as
large precast concrete armour unit or concrete block for retaining wall and
revetment.
Keywords: Steel-making slag concrete, steel-making slag, Drying shrinkage strain, water
content in aggregate
1.

Introduction
Environment problem has become a matter of great concern. Researches of construction
material and method of by-product or industrial wastes are actively carrying out. In ironworks, about
36 million ton steel-slag has produced as a by-product every year in Japan [1]. Steel-making slag
concrete is manufactured of using steel-making slag and ground granulated blast furnace slag as the
main raw materials.
All raw material of steel-making slag concrete is by-product. It does not use cement and natural
aggregate [2]. The binder material of steel-making slag concrete is mainly ground granulated blast
furnace slag. The aggregate of steel-making slag concrete is steel-making slag. Steel-making slag is
60% by volume of steel-making slag concrete. Steel-making slag is influencing factor to determine the
characteristic of steel-making slag concrete. Various steel-making slags are generated because of
differences of refining plant and method. Unless the steel-making slag is adequately treated, it
expands in steel-making slag concrete and makes the steel-making slag concrete broken in pieces.
So, steel-making slag needs to restrain expansion by aging [3]. There are two methods in aging. One
is natural aging which steel-making slag is exposed to rain or dew for a fixed period. Another is steam

*1

Type

Gmax
(mm)

W/B
(%)

20

23.4

Table 1 Mix proportions of steel-making slag concrete


3
Unit content (kg/m )
*2
C/B
Air
s/a
Binder
*5
(%)
(%)
(%)
W
SS
*3
*4
BF
LD
0.0

4.5

50.0

150

562

78

896

Admixture
HRW
*8
AE
*7
RA
3
(g/m
)
3
(kg/m )

*6

SG

931

7.7

64.0

*1 Water to binder ratio in weight *2 Cement to binder ratio in weight *3 Ground granulate blast furnace slag *4 Lime dust
*5 Steel-making slag sand *6 Steel-making slag gravel *7 High-range water reducing admixture *8 Air entraining admixture

Type

N0
N10

Gmax
(mm)

20

*1

W/B
(%)

*2

C/B
(%)

Table 2 Mix proportions of cement concrete


3
Unit content (kg/m )
Air
s/a
Binder
*5
(%)
(%)
W
S
*3
*4
BF
C
LD

*6

Admixture
HRW
*8
AE
*7
RA
3
(g/m
)
3
(kg/m )

23.4

0.0

4.5

50.0

150

562

78

755

802

7.6

64.0

55.0

100.0

2.0

46.0

160

291

864

1,077

4.4

0.0

*1 Water to binder ratio in weight *2 Cement to binder ratio in weight *3 Ground granulate blast furnace slag *4 Lime dust
*5 River sand *6 Crushed stone *7 High-range water reducing admixture *8 Air entraining admixture

aging which steel-making slag is exposed to


high temperature steam. Slaked lime or a kind
Ordinary steelof cement is used for alkali activator. The bymaking slag
product containing the calcium hydroxide or
Density 3.06g/cm
Density 3.18g/cm
Absorption 7.67%
Absorption 4.50%
calcium oxide can also be used for alkali
activator [2].
Steel-making slag concrete consists of by1,000
rotations
products at ironworks. Steel-making slag
concrete is expected as a material reducing
environmental load. Steel-making slag concrete
is used for foot protection block and small
marine block, now. The purpose of this study is
to enlarge the cover field of steel-making slag
Crushing
Density 3.40g/cm
Density 3.29g/cm
Absorption 2.02%
Absorption 3.77%
concrete. In this paper, drying shrinkage strain
of steel-making slag concrete is compared with Fig. 1 Process of improvement of the water
absorption of steel-making slag aggregate
that of cement concrete. Drying shrinkage of
steel-making slag concrete is affected by water
940 mm
absorption of steel-making slag concrete
170 mm
600 mm
170 mm
greatly.
3

170 mm

Outline of the experiment


2.1 Materials and mix proportions
Over view
Table 1 shows mix proportions of steelmaking slag concrete used in this experiment.
Ground granulated blast furnace slag was
plate
used. The density was 2.89g/cm3 and the Steel
(3mm)
2
specific surface area by blain was 4,000cm /g.
Lime dust (density: 3.14cm2/g) was used for
Side view
alkali activator. The size of steel-making slag is
0 - 5 mm (density: 3.06g/cm3, water absorption: Fig. 2 Specimen for drying shrinkage cracking of
restricted concrete
7.67%), 5 - 20 mm (density: 3.18g/cm3, water
absorption: 4.50%). The steel-making slag
aggregate whose density is improved by Los Angels machine shown in Figure 1 was also used. The
lowest water absorption of slag fine aggregate improved by Los Angels machine is 3.77%. The lowest
water absorption of slag coarse aggregate improved by Los Angels machine is 2.02%.
Table 2 shows mix proportions of cement concrete used for comparison. Ordinary portland
cement (density: 3.15g/cm3, specific surface area by blain: 4,000cm2/g), river sand (density:
2.58g/cm3, water absorption: 1.95%) and crushed stone (density: 2.74g/cm3, water absorption:
0.59%) were used.
2.2 Drying shrinkage strain test procedure
100 mm

2.

