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Introduction to Text

Linguistics
Robert de Beaugrande
Wolfgang Dressier

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introduction to

Text Linguistics
Robert-Alain de Beaugrande
University of Florida

Wolfgang Ulrich Dressier


University of Vienna

Routledge
Taylor &. Francis Group

LONDON AND NEW YORK

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First published 1981 by Longman Group Limited


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English translation Robert de Beaugrande 1981


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ISBN 13: 978 -0 - 582 - 55485 - 6 (pbk)

I ikraru nf Pnnnracc f atnlnninn in PiiKlipjttinn Data

Beaugrande, Robert- Alain de


Introduction to text linguistics - (Longman linguistics
library ).
1. Discourse analysis
I. Title II. Dressier, Wolfgang Ulrich
410 P302 80- 40581
ISBN 0- 582- 55485- 3 Pbk .

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Contents

Demonstration texts

viii

Acknowledgements

xi

Foreword

xiii

Basic notions

I
Textuality . The seven standards of textuality: cohesion; coherence;
intentionality ; acceptability; informativity; situationality; intertextu
ality. Constitutive versus regulative principles: efficiency; effective
ness; appropriateness.
12
Notes

II

y.

The evolution of text linguistics

Historical background of text linguistics: rhetoric; stylistics; literary


studies; anthropology; tagmemics; sociology; discourse analysis; func
tional sentence perspective. Descriptive structural linguistics: system
levels; Harriss discourse analysis; Coserius work on settings;
Harwegs model of substitution; the text as a unit above the sentence.
Transformational grammar: proposals of Heidolph and Isenberg; the
Konstanz project; Petofis text-structurc/ world-structure theory; van
Dijks text grammars; Mclcuk s text-meaning model; the evolving
notion of transformation .
Notes
29

III The procedural approach

31
Pragmatics. Systems and systemization . Description and explana
tion. Modularity and interaction . Combinatorial explosion. Text
as a procedural entity .
Processing ease and processing depth.
Thresholds of termination. Virtual and actual systems. Cybernetic

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vi

CONTENTS

regulation . Continuity . Stability . Problem solving: depth-first


search, breadth-first search, and means-end analysis. Mapping.
Procedural attachment. Pattern-matching. Phases of text produc
tion: planning; ideation; development; expression; parsing; lineariza
tion and adjacency . The phases of text reception: parsing; concept
recovery; idea recovery; plan recovery . Reversibility of production
and reception. Sources for procedural models: artificial intelligence;
cognitive psychology; operation types.
Notes
45

IV Cohesion
48
The function of syntax . The surface text in active storage. Closelyknit patterns: phrase, clause, and sentence. Augmented transition
Rules as procedures .
Grammatical dependencies .
networks.
Micro-states and macro-states. Hold suck . Re-using patterns:
recurrence; partial recurrence; parallelism; paraphrase. Compacting
patterns: pro-forms; anaphora and cataphora; ellipsis; trade-off
between compactness and clarity. Signalling relations: tense and
aspect; updating; junction: conjunction, disjunction, contrajunction,
and subordination; modality . Functional sentence perspective. In
tonation.
81
Notes

Coherence

Meaning versus sense.

84

Non-determinacy, ambiguity , and poly-

valence. Continuity of senses. Textual worlds. Concepts and


relations. Strength of linkage: determinate, typical , and accidental
knowledge. Decomposition . Procedural semantics. Activa
tion . Chunks and global patterns. Spreading activation . Episodic
and semantic memory . Economy. Frames, schemas, plans, and
scripts. Inheritance. Primary and secondary concepts. Opera
tors.
Building a text world model. Inferencing. The worldknowledge correlate. Reference.
110
Notes

VI Intentionally and acceptability

U3

VII Informarivity

139

Intentionality . Reduced cohesion . Reduced coherence. The


notion of intention across the disciplines. Speech act theory . Per
formatives. Grices conversational maxims: co-operation , quantity ,
quality , relation , and manner. The notions of action and discourse
action . Plans and goals. Scripts. Interactive planning. Monitor
ing and mediation . Acceptability . Judging sentences. Relation
ships between acceptability and grammaticality . Acceptance of plans
and goals.
Notes
137
Attention . Information theory . The Markov chain . Statistical
versus contextual probability. Three orders of informativity .

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vii

CONTENTS

Upgrading and down


Triviality , defaults, and preferences.
Motivation
Discontinuities and discrepancies.
grading.
search . Directionality . Strength of linkage. Removal and restora
tion of stability . Classifying expectations: the real world; facts and
beliefs; normal ordering strategies; the organization of language;
surface formatting; text types; immediate context . Negation.
Definiteness. A newspaper article and a sonnet . Expectations on
multiple levels. Motivations of non-expectedness.
l6l
Notes

VIII Situationality

163

Situation models. Mediation and evidence. Monitoring versus


Normal ordering
Noticing.
Dominances.
managing.
Exophora.
Negotiation .
Frequency . Salience.
strategies.
Managing . Plans and scripts. Planboxes and plan box escalation .
A trade off between efficiency and effectiveness. Strategies for
monitoring and managing a situation .
180
Notes

IX Intcrtcxtuality

linguistic typology.

182
Functional definitions:

Text types versus


descriptive, narrative, and argumentative texts; literary and poetic
texts; scientific and didactic texts. Using and referring to well-known
texts. The organization of conversation . Problems and variables.
Rcichmans coherence relations.
Monitoring and managing.
Discourse-world models . Recalling textual content . Effects of the
schema. Trace abstraction , construction , and reconstruction. InMental imagery and
ferencing and spreading activation .
scenes. Interactions between text-presented knowledge and stored
world-knowledge. Textuality in recall experiments.
206
Notes

Research and schooling

209

Cognitive science: the skills of rational human behaviour; language and


Texts as vehicles of
Defining intelligence.
cognition .
science. Sociology . Anthropology . Psychiatry and consulting
psychology. Reading and readability . Writing . Literary studies:
de-automatization; deviation; generative poetics; literary criticism as
downgrading. Translation studies: literal and free translating;

equivalence of experience; literary translating .

Contrastive
.
Computer
Semiotics
.
teaching
linguistics. Foreign-language
science and artificial intelligence . Understanding understanding .
221
Notes

Table of abbreviations for references


References

Index of names
Index of important terms

223
225
255
262

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Lean and hungry Cassius


(Shakespeare) 63
Alice and the Frog Footman
(Carroll ) 63 f. , 118
Tweedledee and Twcedlcdum in
battle (Carroll ) 64

Wanting to be an artist 114


A confused constable (Hardy )
114

A delirious and dying detective


(Conan Doyle) 114
A deaf and dumb Spaniard
(Twain) 115
Scotty and the preacher (Twain )
115

Napoleon at the palace 64


His Grace and Saint Sergius
(Leskov) 64
Crumpets and suicide ( Dickens) Performatives 117

65f.

