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Chapter 13

Aggregate Planning

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Chapter 13: Learning Objectives


You should be able to:
Explain what aggregate planning is and how it is useful
Identify the variables decision makers have to work with in
aggregate planning and some of the possible strategies they can
use
Describe some of the graphical and quantitative techniques
planners use
Prepare aggregate plans and compute their costs

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Aggregate Planning
Aggregate planning
Intermediate-range capacity planning that typically
covers a time horizon of 2 to 18 months
Useful for organizations that experience seasonal, or
other variations in demand
Goal:
Achieve a production plan that will effectively utilize the
organizations resources to satisfy demand

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Why Use Aggregate Planning


Why do organizations need to do aggregate planning?
Planning
It time to implement plans
Strategic
Aggregation is important because it is not possible to predict
with accuracy the timing and volume of demand for individual
items
It is connected to the budgeting process
It can help synchronize flow throughout the supply chain; it
affects costs, equipment utilization; employment levels; and
customer satisfaction

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Aggregate Planning Inputs


Resources
Workforce/production rates
Facilities and equipment

Demand forecast
Policies

Workforce changes
Subcontracting
Overtime
Inventory levels/changes
Back orders

Costs

Inventory carrying
Back orders
Hiring/firing
Overtime
Inventory changes
subcontracting

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Aggregate Planning Outputs


Total cost of a plan
Projected levels of
Inventory
Output
Employment
Subcontracting
Backordering

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Aggregate Planning Strategies


Typical aggregate planning strategies
1.
2.
3.
4.

Maintain a level workforce


Maintain a steady output rate
Match demand period by period
Use a combination of decision variables

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Techniques for Aggregate Planning


General procedure:
1.Determine demand for each period
2.Determine capacities for each period

3.Identify company or departmental policies that are pertinent


4.Determine unit costs
5.Develop alternative plans and costs

6.Select the plan that best satisfies objectives. Otherwise return to


step 5.

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Disaggregating the Aggregate Plan


Master schedule:
The result of disaggregating an aggregate plan
Shows quantity and timing of specific end items for a
scheduled horizon

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The Master Scheduling Process


Inputs

Outputs

Beginning inventory
Forecast

Customer orders

Projected inventory
Master
Production
Schedule

Master production schedule


Uncommitted inventory

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MPS Forecasts and Customer Orders

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MPS Projected On Hand

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Determining MPS and Projected On Hand

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Adding MPS and Projected On Hand to the MPS

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Available to Promise

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