40 mm

100 mm

3 mm

600

Drying shrinkage strain - x10-6

Drying shrinkage strain - x10-6

700
Steel-making slag concrete

500
400
Cement concrete

300
200
100
0
0.1

10

100

700
Age at the start of drying: 14days
600
: Q =7.67%, Q =4.50%
S
G
: Q =7.67%, Q =2.02%
S
G
: Q =3.77%, Q =4.50%
S
G
: Q =3.77%, Q =2.02%

500
400

200
100
0

1,000

0.1

Drying time - days

Drying shrinkage strain - x10

Moisture loss - kg/m3

Age at the start of drying: 14days

60.0

Q =4.50%
G
Q =2.02%
G
Q =4.50%
G
Q =2.02%
G

40.0
20.0
0.0
0.1

10

100

100

1,000

Fig. 4 Effect of water absorption of steel-making


slag on drying shrinkage of concrete
-6

100.0

: Q =7.67%,
S
: Q =7.67%,
S
: Q =3.77%,
S
: Q =3.77%,

10

Drying time - days

Fig. 3 Comparison drying shrinkage of steelmaking slag and that of cement concrete

80.0

300

1,000

Drying time - days

Fig. 5 Effect of water absorption of steel-making


slag on moisture loss of concrete

700
: Q =7.67%, Q =4.50%
S
G
: Q =7.67%, Q =2.02%

600

500
400
300
200
: Q =3.77%, Q =4.50%
S
G
: Q =3.77%, Q =2.02%

100

0
0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

60.0

70.0

Moisture loss - kg/m 3

Fig. 6 Relationship drying shrinkage and moisture


loss of steel-making slag concrete

The size of the prism specimen for measuring drying shrinkage strain is 100100400 mm. Two
pairs of gauge points are put on each surface, except casting surface and its opposite side. The
drying shrinkage strain is measured by a Whittemore strain meter whose minimum reading is 1/1,000
mm. The specimens are kept in the constant temperature and constant relative humidity room
(temperature: 20 1 , relative humidity: 65 5%).
2.3 Test for drying shrinkage cracking of restricted concrete
Fig. 2 shows specimens for test for drying shrinkage cracking of restricted concrete. The age at
the start of drying is 1 day. The specimens are kept in the constant temperature and constant relative
humidity room (temperature: 20 1 , relative humidity: 65 5%).
3.

Discussion of test results


3.1 Characteristic of drying shrinkage of steel-making slag concrete
Fig. 3 shows the comparison of drying shrinkage of concrete with virgin aggregate and that with
steel-making slag aggregate. In early stage of drying, the difference of drying shrinkage of each
concrete is not big. However, at 1,000 days after drying, drying shrinkage strain of concrete with slag
aggregate is much higher than that of concrete with virgin aggregate. Ultimate drying shrinkage of
concrete with slag aggregate is much bigger, and it develops slowly.
Fig. 4 shows the effect of water absorption of steel-making slag aggregate on drying shrinkage.
As clear from this figure, the more the water absorption of slag aggregate, the bigger the drying
shrinkage of concrete. It is clear that the effect of water absorption of both slag fine aggregate and
slag coarse aggregate is big. Fig. 5 shows the moisture loss of the same concrete shown in Fig. 4.
Moisture loss of steel-making slag concrete of high water absorption is more than that of low water
absorption. Fig. 6 shows the relationship between drying shrinkage strain shown in Fig. 4 and
moisture loss shown in Fig. 5. But these relations showed only the solid line part which they showed
in Fig. 7. When water absorption of steel-making slag aggregate is high, drying shrinkage strain of

900

400
300
200
100
0

Q =7.67%, Q =4.50%
S

Steel-making slag
aggregate

700
600
500

River sand &


crushed stone

400
Q =3.77%, Q =2.02%
S

300
0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

100.0

0.0

20.0

40.0

120.0

(1)