A distressing case (Dickens) 66


Judgement vs. perception 66
San Juan gunfire 56, 146
Mine be thy love (Shakespeare)

67

Daughter and son (Goldsmith)

67

An itching palm (Shakespeare)

67

Always asleep (Dickens) 67f. ,

164

Mr Jingle and the revolution


(Dickens) 68
A flashing beacon (Talmy) 70
The great birds 71
Sadat and Gaza 72
Catching your hat (Dickens) 72

Double your funk (Shaffer )


Ii 8f.
Tom Sawyer in a jam (Twain )
119

Godzilla and King Kong ii 9f.


Can you tell me why ? 120
Fanatical phantasims
(Shakespeare) i 2of.
Incomprehensible tax laws 121
The Windsor train ( Allen ) 121
Mr Tupman and the spinster
aunt (Dickens) 125-8
Benchley defeats Thwomly
( Benchley) 135C
la zeechn u bapp (Jandl) 139
Him who disobeys ( Milton)

139, Hi
All our yesterdays have lighted
fools (Shakespeare) 141
Mr Winkle is not aggrieved
( Dickens) 72
if by yes 143
Carters diplomatic victory 73f. long along 143
They hadnt any feet (Carroll )
Smog in Long Beach Harbour
73
145
Time flies (Schank and
An emotional president 73
Wilensky) 146
Egypt and Israel 73
Richard Cory was human
German standards of living
( Robinson ) 146
(Thatcher) 74
Tall man the hit (Dresher and
A walking tower ( Dickens) 74
Savari the hunter (Govinda ) 75f.
Homstein ) 148
Reading Adam Bede 77f.
Shoes on footless mollusks 149
1 kill him not (Shakespeare) 86
Oysters and poverty (Dickens)
i 64f .
Chickens , robins, bats, and
The jurors slates (Carroll) 165
stones 92
Anglo Saxon attitudes (Carroll)
Going to Freds 113
What arc you laughing at ? 114
165

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DEMONSTRATION TEXTS

His Honour Christopher Sly


(Shakespeare) 166
Suppose within the girdle of
these walls (Shakespeare) 167

She entered heaven (Osborne)

189

Alison going to church


(Osborne) i 89f.

Thou saucy fellow!


(Shakespeare) 167
Brutus and the conspirators
(Shakespeare) i 67f.
Modesty or impudence?
(Goldsmith ) 168
Kennedy and Carter go to
Florida 168
This is a holdup 169
John, Bill, and the bicycle
( Wilensky) i 70f. , 178
Tom Sawyer and the new boy
(Twain ) 171
Tom whitewashes his fellows
(Twain ) 171-9
Charming day , Miss Fairfax
( Wilde) 174
Alice and the caterpillar
(Carroll ) 174
A passionate shepherd
(Marlowe) i 87f.
The nymphs reply (Ralegh)
i

87f.

A fisherman borrows a line


(Donne) i 87f.
Chance employment by the sour
canals (Day Lewis) 188
Selbys chair (Wesker) 189
Archie as hotel manager
(Osborne) 189

Shouting isn t done (Pinter ) 190


Is Charlie listening ? (Spark ) 190
Losing a son (Osborne) 190
Heartache and crime (Orton)
191

Daphne in difficulties (Spark )


191

Ideals of a stall-owner (Wesker )


191
Enough wine or too much?
(Osborne) 191
If your wife is a woman (Orton )
191

Brother Martins innocence


(Osborne) 191
Pamelas special nature
(Osborne) 19 if.
Charlie didn t mean it (Spark )
192
What Father hates (Osborne)
I 92f.
Rubbish in a free country
(Orton) 192
Is the world mad ? (Orton) 192
Why the two meetings?
( Wesker) 192
Nothing ever convinces
Truscott (Orton ) I 92f.
The water-board making arrests
(Orton ) 193

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material

xii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Elizabeth Jennings in Poems 1976 published by Macmillan;


Teachers College Press for an extract from p 8 McCalLCrabbs
Standard Test Lessons in Reading Book C , New York Teachers
College Press 1926, 1950, 1961 by Teachers College,
Columbia University.

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O. Foreword

At the 1976 summer meeting of the Societas linguistica


Europaea , we agreed to prepare an updated translation of Prof.
Dresslers Einjiihrung in die Textlinguistik (1972a ) which has
been well received . During the task of surveying and integrat
ing new research since 1972 , we came to realize that our plan
was not realistic. In their quest for new theories and methods,
recent trends have led to fundamentally changed conditions
for a science of texts, rather than to a mere extension of old
methods to a new object of inquiry . This evolution has been
marked by interdisciplinary co-operation far more than tradi
tional linguistics had been .
2 . We accordingly developed a completely new plan and
format for our introductory survey .1 We stress here at the
outset that we have by no means been exhaustive or definitive
in our treatment of the issues. We were often dealing with
newly emerging questions whose resolution will demand
many years of concerted research . Still , we thought it would
be useful to mention such questions and to suggest some
reasonable answers. We will be quite content if our book
proves serviceable as a guide in a period of rapid transition and
change.
3 . Any transitional study of multi disciplinary issues is
bound to evoke controversy . Some partisans may deny the
value of text linguistics altogether and insist that sentence
linguistics is the proper domain of investigation .2 Others may
wish to admit texts without altering the established methods.3
I

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XIV

INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

Even those who will accept profound alterations may disagree


about the best new directions to pursue.4 In our view , the
nature of texts as communicative occurrences should decide
what methods are used , irrespective of personal or institu-

tional commitments made in the past. In practice, our


approach is intended more to complement traditional ones
than to compete with them . We often address issues which
older approaches made no claims to encompass .
4. Thomas Kuhn (1970) has contributed enormously to
public awareness of the extent to which activities in normal
science are controlled by conventions among the scientists
rather than the manifest nature of the objects of inquiry . That
predicament is egregiously acute in linguistics, where the
object is so diversified and flexible. Hardly an aspect of human
thought , action , and interaction is not permeated to some
degree by language. We cannot escape being reductive in our
theories and models. Yet we must bear in mind that reductions
are temporary , undesirable conditions to be removed as soon
as it is feasible. We may even find that an integrated , compre
hensive approach actually leads to a simpler account of
language overall than a fragmented , restricted one: preoccupa
tion with exactness of detail in isolated domains can block our
vision for sweeping correlations across the whole spectrum
(cf.X.29) .
5 . A young science like linguistics would understandably
seek to align itself with older sciences like physics, mathe
matics , and formal logic. But communication , like any human
activity , has its own special physical, mathematic, and logical
properties that must not be overlooked . An unduly rigid
application of notions from the exact sciences could de
humanize the object to the point where the inquiry becomes
irrelevant . A formalism is a representation, not an explana
tion , and a means, not an end . The analysis of formal
structures might well fail to uncover the nature and function of
an entity in its wider context .
6. The terms and notions of linguistics often attest to
ambitions of scientific, logical , and mathematical rigor. Yet
their uncritical acceptance on those grounds alone could be
dangerous. A science of texts demands its own terms and
notions because of the nature of its object . Probabilistic models
are more adequate and realistic than deterministic ones.

