Anda di halaman 1dari 8

A Dimming Module for Controlling Power Supply to a Fluorescent Lamp Ballasted

by a Nondimmable Electronic Ballast


+

CHEN Nan

Henry Shu-hung CHUNG

Student Member, IEEE

Senior Member, IEEE

Center for Power Electronics and School of Energy and Environment


City University of Hong Kong
Kowloon Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
+

nchen9@student.cityu.edu.hk
*eeshc@cityu.edu.hk

Abstract -- A dimming module for controlling the active


power supply to a fluorescent lamp ballasted by non-dimmable
electronic ballast is presented. The module is physically
connected across the lamp tube that requires dimming. The
operating concept is based on diverting the current being
supplied to the lamp tube away from the lamp tube thereby
dimming the lamp. The power stage of the module is a series
resonant inverter operating as a reactive power controller. It is
controlled to draw a current in phase quadrature with the lamp
voltage. On dimming the lamp, it will increase the filament
voltage so as to maintain thermal emission of electrons from the
filament, without detriment to the input power quality of the
ballast and lamp current crest factor.
An experimental
prototype for a 28W T5 lamp has been built and evaluated. It
is applied to one of the two lamps that are both ballasted by
commercial electronic ballast. Experimental results show that
the power supply to the lamp with the dimming module
connected can be reduced by 70% while the one without the
dimming module remains unchanged. A comprehensive study
into the electrical performance of the ballast, lamp operational
characteristics and system efficiency at different dimmed
conditions will be presented.
Index Terms-- Electronic ballast,
dimming technique

I.

lighting

technology,

INTRODUCTION

High-frequency electronic ballasts for fluorescent lamps


have been widely used and shown have an overall technical
and economic benefit. As projected in [1], the worldwide
electronic ballast market was forecasted to grow from $10.4
billion in 2005 to $15.7 billion in 2010. Unit sales were
expected to rise from 1.1 billion units in 2005 to 2.0 billion
units in 2010. Operating at high frequency, electronic
ballasts can eliminate the flickering effects of the fluorescent
lamps and achieve a higher efficacy than mains-frequency
operated magnetic ballasts.
A significant amount of
research has been done improving and studying various
The work described in this paper was fully supported by a grant from
the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region, China (Project No.: CityU 112708).

978-1-4244-5287-3/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

aspects of electronic ballasts.[2]-[4]. Fig. 1 shows the


structure of a typical electronic ballast [5]-[7].
Fluorescent lamps of small diameters, for example T5
lamps, are becoming popular [8]. However, T5 lamps are
sometimes too bright and cause serious glare problem in
certain situations [9]-[10]. Apart from discomfort glare,
excessive light exposure can also cause a variety of adverse
health effects and energy waste [11]-[12]. Thus, users could
only a shield on the lighting fixture to reduce the light
illuminating on the work place, resulting in wastage of energy
and eyesore.
Another solution is to replace the existing non-dimmable
ballasts by suitable dimmable ballasts. The structure of
dimmable ballasts is similar to the one in Fig. 1(a). The
dimming function of the dimmable ballasts can be achieved
by controlling the dc link voltage [13]-[14], switching
frequency of dc/ac inverter [15]-[17], or the equivalent
impedance of the resonant tank circuit [18]-[21]. However,
this solution involves considerable capital costs in providing
the replacement dimmable ballasts, labor costs in rewiring the
existing lighting systems and environmental issues in
disposing of the removed ballasts.
This paper presents a dimming module for adapting a
lighting system to dim a lamp having existing non-dimmable
electronic ballasts. The proposed dimming method is based
on connecting the dimming module across the lamp, so that
the actual current flowing through the lamp can be varied.
A non-dimmable lighting system can immediately turn into a
dimmable one. The dimming module functions as a reactive
power controller (RPC). On dimming, the module will
increase the filament voltage so as to maintain thermal
emission of electrons from the filament, ensuring the lamp
lifetime. An experimental prototype for a 28W T5 lamp has
been built and evaluated. It is applied to one of the two
lamps that are both ballasted by the same ballast.
Experimental results show that the power supply to the lamp
with the dimming module connected can be reduced by 70%
while the one without the dimming module has the lamp
power unchanged.
More importantly, the proposed

1327

proposed. Fig. 1(c) shows the one used in [14]. The lamp
is modeled by a resistor r ( p) , where p is the lamp power.