Q =7.67%, Q =4.50%
S

800
700

strain - x10

600
Steel-making
slag aggregate

500
400

River sand &


crushed stone

Q =3.77%, Q =2.02%
S

300
0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

120.0

Fig. 9 Prediction of ultimate drying shrinkage


strain by JSCE model equation and W+
0

100.0

- kg/m 3

( ) = drying shrinkage strain of concrete at age t when drying starts at t ;


t, t

100.0

900

-6

concrete is big, and moisture loss of concrete is


much. However, the relationships between drying
shrinkage strain and moisture loss of concrete are
the same, even if water absorption of steelmaking slag aggregate is different. That is, drying
shrinkage of steel-making slag concrete with high
water absorption can be reduced when the
moisture loss from concrete is reduced by using
steel-making slag aggregate with low water
absorption.
Fig. 8 shows the ultimate drying shrinkage of
steel-making slag concrete. The ultimate drying
shrinkage strain was obtained by regression with
hyperbolic curve shown in equation (1).

ds (t t0 )
+ (t t0 )

80.0

Fig. 8 Relationship between water content in


steel-making slag and ultimate drying
shrinkage strain
Ultimate drying shrinkage

Fig. 7 Relationship between drying shrinkage


strain and moisture loss

ds (t , t0 ) =

60.0

- kg/m 3

Moisture loss - kg/m3

where ds

800

-6

500

strain - x10

Ultimate drying shrinkage

-6

Drying shrinkage strain - x10

600

ds

= ultimate

drying shrinkage strain (10 ); and = coefficient to express the development of drying shrinkage
strain.
In addition, water content in aggregate is obtained by equation (2).
-6

S QS
G QG
+
100 + QS 100 + QG

(2)

Where S = unit sand content (kg/m3); G = unit gravel content (kg/m3); Qs = water absorption of sand
(%); and QG = water absorption of gravel (%).
The relationship between ultimate drying shrinkage strain and water content in steel-making slag
aggregate can be expressed by linear. Water absorption of steel-making slag aggregate affects
drying shrinkage of steel-making slag concrete very strongly.
The dotted line shows in Fig. 9 is calculated by prediction equation of drying shrinkage proposed
by JSCE. In the case of using natural aggregate or low water absorption steel-making slag, the
predicted value accords with experimental shrinkage strain well. However, in the case of using high
water absorption steel-making slag, experimental shrinkage strain is bigger than predicted value. The
solid line shows in Fig. 9 is calculated by prediction equation of drying shrinkage strain proposed by
JSCE with total water content W+. Total water content, i.e., both of unit water content in concrete
and water content included in steel-making slag aggregate is used for the term of water content in
prediction equation. It is clear that the drying shrinkage strain of steel-making slag concrete with high
water absorption steel-making slag aggregate can be predicted by the equation now in use with water
absorption of steel-making slag aggregate.
The line shows in Fig.10 is calculated by prediction equation of drying shrinkage strain
development proposed by JSCE with total water content W+. In the case of cement concrete with

200
Steel-making slag aggregate

600

Steel-making slag concrete

in equation (3)