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moru/ oDn

vv

Dynamic accounts of structure building operations will be more


productive than static descriptions of the structures them
selves. We should work to discover regularities , strategies ,
motivations , preferences , and defaults rather than rules and laws .
Dominances can offer more realistic classifications than can strict
categories . Acceptability and appropriateness are more crucial
standards for texts than grammaticality and well -formedness .
Human reasoning processes are more essential to using and
conveying knowledge in texts than are logical proofs. It is the
task of science to systemize the fuzziness of its objects of
inquiry , not to ignore it or argue it away.5
7. As remarked by Thomas Kuhn (1970: 136 43) , textbooks
generally create the impression that all discovery and research
in a science has been leading up to the constellation of theories
and issues we consider important today. Any other mode of
presentation would confuse the learner with a disunited array
of quarrels, many of which are not relevant in our modern
perspective. In the present book , wc devote some space to
comparing the paradigm of text linguistics with older
paradigms; yet we too are compelled to maintain a reasonable
degree of unity and consistency , even where the community
of text linguists is still engaged in lively debate. Wc try to point
out some major areas of dissension , but we will inevitably
have overlooked or attenuated some individual claims and
viewpoints. Such shortcomings may , we hope, be excused in a
textbook on a new domain caught up in rapid evolution .

ROBERT-ALAIN DE BEAUGRANDE

WOLFGANG ULRICH DRESSLER

University of Florida

University of Vienna

Notes
In our new division of labour , topics emerging since 1972 were mostly
treated by Prof. Beaugrande; Prof. Dresslers contributions were largely in
the areas he covered in the 1972 volume , especially cohesion .
2 e . g . , Dascal & Margalit ( 1974) .
3 e.g . , Ballmer (1975).
4 For an impressive diversity of viewpoints , see papers in Petofi (ed . ) ( 1979) .
and surveys in Dressier (ed . ) ( 1978) .
5 The scientific status of text studies is explored in Beaugrande ( 19816) .
1

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Orthographic conventions

Linguistic samples are enclosed in single quotes, with all


punctuation excluded if not part of the sample; other quota
tions are in double quotes. Main terms are introduced in SMALL
CAPITALS . We use bold type for terms where we wish to stress
their usage according to our approach . We have striven to use
our terms for other peoples research wherever they were
compatible, to save confusion . The paragraphs arc numbered
throughout for greatest ease in indexing and crossreferencing. We provide a table of demonstration texts
according to salient content , in case a sample should be
remembered and looked for . We have seen fit to use many
well-known texts in order that their contexts can be widely
accessible, for example, excerpts from famous dramas rather
than recorded conversations in Chapter IX .

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Chapter I

Basic notions

Here are six language samples that appear to be alike in some


ways and different in others:1
i.

[i]

SLOW
CHILDREN
AT PLAY

|2 ) The King was in the counting house, counting all his money;
The Queen was in the parlour , eating bread and honey;
The Maid was in the garden , hanging out the clothes;
Along came a blackbird and pecked off her nose.
[ 3 ] Twenty-year-old Willie B. is a diehard TV addict . He hates
news and talk shows, but he loves football and gets so
excited over food commercials that he sometimes charges at
the set , waving a fist . Says a friend: Hes like a little child .
Willie B. is a 450-lb gorilla at the Atlanta Zoo. In December a
Tennessee TV dealer heard about Willie B.s lonely life as
the zoos only gorilla and gave him a TV set .
[ 4] A great black and yellow V-2 rocket 46 feet long stood in a
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1f

npnt

ohiid

itrn

f /\ n c

\r

!I

IIA

.
carried eight tons of alcohol and liquid oxygen .

1X C W I V l t A l L U U W C I l . i

IIipcy

11

WLlglltU

I1V V I V / I 1 3

1 Ul IUVI II

Everything was ready . Scientists and generals withdrew to


some distance and crouched behind earth mounds. Two red
flares rose as a signal to fire the rocket .
With a great roar and burst of flame the giant rocket rose
slowly and then faster and faster . Behind it trailed sixty feet
of yellow flame. Soon the flame looked like a yellow star . In
a few seconds it was too high to be seen , but radar tracked it
as it sped upward to 3,000 mph .

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INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

A few minutes after it was fired , the pilot of a watching plane


saw it return at a speed of 2, 400 mph and plunge into earth
forty miles from the starting point .
[ 5 ] HEFFALUMP: (gloatingly): Ho-ho!
PIGLET (carelessly): Tra-la-la , tra-la-la .
HEFFALUMP (surprised , and not quite so sure of himself ) : Ho-ho!
PIGLET ( more carelessly still ) : Tiddlc-um-tum , tiddle-um-tum .
HEFFALUMP ( beginning to say Ho-ho and turning it awkwardly into
a cough ) : H r m! Whats all this?
PIGLET (surprised): Hallo! This is a trap I ve made, and I m
waiting for the Heffalump to fall into it .
HEFFALUMP (greatly disappointed): Oh! ( After a long silence ) : Are
you sure?
PIGLET: Yes.
HEFFALUMP: Oh! ( nervously): I - I thought it was a trap I d made
to catch piglets.
PIGLET (surprised): Oh . no!
HEFFALUMP: Oh! ( apologetically ) : I - I must have got it 'wrong ,
then .
PIGLET: I m afraid SO . ( politely ) : I m sorry . ( He goes on humming . )
HEFFALUMP: Well - well - I - well . I suppose I d better be
getting back ?
PIGLET: ( looking up carelessly ) : Must you ? Well , if you see
Christopher Robin anywhere, you might tell him I want
him.
HEFFALUMP ( eager to please ) : Certainly! Certainly! ( He hurries
of ) -

[6] GHOSTS
'

Those houses haunt in which we leave

Something undone. It is not those


Great words or silences of love

That spread their echoes through a place


And fill the locked-up unbreathed gloom .
Ghosts do not haunt with any face
That we have known; they only come
With arrogance to thnast at us
Our own omissions in a room .

The words we would not speak they use,


The deeds we dared not act they flaunt ,
Our nervous silences they bruise;
It is our helplessness they choose
And our refusals that they haunt .

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BASIC NOTIONS

2 . These are all instances of English TEXTS being used in


DISCOURSE. The different ways these texts can be used indicates
that they belong to different TEXT TYPES: [ I ] road sign , [ 2]

nursery rhyme, [ 3 ] news article, [ 4 ] science textbook , [ 5]


conversation between two participants taking turns , and [6]
poem . It seems reasonable to require that a science of texts
should be able to describe or explain both the shared features
and the distinctions among these texts or text types. We ought
to find out what standards texts must fulfil , how they might
be produced or received , what people arc using them for in a
given setting of occurrence, and so forth . The words and
sentences on the page are reliable clues , but they cannot be the
total picture. The more pressing question is how the texts
FUNCTION in HUMAN INTERACTION.
3 . A TEXT will be defined as a COMMUNICATIVE OCCURRENCE
which meets seven standards of TEXTUALITY . If any of these
standards is not considered to have been satisfied , the text will
not be communicative. Hence, non-communicativc texts are
treated as non-texts (cf. III .8) . We shall outline the seven
standards informally in this chapter and then devote individual
chapters to them later on .
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the ways in which the components of the SURFACE TEXT, i.e.