The filament is modeled by resistors with its value of r f .


The rms value of the lamp voltage v L ( p ) is assumed to be
equal to the voltage across r ( p) .

v L ( p) , r ( p) and the

lamp current iL ( p) are expressed as


vL ( p) = a p + b

(a) Block diagram

(1)
2

r ( p) = a p + 2 a b + b p

(2)

i L ( p) = 1 /( a + b p )
(3)
where a and b are constants related to the physical
dimensions of the lamp. For example, the values of a and b
of the Philips TL5 28W/865 lamp are found to be -4.57 VW-1
and 297 V, respectively. Experimental results show that the
above mathematical model is valid for the lamp power
varying from 10% to 100% of the full power.
Fig. 1(c) shows the equivalent circuit model in which the
inverter is modeled by a high-frequency sinusoidal voltage
source vinv ' . For the sake of simplicity, the filament

(b) Circuit schematic of the second stage.

resistance r f is ignored in the following analysis.

It can be

shown that iinv is


vinv '

iinv =

vinv '
Z inv ( p )

(4)

rL ( p)
, = 2 f , and f
1 + j Cr rL ( p)
is the switching frequency.
Thus, based on (4), the magnitude of iinv , rated | iinv | , is
equal to
where Z inv ( p) = j Lr +

(c) Equivalent circuit model.


Fig. 1. Structure of electronic ballast.

dimming module enables dimming of the lamp without


detriment to the input power quality of the ballast and lamp
current crest factor.
II.

| iinv | = | vinv ' |

1 + 2 Cr rL ( Pr )
2
2
Lr + [rL ( Pr ) 2 Lr Cr rL ( Pr )]2

(5)

where Pr is the rated power of the lamp.

REVIEW ON ELECTRONIC BALLAST

The basic block diagram of modern electronic ballast is


shown in Fig. 1(a). It consists of two power processing
stages. The first stage is a power factor correction circuit
and the second stage is a high-frequency inverter having an
output resonant tank circuit. The inverter generates a square
voltage waveform at the input of the resonant tank. The
resonant tank is used to preheat the lamp filaments, maintain
the filament temperature, generate a sufficiently high voltage
to ignite the lamp, facilitate soft-switching of the inverter,
and give a near sinusoidal lamp current.
Fig. 1(b) shows the circuit schematic of a voltage-fed
half-bridge series-resonant parallel-loaded inverter popularly
used for the second stage. The capacitor C is used to
provide a stable dc voltage of V g / 2 at node Y. C s1 and

III. OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF THE DIMMING MODULE


The dimming principle is illustrated in Fig. 2. It is based
on using a current source im to divert the lamp current i L .
Fig. 2 illustrates the basic concept and the connection of the

C s 2 create zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) conditions for S1


and S1 .
Many high-frequency models for the lamp have been

1328

vinv '

Fig. 2. Connection of the dimming module

dimming module to the entire lamp system.


resistance is neglected, it can be shown that
im iinv i L iCr

If the filament
(6)

where iCr is the current flowing through the resonant

voltage reflected to the secondary side of the transformer, and


vo is the inverter voltage on the ac side.
Thus, the input current im ' of the dimming module is
equal to

capacitor Cr

iL + iCr =

vL ( p)
Z x ( p)

and

Z x ( p) =

rL ( p)
.
1 + j C r rL ( p )

im is controlled to be leading vL by 90o, so the current


source (dimming module) does not handle active power,
Since im is in phase with the resonant capacitor current iCr ,
their total current iC can be expressed as
| iC | = | iCr | + | im |
The values of a is negative and b in (1) is positive.
if P1 > P2 , it can be inferred from (1) and (3) that
and

(7)
Thus,
(a) Circuit schematic.

v L ( P2 ) > v L ( P1 )

(8)

iL ( P2 ) < iL ( P1 )

(9)

vL'

According to (8), the resonant capacitor current iCr


increases as

vL

increases at the dimmed condition.