-6

Drying shrinkage strain - x10

700

500
400
300

Cement concrete

200

150
Q =7.67%,
S

Q =4.50%
G

100
Q =3.77%, Q =2.02%
S

100

River sand & crushed stone


0

0
0.1

10

100

1,000

0.0

20.0

40.0

-6

700
600
Steel-making slag concrete

400
300
Cement concrete
200
100
0
0.1

10

100

80.0

100.0

120.0

Fig. 11 Effect of on the term of shrinkage


strain development
Drying shrinkage strain - x10

-6

Fig. 10 Relationship between and ultimate


drying shrinkage strain

500

60.0

- kg/m 3

Drying time - days

Drying shrinkage strain - x10

50

1,000

Drying time - days

Fig. 12 Prediction of development of drying


shrinkage strain by JSCE model equation
with W+

700
600
Standard curing
500

Standard curing

Cement concrete

400

Steel-making
slag concrete

Steam curing

300
Steam curing

200
100

Age at the start of drying: 1day


0
0.0

20.0

40.0

60.0

80.0

Moisture loss - kg/m 3

Fig. 13 Effect of steam curing to relationship


between moisture loss and drying
shrinkage strain

natural aggregate, the predicted value accords with experimental shrinkage strain well. However, in
the case of steel-making slag concrete with steel-making slag, the predicted value is smaller than
experimental shrinkage strain, especially in early stage of drying.
Fig. 11 shows the relationship between the term for drying shrinkage strain development and
water content in slag aggregate. The term in this figure is obtained by regression with hyperbolic
curve shown in equation (2). Big value of term means that shrinkage strain develops slowly. The
dotted line in this figure is calculated by prediction equation by JSCE. Total water content, i.e., total of
unit water content of concrete and water content included in slag aggregate is used for the term of
water content in prediction equation. The effect of water content in slag aggregate on the term of
shrinkage strain development is much bigger than that in the case of ultimate drying shrinkage. That
is, the effect of water content in slag aggregate is much bigger than that of unit water content in
concrete.
Fig. 12 shows the comparison between experimental data and prediction curves by JSCE model
with total of unit water content of concrete and the water content in slag aggregate. The value shown
in Fig. 11 is used for prediction of drying shrinkage development. By taking the effect of water
absorption of slag aggregate, the predicted value can fit with experimental data well.
3.2 Drying shrinkage cracking of restricted concrete
Fig. 13 shows the effect of steam curing to relationship between moisture loss and drying
shrinkage strain. But these relations showed only the solid line part which they showed in Fig. 7. The
steam curing went by a method showed in standard specifications for concrete structures -1996
Materials and Construction of JSCE [4]. In the case of cement concrete, the difference of
relationship between drying shrinkage strain and moisture loss by steam curing is small. However, in
the case of steel-making slag without cement, the slope of the line becomes small by steam curing.
Fig. 14 shows the effect of steam curing to moisture loss. Moisture losses of both concrete become
small by steam curing. Fig. 15 shows the effect of steam curing to drying shrinkage strain of concrete.

80.0

Steam curing

60.0
40.0

Standard curing

20.0
Steam curing

0.0
0.1

10

100

-6

, : Steel-making slag concrete


, : Cement concrete
Standard curing
Age at the start of drying: 1day

Drying shrinkage strain - x10

Moisture loss - kg/m3

100.0

700

Standard curing

600

, : Steel-making slag concrete


, : Cement concrete

500

Age at the start


of drying: 1day

400

Steam curing

300
200
Steam curing

100
0

1,000

0.1

Drying time - days

Fig. 15 Effect of curing


shrinkage strain
0.35

Standard curing

600
Steam curing

Crack width - mm

-6

700

400
50.0

100

1,000

method

to

drying

, : Steel-making slag concrete


Standard curing
, : Cement concrete
Age at the start of
drying: 1day

0.30

800

strain - x10

Ultimate drying shrinkage

900

60kg/m3

10

Drying time - days

Fig. 14 Effect of curing method to moisture loss

500

Standard curing

0.25

Standard curing

0.20
Steam curing

0.15
0.10
0.05

104kg/m3

Steam curing

0.00
60.0

70.0

80.0

90.0

- kg/m 3

100.0

110.0

50

100

150

200

250

Drying time - days

Fig. 16 Effect of steam curing to ultimate drying Fig. 17 Effect of steam curing to crack due to
shrinkage strain
shrinkage
Moisture loss of steel-making slag becomes small by steam curing, and the slope of line showed
relationship between drying shrinkage strain and moisture loss becomes small by steam curing. By
effect of these, drying shrinkage strain of steel-making slag cured by steam is very smaller than that
of cement concrete.
Fig. 16 shows the effect of steam curing to ultimate drying shrinkage strain of steel-making slag
concrete. The circles represent the results of steel-making slag concrete which cured in room
temperature with steel-making slag aggregate with various water absorption. And the box represents
the result of steel-making slag concrete which cured by steam with steel-making slag sand whose
water absorption is 7.67% and steel-making slag gravel whose water absorption is 4.50%. In the case
of curing in room temperature, the ultimate drying shrinkage strain of steel-making slag concrete is
80010-6. However, in the case of curing by steam, the ultimate drying shrinkage strain of steelmaking slag concrete is 50010-6 of around 60%. The effect of steam curing is equivalent to having
reduced 40kg/m3 of water content in steel-making slag aggregate.
Fig. 17 shows the effect of steam curing to crack due to shrinkage. In the case of cement
concrete with just cement for binder, the crack width of cement concrete cured by steam is slightly
smaller than that of cured in room temperature. However, the steel-making slag concrete cured by
steam has no visible crack even if 400 days passed away after a start of drying.
4.

Conclusion
The ultimate drying shrinkage strain of steel-making slag is bigger than that of cement concrete.
And drying shrinkage of steel-making slag concrete develops with a lapse of time. Ultimate drying
shrinkage can be predicted by the prediction equation now in use with total of unit water content of
concrete and water content in steel-making aggregate. Drying shrinkage of steel-making slag
concrete is easy to be affected by curing method by cement concrete. The drying shrinkage strain of
steel-making slag concrete cured by steam is 60% smaller than that of steel-making slag concrete
cured in room temperature.