the actual words we hear or see, 2 are mutually connected within a
sequence . The surface components depend upon each other
according to grammatical forms and conventions, such that
cohesion rests upon GRAMMATICAL DEPENDENCIES . AS linguists
have often pointed out , surface sequences of English cannot be
radically rearranged without causing disturbances. We would
not , for instance, get very far by converting sample [ i ] into
this order:
[ i ]a Children play slow at
and requesting the traffic authorities to use it on road signs.
The series is so disjointed that drivers could hardly tell what
goes with what . Obviously , the grammatical dependencies in
the surface text arc major signals for sorting out meanings and
uses. All of the functions which can be used to signal relations
among surface elements are included under our notion of
COHESION . 3
5 . Notice that our original sample

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INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

[l]

SLOW

CHILDREN
AT PLAY

might be divided up into various dependencies. Someone


might conceivably construe it as a notice about slow children
who are at play , 4 so that unflattering conclusions could be
drawn about the childrens intelligence or physical fitness. But
the more likely reaction would be to divide the text into slow
and children at play , and suppose that drivers should reduce
speed to avoid endangering the playing children . A science of
texts should explain how AMBIGUITIES like this one are possible
on the surface , but also how people preclude or resolve most
ambiguities without difficulty . The surface is , as we see, not
decisive by itself; there must be INTERACTION between
cohesion and the other standards of textuality to make com
munication efficient cf. III . 4).

6 . The second standard will be called COHERENCE and con


cerns the ways in which the components of the TEXTUAL

i .e. the configuration of CONCEPTS and RELATIONS


which underlie the surface text , are mutually accessible and
relevant .5 A CONCEPT is definable as a configuration of
knowledge (cognitive content) which can be recovered or
activated with more or less unity and consistency in the mind
(cf. V .4ff.). RELATIONS are the LINKS between concepts which
appear together in a textual world: each link would bear a
designation of the concept it connects to. For example, in
children at play , children is an object concept and play an
action concept , and the relation agent of obtains, because
the children are the agents of the action (cf. V .26 ( b ) ) . Some
times, though not always, the relations are not made EXPLICIT
in the text , that is , they arc not ACTIVATED directly by expres
sions of the surface (cf. V . 4) . People will supply as many
relations as are needed to make sense out of the text as it stands.
In the road sign [1], slow makes better sense as the quantity
of motion which a text receiver should assume than as an
attribute of the children themselves .
7. Coherence can be illustrated particularly well by a group
of relations subsumed under CAUSALITY . 6 These relations
concern the ways in which one situation or event affects the
conditions for some other one. In a sample such as:
WORLD ,

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BASIC NOTIONS

[ 7] Jack fell down and broke his crown .

the event of falling down is the CAUSE of the event of break


ing , since it created the necessary conditions for the latter . A
weaker type of causality applies to this sample:

[ 8 ] The Queen of Hearts , she made some tarts, all on a summer


day .
The Knave of Hearts, he stole those tarts , and took them quite
away .

Here, the Queens action created the sufficient , but not necessary
conditions for the Knaves action ( made it possible, but not

obligatory ); this relation can be termed ENABLEMENT .


8. These conceptual relations do not cover all kinds of
causality . In a sample such as:
[9 ) Jack shall have but a penny a day
Because he can t work any faster

the low pay is not actually caused or enabled by the slow


working , but is nonetheless a reasonable and predictable out
come. The term REASON can be used for the relation where an
action follows as a rational response to some previous event . In
contrast , Jacks breaking his crown was independently neces
sary (we could not ask: What made him feel like doing that ?)
(cf. Wilks 1977b: 23 sf.) .
9. Cause, enablement , and reason cannot capture the rela
tion at stake here:
[ 10] Old Mother Hubbard
dog a bone,

went to the

cupboard

to get

her poor

Mother Hubbards first action does enable the second , but


there is an important difference between samples [ 8] and [ 10]:
the agents PLAN is involved in [ 10], while the Queen did not do
her baking for the sake of allowing a theft . The term PURPOSE
can be used for an event or situation which is planned to
become possible via a previous event or situation .
10 . Another way of looking at events or situations is their
arrangement in TIME. Cause , enablement , and reason have
forward directionality , that is, the earlier event or situation
causes , enables, or provides the reason for the later one.
Purpose has backward directionality , that is, the later event or
situation is the purpose for the earlier one. Time relations can

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INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

be very intricate, depending on the organization of the par


ticular events or situations mentioned . Where sample [ 10 ] goes
on to say:
[ 11] When she got there, the cupboard was bare .
rtiir

lpnmulpriftp r\ f

/ r\ plrl fpllc

11c

FHTF fLir

rr / t firinr

v/ ui

rvi iv

v TlVUgV

Vi

UIV

W ViJU

WWV

UJ

ViiOV

U1V

gvvvmg

iiiViV

action was later than that of going to the cupboard ( being the
terminal boundary of the latter) , but happened at the same
time as the situation of the cupboard being bare . The relation
of TEMPORAL PROXIMITY can be specified in many ways,
according to the boundaries of events.7
n . We reserve the discussion of other coherence relations
for section V .25 flf. We would only point out here that we have
already moved somewhat beyond the text as it is actually made
manifest in sound or print . Coherence is clearly not a mere
feature of texts, but rather the outcome of cognitive processes
among text users. The simple juxtaposition of events and
situations in a text will activate operations which recover or
create coherence relations. We can notice that effect in this
sample:
[ 2 ] The King was in the counting house , counting all his money;
The Queen was in the parlour , eating bread and honey;
The Maid was in the garden , hanging out the clothes;
In the explicit text , there is a set of ACTIONS (counting ,
eating , hanging out); the only relations presented are the
LOCATION , the AGENT , and the AFFECTED ENTITY of each action
(on these terms, cf. V . 26fT ) . Yet simply by virtue of the
textual configuration , a text receiver is likely to assume that
the action is in each case the PURPOSE of being at that location;
that the locations are PROXIMATE to each other , probably in or
near the royal palace; and even that the actions arc proximate in
TIME . One might well go on to assume that the actions are
intended to signal the ATTRIBUTES of the agents (e.g. the King
being avaricious, the Queen gluttonous, the Maid in
dustrious) . The adding of ones own knowledge to bring a
textual world together is called INFERENCING (cf. V . 32ff.) .
12. Coherence already illustrates the nature of a science of
texts as human activities. A text does not make sense by itself,
but rather by the interaction of TEXT-PRESENTED KNOWLEDGE
with peoples STORED KNOWLEDGE OF THE WORLD (cf. Petofi

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Table of Abbreviations for references

AI ; Laboratory or program for artificial intelligence


AI : Artificial Intelligence
AJCLing : AmericanJournal of Computational Linguistics
BBN : Bolt , Beranck & Newman Inc . , 50 Moulton St , Cambridge ,
Massachusetts, 02138
BritJPsy : British Journal of Psychology
BmStud : Brno Studies in English
CACM : Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery
CanJPsy : Canadian Journal of Psychology
CCC : College Composition and Communication
CLS : Proceedings from the Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic
Society
CogPsy : Cognitive Psychology
CogSci : Cognitive Science
CS: Department of computer scicncc(s)
CS-TR : Department of computer science(s) technical report
DisPro : Discourse Processes
FoundLang : Foundations of Language
IJCAI : Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Artificial
Intelligence
IntJAL: International Journal of American Linguistics
IRAL : International Review of Applied Linguistics
ISCS: Institute for Semantic and Cognitive Studies , Castagnola ,
Switzerland (now at the University of Geneva , Geneva ,
Switzerland)
JApPsy : Journal of Applied Psychology
JEdPsy : Journal of Educational Psychology
JExPsy : Journal of Experimental Psychology