Together with im , the filament voltage and thus its power


will increase as the lamp power decreases. The filament
power p f can be approximated by
p f = (| iinv |2 + | iC |2 ) r f
= [| iinv |2 + (| im | + | iCr |) 2 ] r f

vCB
vo

vdc /2

(10)

t
-vdc /2

where iCr = C r v L .
Such phenomenon provides a favorable condition for
dimming the lamp because the filament power will increase
with an increase in im and iCr at the dimmed conditions.
The circuit schematic, key waveforms and phasor diagram
of the dimming module are shown in Fig. 3. The dimming
module has a high-frequency transformer Tr with the turns
ratio of n : 1. It is connected to an inverter formed by the
switches S A and S B through a resonant tank circuit

(b) Key waveforms.

= 0o.

formed by C A , C B , and L. The dc side of the inverter is


connected to a capacitor bank formed by two dc capacitors
Cdc . The gate signals to S A and S B are synchronized
with the lamp voltage with a phase difference of . The
value of determines the power flow from the ballast to
Cdc . The duty cycles of S A and S B are 0.5.
An ac analysis of the circuit is conducted in the following.
Let Z A = 1 /( j C A ) , Z B = 1 /( j C B ) , and Z C = j L .
It can be shown that
Z AB
Z BC
vCB =
vo +
vL '
(11)
Z C + Z AB
Z A + Z BC
where Z AB =

Z A ZB
Z Z
, Z BC = B C , vL ' is the lamp
Z A + ZB
Z B + ZC

1329

= 180o.
(c) Phasor diagram.
Fig. 3.

Dimming module.

im ' =
where K1 =

v L ' vCB
= j ( K 1 v L ' K 2 vo )
ZA

(12)

CA
(1 2 L C B ) C A
, K2 =
.
2
2
1 L (C A + C B )
1 L (C A + C B )

vo is expressed in the polar and rectangular forms as


v o = | vo | e j

(13)

= | vo | cos + j | vo | sin

The active power pm and reactive power qm


transferring from the ballast to dimming module are
calculated by substituting (13) into (12). Thus,
pm = Re [v L ' im '*] = K 2 | v L '| | vo | sin
(14)
qm = Im[vL ' im '*]

and

Fig. 4. Relationship between the lamp power and vo for ballasts


operating at different switching frequencies.

(15)

= K1 | vL ' | + K 2 | vL ' || vo | cos

where Re[] and Im[] are the real and imaginary parts of the
function, respectively; and im '* is the conjugate of im ' .
The direction of energy flow is dependent on . If >
0o, pm > 0 and energy is transferred from the ballast to the
o

dimming module. vdc will increase. If < 0 , pm < 0


and energy is transferred from the dimming module to the
ballast. vdc will decrease. If = 0o, pm = 0 and no
energy is transferred between the ballast and dimming
module. vdc remains unchanged. This is also the steadystate operating condition of the dimming module, where
is in phase with vL ' .
state module current

vo

Based on (12) and (15), the steadyim _ s '

and reactive power

handled by the dimming module are


im _ s ' = j ( K1 | v L '| K 2 | vo |)
2

q m _ s = K 1 | v L ' | + K 2 | v L ' | | vo |

qm _ s
(16)

(17)

By substituting (4) and (16) into (6) and using the


phenomenon of (5),
v ( p)
[ L
+ j C r v L ( p) + im ] jLr + v L ( p ) = vinv '
rL ( p)
| im | =

vinv ' 2
| v L ( p) |
Lr 2
| [
] + 1 2 Lr C r
|
rL ( p)
Lr v L ( p)

| vo | = | v L ' ( p ) |

vinv ' 2
Lr 2
(18)
| [
] + 1 2 Lr C r
|
rL ( p)
v L ( p)

K2
By considering the fundamental frequency component, the
rms value of vo can be expressed as
K1

n2
Lr

2 v dc
(19)

is the voltage across the dc link capacitor Cdc .


| vo | =

where vdc

Thus, based on (18) and (19), the lamp power can be


varied by adjusting the magnitude of vdc . Fig. 4 shows the
relationships between the lamp power p and vdc for ballasts
operating at different switching frequencies with the values
Based on (14), the
for Lr , Cr and switching frequency.
value of vdc is regulated by adjusting the angle .
IV. SOFT-SWITCHING RANGE OF THE SWITCHES IN THE
DIMMING MODULE
Fig. 3(c) shows the voltage and current phasors of the
dimming module.
Consider the voltage and current
associated with the inductor L. It can be shown that
| v | | vo | 0 o
io = CB
(20)
| Z C | 90 o
where is equal to either 0o or 180o.
S A and S B are soft-switched if the current io leads
vo .

If = 180o, io leads vo . Thus, the dimming module

is in soft-switching.
switched when

If = 0o, S A and S B will be soft-

(21)
| vo | > | vCB |
Therefore, based on (21), the condition for ensuring softswitching is
Z A // Z B
Z C // Z B
| vo | > |
| | vo | + |
| | vL ' |
Z C + Z A // Z B
Z A + Z C // Z B
(22)
| vo | > k c | vL ' |
CA
.
C A + CB
The boundary condition of (22) is used to determine the
lamp voltage at which the dimming module starts softswitching operation.
where k c =

1330

V.

DESIGN PROCEDURE

The values of C A , C B and L are designed by the


following procedure. The resonant frequency of the output
filter formed by L and C B is chosen to be the same as the
operating frequency of the ballast.
1
=
L CB

Thus,
(23)

By substituting (23) into (12), it can be shown that


CB
(24)
| n vo |
L
The maximum value of the dimming module current | im | ,
| im | =

| im _ max | , is chosen to be a fraction of the lamp current.


| n vo | is chosen to be a value slightly higher than the lamp
voltage at the dimmed condition. By using (23) and (24), it
can be shown that
| n vo |
L=
(25)
| im _ max |

CB =

and

| im _ max |

module connected while Lamp 2 does not have. The main


reason of applying it to one lamp in a two-lamp system is to
demonstrate the modularity of the dimming module that can
dim the lamp connected to it and it does not affect the normal
operation of the other lamp. Table I shows the values of the
components used in the prototype.
Table II shows the input and output characteristics of the
ballast, lamp characteristics and dimming module
characteristics. The input and output characteristics of the
ballast include the input current ( i ac ), input power factor
(PF), total harmonic distortion of the input current (THD)
and input power ( p in ). The lamp characteristics include the
lamp voltage ( vL ), lamp current ( i L ), lamp power (p), crest
factor (CF), and rms value of the filament voltage ( v f ) of the
two lamps.

The dimming module characteristics include the

(26)

| n vo |

The value of C A is designed by considering the


maximum voltage stress across it. At the maximum dimmed
condition, the voltage vCA across C A is the maximum.
Thus, the value of C A is designed such that vCA is less

Fig. 5.

Experimental test setup.

than the voltage vCA _ max . Thus,


vCA =

1
| im _ max | < vCA _ max
CA
CA >

| im _ max |

(27)

vCA _ max

The soft-switching operation can be ensured if equation


(22) is satisfied.
VI. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DIMMING MODULE
An experimental test setup shown in Fig. 5 has been
implemented. The electronic ballast used is Hoye HPP-228
non-dimmable electronic ballast. The ballast can drive two
28W T5 fluorescent lamps. To study the feasibility of the
dimming module, Lamp 1 has the proposed dimming

(a) Prototype.
Lamp not dimmed
(Lamp 2)

Lamp dimmed
(Lamp 1)

Table I
Values of components in prototype
Component

Value

CA

2.2nF

CB

5.7nF

2.0mH

Cdc

1.0F

(b) Appearance of Lamp 1 at the dimmed condition and Lamp 2.


Fig. 6. Experimental prototype.
(Image courtesy of e.Energy Lighting Limited).