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224

INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

JGettPsy: Journal of General Psychology


JLing : Journal of Linguistics
JMathPsy: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
JPersSocPsy : Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
JPrag : Journal of Pragmatics
JTWC : Journal of Technical Writing and Communication
J VL ViB:Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour
Lang Sty : Language and Style
LingBer: Linguistische Berichte
Linglnq: Linguistic Inquiry
MechTrans: Mechanical Translation
MemCog : Memory and Cognition
PerPsyp: Perception and Psychophysics
PICL: Proceedings of the International Congress of Linguists
PsynSci: Psychonomic Science
PsyR: Psychological Review
PTL: Journal of Descriptive Poetics and Theory of Literature
QJExPsy : Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
RRQ: Reading Research Quarterly
SborPra: Sbomik Praci Filozoficke Fakulty Bmenske Univerzity: Rada
Jazykovedena
SRI: Stanford Research Institute, 333 Ravenswood Ave , Menlo
Park , California , 94025
TINLAP-2: Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing 2
New York : Association for Computing Machinery , P.O. Box
12105 Church Street Station , New York , NY 10249
TR: Technical report
TraLing : Travaux Linguistiques de Prague

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References

For the convenience of readers in different disciplines , we give the


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9 Page 227 is not induded in this book preview.


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BULLWINKLE , CANDACE ( 1977) . Levels of complexity in discourse for

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nnv

INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS


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Ttfvf

CnM / nvf T

r\ nrlr n

nnrrtmn

, TEUN VAN (
*

wi

IMI

\ * y / / *y a

wr u v> v i > i i r \

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I V/ U

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T
\T ! 7
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Pages 253 254 are not included in this book preview .

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. V
1 A A

Ar r

v AC

1UUV A U1 llcUUCD

All numbers cite paragraphs except the superior numbers for chapter
notes.

Abelson , Robert III .33, V .16,


VI . 14 15, VI . 29 VI.9, VIII .9
VIII 7, VIII8, X 21
Adams, Marilyn IX 22
Admoni , Vladimir IX1

Berry , Margaret III1


10,
Bevcr , Thomas III 7
Biasci , Claudia II15
Bierwisch , Manfred II.22, III .7, X14
Blom , Jan-Petter VI . 27
26
Bloomfield , Leonard II.9
Aiello, Nelleke X
9
,
,
.
,
,
VI
.
6
,
V
110
16
I
Allen James
Blumer , Herbert Xs
VI .9.7, VI9
Blumstcin , Sheila VII.9
Anderson , John V.7, VI . 24
Bobrow , Daniel III . 19, IV . 5, V.9,
22
Anderson , Richard IX
X .3
Bobrow , Robert V .30
Apeltauer , Ernst VIII . 11
10
Bock , Wolfgang. V 2, X1
Aquino, Milagros V
Aristotle, V. 14, V . 20
Bolinger , Dwight IV .25, V 5, VI . 26
Austin , John VI .6-7, VI . 10
Bouton , Lawrence IV .25
17
Bower , Gordon IX 22
Ausubel , David II , IX .25
Bailey , Richard II .8
Brachman , Ronald V .17, V .30
4
3
Ballmer , Thomas O , II
Bransford , John II 17, IX . 28, IX 24
Balzcr , Robert III16, X .26
Bratley , Paul IV. 5
Barclay , Richard IX , 28
Brazil , David , IV . 54-8
Bartlett , Frederick V . 16, IX . 30
Bremond , Claude II. 12
14
Bauman , Richard I , II. 15
Bresnan , Joan IV . 22
1
Beaugrande, Robert del , 15, 19, 112, Brewer , William X . 5
11.8, 111.12, IV.7, V.16, VI.13 , X13 Brinkner , Klaus II . 1
Brinkmann , Hennig IX1
Beerbohm , Max IV . 18, IV . 25
Brown , John Seely X 26
Bcllcrt , Irene I5
Brown , Richard Henry III.33
Benchley , Robert VI.32-3
Brown , Robert II.3
Benes, Eduard IV . 51
9
Brown , Roger IV .36, VIII.7
Bernstein , Jared VI

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256

INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

Bruce, Bertram I 9, IV .40, VI .6,


VI . 16 , X 11
Bugc, Manfred IX 14, IX 25
Bullwinklc, Candace IV .22, IX .23
Burton , Richard IV . 36
Caniarazza , Alfonso IV .22
Carbonell , Jaime VI9
Carnap , Rudolf VII 14
Carroll , Lewis IV. 27, VI.9.1,
VII . 15, VII . 18.1 VIII.3 , VIII . 17,
X . 16
Carter, Jimmy VIII .9
Catford , John X.23
Chafe, Wallace IV.29, IV.34, IV .52,
V.27, V16
Chanslor J. W . I 13
Chaplin , Paul IV 27
Chamiak , Eugene V . 16, V .27, V . 34
Chase, William VII. 18.2
Chatman , Seymour II.11
Chester , Dan I1, III 23, IV,7, V10
Chomsky, Noam II . 21, II . 32, II.40,
IV .6
Christaller, Thomas IV . 5
Christensen , Francis X .12
Circourel , Aaron X 6
Clark , Eve III.34, VII.9, VII.18.2
Clark , Herbert III . 34, VII.9,
VII . 18.2
Cohen , Philip I9, 110, V.16, VI.6,
VI.8, VI9
Colby , Benjamin II . 12, V.16,
VII.18.5, VIII6, IX 22, X7
Colby , Kenneth III 17
Cole, Peter IV1
Coleman , Edmund V10
Collins, Allan V .12, V.18, V.21,
IX 22, X.3, X .27, X11, X 26
Conan Doyle, Arthur VI.3
Coppce, Francois IV .23
Corbett , Edward II .35
Coscriu , Eugenio II.23-24, II . 26,
IIP, IV33, X 24
Coulthard , Malcolm 1.13, Is, II . 1 ,
II.16, II5
Crabbs, Lelah P, V10
Craik , Fergus III6
Crowder , Robert I 2, IV.2
Crymes, Ruth I3, IV .32