1331

Table II
Input characteristics of the ballast and performances of the two lamps

iac

Ballast
PF
THD
%

(mA)

pin

vL1

iL1

Lamp1
p1

(W)

(V)

(mA)

(W)

CF1

vf1

vL2

iL2

Lamp2
p2

(V)

(V)

(mA)

(W)

CF1

vf2
(V)

Dimming module
im
pm
vdc

Loss
ploss

(mA)

(W)

(V)

(W)

258

0.9950

8.87

59.9

158

170

26.9

1.255

3.92

158

173

27.4

1.293

3.92

256

0.9948

8.85

59.5

176

138

24.3

1.200

5.47

158

175

27.6

1.299

3.87

66

1.8

65

7.6

5.6

247

0.9946

8.82

57.5

192

115

21.6

1.304

5.98

157

176

27.7

1.299

3.95

110

2.1

133

8.2

237

0.9945

8.73

55.1

203

95

18.9

1.320

6.37

157

177

27.8

1.291

3.99

119

2.0

168

8.4

228

0.9943

8.59

53.0

216

79

16.2

1.395

6.50

156

179

27.9

1.291

3.99

132

2.0

186

8.9

217

0.9942

8.30

50.4

226

61

13.5

1.255

6.69

156

179

27.9

1.293

3.84

140

2.1

198

9.0

206

0.9940

8.25

48.0

238

46

10.8

1.200

6.86

156

179

27.9

1.299

3.92

145

2.4

205

9.3

196

0.9935

8.16

45.7

245

34

8.1

1.304

6.93

156

179

27.9

1.299

4.01

149

2.6

211

9.7

(a)

(a)

(b)
Fig. 7. Voltage and current waveforms of two lamps.
(a) Both lamps are undimmed. (b) Lamp 1 is dimmed to 8.1W.
ch1: vlamp1 250V/div. ch4: ilamp1 500mA/div. ch2: vlamp2 250V/div. ch3:
ilamp2 500mA/div. Timebase: 10s.

(b)
Fig. 8. Filament voltage waveforms of two lamps.
(a) Both lamps are undimmed. (b) Lamp1 is dimmed to 8.1W.
ch1: vf1 10V/div. ch2: vf2 10V/div. Timebase: 10s.

input current of the module (im), power consumption (pm) and


dc link voltage ( v dc ).
Without using the dimming module, the ballast input
current, input power, input power factor, input current total

harmonic distortion are 258mA, 59.9W, 0.995, and 8.87%,


respectively. The lamp voltages of the two lamps are both
158V. The lamp currents of the two lamps are 170mA and
173mA, respectively. The power consumption of each lamp

1332

of is about 27W and the rms filament voltage is 3.92V.


After connecting the dimming module to Lamp 1, the ballast
input power can be reduced from 59.9W to 45.7W. The
input current is reduced from 258mA to 196mA. The input
power factor and input current total harmonic distortion
remain at the similar levels. The lamp power of Lamp 1 can
be varied from 27W down to 8.1W while the rms filament
voltage of Lamp 1 is increased from 3.92V to 6.93V. Even
though Lamp 1 is dimmed, the lamp power and filament
voltage of Lamp 2 remain unchanged.
As reported in [22], the filament heating should be high
enough in dimming use to ensure the adequate cathode
temperature. The filament voltage with T5 28 W lamps
should be more than 7V and the average electrode
temperature more than 700C. Results also show that with
proper electrode heating T5 lamps can be dimmed without
decreasing their lamp life. Thus, the dimming module thus
provides the necessary filament voltage in dimming Lamp 1.
The crest factors of the two lamps are almost unchanged
when Lamp 1 is dimmed. They are all less than 1.4,
implying that the dimming module does not affect the lamp
current quality. The input current of the dimming module is
increased from 0A to 149mA over the dimming process.
This results in an increase in the power consumption because
the conduction loss is increased. The maximum power
consumption of the module is 2.6W. Fig. 6(b) shows the
appearance of the two lamps when Lamp 1 is dimmed at the
lamp power of 8.1W (30% of the rated power).
The dimming module current is increased from 0 to
149mA when Lamp 1 is dimmed from 26.9W to 8.1W. The
power consumption of the module is increased from 1.8W to
2.6W. The dc link voltage of the dimming module is
increased from 0V to 211V. The total loss of the entire
system, i.e., total consumption of the ballast and dimming
module, is increased from 5.6W (undimmed condition) to
9.7W. After excluding the power consumption of the
control circuit and loss of the circuit from the experimental
results, Fig. 4 shows a comparison between the experimental
results and theoretical predictions. They are in close
agreement.
Fig. 7(a) shows the voltage and current waveforms of the
two lamps at the rated power without connecting the
dimming module.
Fig. 7(b) shows the corresponding
waveforms when the lamp power of Lamp 1 is 8.1W. Fig.
8(a) shows the filament voltages of the two lamps at the rated
power without connecting the dimming module. Fig. 8(b)
shows the corresponding waveforms when the lamp power of
Lamp 1 is 8.1W. The filament voltage of Lamp 1 is
increased at the dimmed condition while the one of Lamp 2
remains unchanged. Most importantly, the lamp currents of
the lamps in all conditions remain sinusoidal.
As the dimming module current and lamp voltage are in
phase quadrature, the dimming module can be modeled by a
lamp-power-dependent capacitor Ceq. Ceq can be expressed
as

im ( p)
vL ( p )
Thus, equation (4) can be rewritten as
v '
iinv = inv
Z inv ( p )
Ceq ( p) =

where Z inv ( p ) = jLr +

(28)

(29)

rL ( p)
, =2 f ,
1 + j(C r + Ceq )rL ( p)

and f is the switching frequency.


Since the values of Ceq ( p ) and rL ( p) vary with the
lamp power or dimming condition, zero-voltage switching of
the switches in typical electronic ballast has to be ensured.
The characteristic of Z nv ( p ) has to be inductive throughout
the dimming range.
Based on Table II, the equivalent values of Ceq ( p )
varies from 0-2nF and rL ( p) varies from 929 to 7200
for the lamp power varying from 26.9W to 8.1W. The
values of Lr and Cr used in the electronic ballast are 3.67mH
and 3.3nF, respectively. Thus, by substituting the values of
Ceq to rL into (29), the values of Zinv vary from (510 + j621)
to (56 + j450), which are all inductive. Thus, the zerovoltage switching of the switches in the ballast inverter is
guaranteed.
VII. CONCLUSIONS
A dimming module for controlling the lamp power to a
fluorescent lamp ballasted by an electronic ballast has been
presented. The concept is based on diverting part of the
ballast output to reduce the current supplying to the lamp.
The dimming module functions as a reactive power
controller, so that no active power is handled by it. The
concept has been confirmed by applying it to one of the two
lamps ballasted by the same electronic ballast.
The
experimental results are in good agreement with the
theoretical prediction. Most importantly, the proposed
dimming module provides a simple and environmentallyfriendly solution to reduce the power consumption and
brightness of the entire lamp system without replacing the
ballast and luminaries.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of
e.Energy Lighting Limited (http://www.eenergy.com.hk) for
the technical support for building the experimental prototype.
REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

1333

Global Electronic Ballast Markets: Technologies, Applications, Trends


and Competitive Environment, Fourth Edition, Darnell Group, Inc.
Sep. 2005.
C. S. Moo, K. H. Lee, H. L. Cheng and W. M. Chen, A Single-Stage
High-Power-Factor Electronic Ballast With ZVS BuckBoost
Conversion, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 4, pp.1136-1146,
Apr. 2009.