Crystal , David III.7, IV . 54


Cullingford , Richard V. 16, X 21
Cummings, Edward Esdin VII . 10
Dahl , Deborah X . 5
Dahl , Osten IV . 51
Danes, Frantisek II. 1., IV . 51
Danks, Joseph III . 26
Darbelnet , Jean II 2 , X .23
Dascal , Marcelo O2
Deeping , Warwick IV . 13
Denhi& re, Guy VIIs
DeSoto, Clinton VII . 18.2
Dewar , Hamish IV . 5
Dickens, Charles 1.15, P1, 1V . 30-31,
IV . 34-35 , IV . 44, IV .48, VI. 16,
VIII.3
Dijk , Teun van Is, I9, II . 2, II . 11,
II.30, II.33, 11.36 37 II.40-42,
IP6, IP7, IV . 12, IV.42, IVs, V . 16,
VI .26 28, VII.18.1, EX .40, IX 22,
X 14
Dik , Simon IV . 42
Dillon , George IV . 4o , rV 33
Dittmar , Norbert I 14
Dolezel , Lubomir II . 8
Donne, John IX . 12
Dougherty, Ray IV . 26, IV . 42
Dowty , David IV . 38
Doyle, Arthur Conan see Conan
Doyle
Dresher, Elan VII.18.3
Dressier , Wolfgang 0.1, 0.4, II.1,
II10, IV. 16, IV .2 i , IV .32,
VII .18.7, X.5, X .8, X19, X 21
Drury , Roger IX14
Dundes , Alan II . 12
Edmondson , Jerry IV .22
Eichenbaum , Boris X.13
Eikmeyer, Hans-Jurgen V3
Eisenstadt , Marc IV.2
Engel , Dorothea X8
Enkvist , Nils-Erik II.7, X . i
Erlich , Victor X12
Ernst , George IIP3
Ervin-Tripp, Susan VI.27
Fahlman , Scott V . 17
Fanshel , David X8
Feyerabend , Paul X 26
Figge, Udo IV.25

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INDEX OF NAMES

257

Filby , Nikola VII . 18.2


Fillmore, Charles IV .40, V .27, V15,
V16, VIII .4 , VIIkMX .32 IX 19
Finke , Peter X 26
Firbas Jan IV . 51, IV . 53
Firth , John IIP
Fishman , Joshua VI .27
Flower , Linda III.10, III. 18 , III.20,
III.23, X11
Fodor , Jerry H. 8, II 4, V5, V6, VI8
Fowler , Roger ^III9
Frake , Charles X 7
Franck , Dorothea IV. 50, X.6
Franklin , Benjamin VI.9.2
Franks, Jeffrey IX . 28, IX 24
Fraser , Bruce IV. 5
Frederiksen , Carl V. 27
Freedle, Roy EX 3, IX 22
Frege, Gottlob VIP 4
Fried , Erich IV. 16
Fries, Udo II. 1
Fritsche, Johannes IP5
Frost , Robert IV. 14
Galanter , Eugene VI6
Garrett , Merrill VI8
Garvin , Paul X 12
Gentncr, Dedre X 11
Gilman , Albert VIII.7
Gindin , Sergei II . 1
Givon , Talmy VII. 20
Gleitman , Lila IV.42
Glenn , Christine IX .6, EX 22
Glucksberg, Sam III . 26
Goffman , Erving VIII .2, VIII . 5,
VIII4, X.8, X 5
Goldman , Neil IIP6, IV . 15, V . 3 ,
VI9, X .26, X 21
Goldsmith , Oliver IV.13, IV. 25,
IV. 33, VIII. 7
Goldstein , Ira III.33 , V.9
GolkovS, Eva IV . 51
Gomulicki , Bronislaw IX . 28
Goodglass, Harold VII.9
Goodman , Kenneth IV13
Govinda , Lama Anagarika IV . 18,
IV. 31 IV.52
Green , Georgia IV . 13, IV .26

rirA#nkoiim C 4

nA r

110 \/ J

1i

- .

Grice, Paul VI.6-7, VI.9 11 VI 3,


VI 4, IX.20 21
Grimes, Joseph I 12, IV.39, IV . 50 51,
IV 36, V.27
Groebcn , Norbert I 12, X .9, X 4
Grosse, Emst Ulrich IX . 3
Grossman, Robin IV .51, IV36
Grosz, Barbara III .33, IV . 32
Gulich , Elisabeth II .1, IV .50, IX .3
Gumpcrz , John I 14, II . 15, VI.27, X6
Gunter , Richard IV .32
Hale, Gordon IX 3, IX 22
Halliday, Michael I3, III.24, IIP,
IV .23, IV.25, IV .27, IV .32,
IV .41-2, IV.51 , IV.54 56, IV30,
VIH.6
Handel , Stephen VII.18.2
Hankamer , Jorge IV . 22
Hansen Love, Aage X 12
Hardy , Thomas VI.3
Harris, Gregory X 26
Harris, Zellig II.21-22, II.31, II5, IV . 12
Hartmann , Peter II . 1, II .30, II8, IIP,
III 7, III9, X3
Harweg , Roland I3, 15, II. 1 ,
II.25 26, II8, IV . 39, IV.42
Hasan , Ruqaiya I3, IV .23, IV .25-27,
IV . 32, IV.42, IV30, VIII.6
Haskell , Jocelyn IV . 25
Havranek , BohuslavX .13
Hayes, John Richard III.10, III . 20,
III.23 , X11
Hayes, Philip V. 1 , V .17
Hayes-Roth , Barbara V.7
Haycs-Roth , Frederick V.7
Heger , Klaus II.26
Heider , Fritz VI .6
Hcidolph , Karl-Erich II.29, II . 36,
II.40
Helbig , Gerhard IX1
Hemingway , Ernest X .16
Hcmpel , Carl III.3
Hendricks, William X14
Heringer , James VI.23
Hersh , Richard IX 14
Hess, Helga VII .6
Hirsch, Don IV23, X.11

13 rti

VII vvuuauiu

.y t

jiunv

Greimas , Algirdas II.12, V

i IVL/ UJ

, jvi

&

m.JJ

HoUan , James V4

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258

INTRODUCTION TO TEXT LINGUISTICS

Hdrmann , Hans I9 V.2, V5 VI .6,


VI .21
Homstein , Norbert VII. 18.3
Huddleston , Rodney IX .5
Hymcs, Dell I14, II. I 5 X6
Ihwe, Jens II . 11, II.30, II .33 , II .40,

IXs

Isacenko, Alexander IV.25, IV.32


Isenberg , Horst II . 29, II.36, II . 40
Iser , Wolfgang IXs
Jakobovits, Leon II.32
Jakobson , Roman II. n , X.13 , X13,

X 18
Jakubinskij, Lev X. 13
Jandl , Ernst VII . 1, VIP
Jefferson , Gail II 15, VI.6, VI.27

Jelitte, Herbert II. 1

Jennings , Elizabeth I1, VII.29


Jespersen , Otto VII.33
Johnson , David IV .4, IV122
Johnson , Nancy V. 16, IX
Johnson-Laird , 25Philip III.24, IV .41,
V .9, V.20, V , VII.18.2
Jones, Lawrence II.11, X13, X18
Jorg , Sabine VI.6, VI .21
Joyce, James VII.18.7
Kallmeyer , Werner II. 1
Kaplan , Jeffrey IV . 22
Kareev , Yaakov IV .2
Karlsen , RolfIV .25, IV . 32
Karttunen , Lauri Is
Katz , Jerrold II.28, II4, V5, V 6
Kay , Harry IX .37.6
Keele, Steven IV .2, VII.1
Kennedy , Teddy VIII.9
Kintsch , Walter I5, II.37, III. 34., V.7,
V . 15 17, V.19-20, V.27, V3, V7,
V10, VII. 11, VIII3, DC.40 IX 14,

IX

22,

10

Kircher , Mary X1
Klare , George X .9

Kuno, Susumu II. 1


Labov , William V . 5 , VI.24-25,
VII.18.2, IX.6, X 8
Lakatos, Imre X 26
Lakoff, George IV.26, IV. 28, VI.26
Lakoff, Robin IV .42
Lambek , Joachim VI . 23
Lang , Ewald IV .42
Larson , Richard X . 12
Leech , Geoffrey IV .34
Lehiste, Use IV . 54
Lenat , Douglas III 27, X . 26
Leodolter , Ruth X 7, X8
Lcodolter-Wodak , Ruth X7, X8
Leskov , Nikolai IV .28
Lcvclt , Willem VI.26
Levesque, Hector III .4, V .9, V .17
Levin , James IV . 15
Levin , Samuel Il. n X13
Levi-Strauss, Claude II .12
Levy , Jiri X14
Lewis, Cecil Day IX . 12
Li , Charles IV . 51, IV36
Linde , Charlotte VII. 18.2
Linsky , Leonard VII14
Livingston , Myra Cohn VII. 10
Lockhart , Richard III6
Loftus, Elizabeth I12, IV .2, V . 5,
V.12, X .27
Loftus, Geoffrey I12, IV . 2, V . 5,
X.27
London , Marvin VII.18.2
Longacre, Robert II .13, IV.39,
V .27, V 16
Lyons, John IV18
Magner , Tom VI .9.4
Makhoul, John III.2, VII.9
Malinowski, Bronislaw II . 12
MandIer , Jcan V .16, IX 22
Margalit , Avishai O2
Markov , Andrei VII . 2

Kloepfer , Rolfll . u
Koch , Walter , II. n , II.26, II6, II,
V6
Rock , Wolfram II .30
Kohonen , ViljoX. i
Kristeva , Julia I15
Kuhn , Thomas 0.4, 0.7, X26
Rummer , Werner II.30 31

Marlowe, Christopher IX. 12


Martin , Judith III . 26

Matejka , Ladislav X12


Mathesius, Vilem IV .51, X.13
McCall , William I1, V 10
McCalla , Gordon I 9, 110, V .16,
VI .6, VI9
McCawley, James VI .26

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INDEX OF NAMES

Mead , George X . 8

Meijer, Guss III.7, VI.23 24, VI .26


Melcuk , Igor II . 38-40
Mervis, Carolyn V . 18, V4
Metzing , Dieter IV . 5, V.16
Meyer, Bonnie III. 18, III .20, IV 29,
IX 22 IX 23 X. io X1
Miller , Genevieve LX14, IX 22, X9
Miller , George III . 24, IV .41 , V .910, V . 20, V 2, VI6, VII . 5 ,
VII .18.2
Miller , Gerald V10
Miller , Mark X 26
Milne, Alan I1, VI.29, VI.31
Milton , John VII.6
Minsky , Marvin III .33, V . 16, V .20,
X.5
Mistler-Lachman , Janet III6
Mistrik , Josef IX.3
Mohan , Bernard VI .23, VI . 26
Molierc, Jean-Baptiste VIII13
Morgan , Jerry IV .41
Morton , John I 2, IV.2
Mounin , Georges X .23, X 20
Muir , John IX .7
Mukarovsky , Jan X .13 , X13
Mylopoulos, John III.4, V .9, V.17
Neisser , Ulric I2, III 25, IV .2, IX .28
Newell , Allan III . 17, HI13
Newman , Denis VI.16
Nezworski, Teresa EX 22
Nickel , Gerhard X 24
Noth , WinfriedH. i
Ny , Jean lc V.6, V6, VII5

OConnell. Daniel IV3

Petofi, Janos O4, 1.12, II .30, II.32-35,

II.40-42, II 15, V.16, V.2 I X.6


Petrarch VII . 30
Petrick , Stanley IIP
Pickett , James III . 2
Pike, Kenneth II. 13, II. 26, VI9
Plato V . i 4
Plett , Heinrich II . 3 , IV .12
Pollack , Irwin III.2
Pomorska , Krystyna X 12
Porter , Bern IX . 11
Posner , Roland IX . 13
Postal , Paul IV .4, IV .22
Powell , Jody VIII .8
Pribram , Karl VI6
Priestley , John IV . 25
Prince, Ellen II.22
Propp, Vladimir II . 12, X . 13
Quillian , Ross V .8 , V . 18 , X . 27
Quine, Willard VI . 12, VII4
Quintilian II .6
Quirk , Randolph I10, 115, VI.22,
VII.29, VII.33
Raible, Wolfgang II . i DCj
Ralegh , Walter IX . 12
Rcichenbach , Hans IV .38 , IV .48
Reichman , Rachael IV31, IV . 22 23
Rieger, Charles V.3, V 7
Riesbeck , Christopher V . 3
Riescr , Hannes II . 1 , II.30, II.40, V3
RifFaterre, Michael II .8, VII . 18.7,
X 17
Riha , Karl VIP
Ringelnatz , Joachim IV .16

Rimyen .

Ion III

VI

21 2 A

Olson , David VII . 18.2


Oomen , Ursula III9
Orton , Joe IX 9, IX 10
Orton , Andrew V . 16, IX 22
Osborne , John EX 9, X 10
Osgood , Charles VII . 18.2, VII .20,
VIII. 2, VIII2
Paduteva , Elena IV . 21
Paivio, Allan IIP9, IX .32
Palek , Bohumil I3, IV.25
Papert , Seymour III.33, V.9, X .5
Parkinson , Richard III17
Pavlidis, Theodosios IIP 7
Perlmutter, David IV .4

Rips , Lance V .18, V 4


Robinson , Edward Arlington
VII.17
Roggero, Jacques IV .25
Romportl , Milan IX .2
Rosch, Eleanor V .18, V3, V4
Ross, John IV .34
Rothkopf, Ernst X.9
Royer , James IX .28
Rubin , Andee VI6, IX .23 , X. i 2, Xn
Rumelhart , David I 2, IIP 7, IV . 2 ,
IV .6-7, IV . 10, V .16, V . 20, IX .28,
IX 22
Sacerdoti, Earl IV .41 , V.16

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Sacks, Harvey II. 15, VI.6, VI . 27


Sadock , Jerrold IV *
Sag, Ivan IV.26
Salmond , Anne X 7
San , James IV . 51, IV 36
Saussure, Ferdinand de IIP
Sceglov, Juriij II . 12 , X14
Schank , Roger I6, III .33, III4, IV .30,
V .3, V.16, V .27, V7, VI .6, VI. 1415 , VII. 17, VIII. 10, VIII 7, VIII8,
IX .14, X 21
Scheckcr , Michael II . 1
Schegloff, Emmanuel II .15, VI.6,
VI.27
Scherzer, Joel I14, II .15
Schlesinger , Izhak VI .6, VI . 24
Schmidt , Charles VI .6
Schmidt , Siegfried II. 1 , II8, V .4,
VI.21, IX.3 4, X.18
Scragg, Greg V.16
Schweller , Kenneth X. 5
Searlc, John I2, VI.6-9
Sebeok , Thomas II .7, VI.23
Sgall , Petr IV.51
Shaffer , Peter VI .9.2
Shakespeare , William IV .19, IV .33 ,
VII.30, VIII.5
Shannon , Claude P2, VII.2, VII. 5