[3]
[4]

[5]

[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

[11]

[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]

[17]

[18]
[19]

[20]
[21]
[22]

G. Spiazzi and S. Buso, Small-Signal Analysis of Cold Cathode


Fluorescent Lamp Ballast, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no.
3, pp. 753 760, May 2007.
C. S. Moo, K. H. Lee, and H. C. Yen, Profiling Starting Transient of
Fluorescent Lamp With High-Frequency Electronic Ballast, IEEE
Trans. Plasma Science, vol. 37, no. 12, Part 2, pp. 2353-2358, Dec.
2009.
J.C.W. Lam and P.K. Jain, A Modified Valley Fill Electronic Ballast
Having a Current Source Resonant Inverter With Improved LineCurrent Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), High Power Factor, and
Low Lamp Crest Factor, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 3,
pp. 1147-1159, Mar. 2008.
T.J. Ribarich and J.J. Ribarich, A new procedure for high-frequency
electronic ballast design, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applications, vol. 37, no.
1, pp. 262-267, Jan. 2001.
E. Santi, Z. Zhang, and S. Cuk, High frequency electronic ballast
provides line frequency lamp current, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,
vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 667-675, Sep. 2001.
C.K. Cheong, K.W.E. Cheng, and H.L. Chan, Examination of T8-T5
Electronic Ballast Adaptor, 2nd International Conference on Power
Electronics Systems and Applications, Nov. 2006, pp. 170-172.
P. Ngai and P. Boyce, Effect of Overhead Glare on Visual
Discomfort, Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society, pp. 2938, Summer 2000.
L. Bellia, A. Cesarano, G.F. Iuliano, and G. Spada, HDR Luminance
Mapping Analysis System for Visual Comfort Evaluation, IEEE
Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, pp. 957961, May 2009.
Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits
of Green Schools, National Research Council, Green Schools:
Attributes for Health and Learning, Washington, DC: The national
Academies Press, 2006.R.S. Simpson, Lighting Control: Technology
and Applications, Focal Press, 2003.
C. DiLouie, Advanced Lighting Controls: Energy Savings,
Productivity, Technology and Applications, The Fairmont Press, Inc.,
2006.
S.Y.R. Hui, L. M. Lee, H.S.H. Chung, and Y.K.E. Ho, An electronic
ballast with wide dimming range, high PF, and low EMI, IEEE Trans.
Power Electron., vol.16, no.4, pp. 465-472, Jul. 2001.
Y.K.E Ho, S.T.S. Lee, H.S.H. Chung, and S.Y.R. Hui, A comparative
study on dimming control methods for electronic ballasts, IEEE
Trans. Power Electron., vol.16, no.6, pp. 828-836, Nov. 2001.
G. Hsieh, Group-Asymmetrical PWM Control for Dimmable
Fluorescent Lamp Ballast Without Striation and Thermostat Effect,
IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1293-1303, May 2009.
J.C.W. Lam and P.K. Jain, A Dimmable Electronic Ballast With
Unity Power Factor Based on a Single-Stage Current-Fed Resonant
Inverter, IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 3103-3115,
Nov 2008.
I.D. Kateri, C.A. Bouroussis, and F.V. Topalis, Variation of the
instantaneous luminous flux of fluorescent lamps fed by dimmable
electronic ballasts with frequency control, IET Electric Power
Applications, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 890-896, Nov. 2007.
S.S.M. Chan, H.S.H. Chung, and S.Y.R. Hui, A Self-Oscillating
Dimmable Electronic Ballast for Fluorescent Lamps, IEEE Power
Electronics Letter, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 87-91, Sept. 2004.
J.M. Alonso, M.A. Dalla Costa, M. Rico-Secades, J. Cardesin, and J.
Garcia, Investigation of a New Control Strategy for Electronic
Ballasts Based on Variable Inductor, IEEE. Trans. Ind. Electron.,
vol.55, no.1, pp.3-10, Jan. 2008.
H.J. Chiu, L.W. Lin, and C.M. Wang, Single-stage dimmable
electronic ballast with high power factor and low EMI, IEE Proc. Electrical Power Applications, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 89-95, Jan. 2005.
Y. Chen, W. Lin, and Y. Liu, Analysis and design of a dimmable
electronic ballast controlled by a switch-controlled capacitor, IEEE
Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1564-1572, Dec. 2005.
E. Tertri. (2005). Lamp Life of T5 Fluorescent Lamps in Dimming Use.
Research and Education on Lighting Lab. [Online]. Available:
http://www.einlightred.tue.nl/mierlo/files/Tetri.ppt

1334