Stein , Gertrude X . 16
Stein , Nancy IX .6, IX 22
Steinberg , Danny II .32
Steinitz , Renate IV .25
Stempel , Wolf-Dieter II . 1
Stevens, Albert IV . 10
Sussman , Gerald III.4, V . 16
Svartvik , Jan I 10, IV . 34, VI.22
Sweet , Henry IV.57
Tai, James IV . 42
Talmy , Leonard III.24, IV .40
Tennyson , Alfred IV. 14
Thatcher , Margaret IV .47
Thomdyke, Perry V. 16, IX 22, X . io
Thome, James IV.5, X 14
Tomasevskij, Boris X .13
Tramin , Peter von III22
Tmka , Bohumil X . 13
Tulving , Endel V . 13
Twain , Mark VI.4-5 , VIII.12,
VIII . 14, VIII.27
Tyler , Stephen VI.27
Tynjanov Jurij X . 13
Ungeheuer , Gerold II . 38
Vance, Timothy IV.51, IV36
Vater , Heinz IV. 25
Vendler , Zeno III.26
Viehweger , Dieter, II. 1

Mioben , Edward V . I 8 , V *

I1,

23,

7,

V10

Simmons, Robert III IV


Simon , Herbert III . 17, III27, X . 26
Sinclair , John II .16, II5
Sitta , Horst II. 1
Skalicka , Vladimir IX .2
Skinner , Burrhus VI . 12
Sklovskij, Victor X . 13
Smith , Edward V. 18 19, V4, V9
Snow , Catherine III .7, VI . 23-24,
VI.26
Solczak-Robcrts, Zofia IX 18
Spark , Muriel IX10
Spencer , Nancy III .7, VI.24
Sperling , George I2, IV.2
Spillncr , Bemd II . 4, II .7, II.11
Spinner , Helmut X 26
Spiro, Rand III .30, V .16, IX .28
Spitzer, Leo II . n
Sprung , Lothar VII . 5
Stark , Jacqueline X8

Vinay , Jean-Faul II 6, X .23


Vinogradov , Victor X .13

Vipond , Douglas V 10
Waletzky, Joshua VII 18.2, IX .6
Walker, Donald I1, IJI.2, III .5 , III27,
V . 30, X .26
Wallace , William IV.24
Warning , Rainer III8
Wamock , Eleanor X 26
Wason , Peter VII . 20
Watson , John Broadus VI . 12
Weaver , Warren VII.2
Webber, Bonnie I3, III .33, IV.22,
IX .23
Weil , Henri II.18
Wcinrich , Harald IV. 12, IV .38,
VI.21 , VII.11, VII4, IX 27
Wcltner , Klaus I12
Werth , Paul IV16, X13
Wesker, Arnold IX 9, IX10
Whitehead , Alfred North IV 33

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INDEX OF NAMES

Whorf, Benjamin VII.18.5


Widdowson , Henry I5, IX . 5
Wienold , Gotz II8, X . 18
Wikberg , KayX.24
Wilde, Oscar VIII . 16
Wile , David III 16, X .26
Wilcnsky , Robert I9, III4, V .16,
VI . 15, VI.29, VII.17 VIII.9,
VIII . 11-12, VIII . 22
Wilks , Yorick 1.8 , 16, III12, V.27,
V6, V16, X 21
Wilson , Angus IV . 25
Winograd , Terry III .4, III . 18-19,
HI - 33 , V .9, V . 16, X.26

Winston , Patrick III.33 , IIP3, IIP 4,


IIP7, IV. 5, IV . 7, IV.41, V .9
Winterowd, Ross II.3
Wodak-Leodolter , Ruth X 7, X8
Woods, William I2, III .2, IIP, IV .5,
V.27, V .30, VII.9
Wright , Georg von VI .11
Wright , Patricia IV .2
Wunderli, Peter II. 1
Wunderlich, Dieter I9, IV . 38
Yekovich , Frank IX 22

Zadch , Lotfi V3
Zolkovskij, Alexander II .12 , II .38,
II.40, X 14

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INDEX OF IMPORTANT TERMS

VII.18.2, VII.22 , VIII. l 8, IX . l 6


attitudes 1.13 16, III.16, VI. i
attribute V .26( c )
augmented transition network
IV .5 10, V . 30
bargain favour VIII . io
bargain object VIII. 10, VIII.27
behaviourism VI . 12, X .24
belief V .40, VI .16, VII . 18.1 , IX .7,
IX.19, X .6
beyond-the-sentence II .9
block III . 17
boundedness IV .41
breadth-first search 111.17( b ) , III . 20,
V 20
brevity VI .9.8
bypassing IV .36
canonical mode 11.34
case V 15
case grammars V .27, V15
cataphora IV .23-24
causality 1.7 , 16
cause 1.7 8 , IV .46, V .26(n) , IX.35
centre-embedded sentences VI 8
chunk IV .57, V .4, V 10, V 2
clarity II.6, IV .29, IV.37 VI .9.5
classes IV . 28, V .17, V 9
clause IV . 3 4 , IV .28, IV .43 , IV.51,
VII.24
cleft sentences VII .33
cloze procedure IV 34
cognition V .26( s )
cognitive psychology III .34
cognitive science I . 24, III 28, X.3
coherence 1.6 12 , l 5, II.16, III .16,
IV .41, IV .53 , IV . 58, Vpassim ,.
VI. 1-3, VII . 1, IX .22, IX .40, X . 10
coherence relation 1.6 , IV .46
cohesion 1.4 5 , 1.20, 13, Is, II.16, II4,

complexity II.27, III . 35, VII. 18.2,


X . 29
computer science X .26
concepts 1.6 , V .4 , V passim
concept recovery phase III. 29
conceptual dependency III . 16, III .33
conceptual memory V 7
conceptual relation IV. 5, V .4
concord of goals VIII .22
confidence IX . 37.6, IX 24
conflict of goals VIII .9, VIII 6
conjunction IV .42- 43
constitutive versus regulative
principles 1.23
construction II.37, IX .28
consulting psychology X .8
containment V .26( m )
content V .8, VII . i , VII .38
content words VII .9 10
context VI.8, VI . 26, VI . 34, VII .5,
VII . 18.7, X .9
context space IX . 22
continuity III . 14, III . 24, IIP1,
IV .l , IV .15 IV . 41 , V .2, V . 24,
VI . 21 VI.33 VII. 13 IX . 29
contrajunction IV .42, IV .45 , VII.24
contrary to-factness IV .48, V .28
contrastive linguistics X .23, X 24
control centre III. 17, III.21 , IIP5,
IV.7, V .24, V.29 30, X 25
convention VI .7, VI .4, IX . 16
conversational II . 15 16, Vlpassim ,
VIII . I 3, IX . I , IX . 5, IX . 13 23
conversational implicature VI .9.10,

.
. .

VI .11

conversational maxim VI.9.1 9,


IX . 14 , IX .20
co-operation principle VI .9.1,
VI.17, VI.32 33, IX.20

III . 16, IVpassim , V .35, VI . 1-2,


VI11, IX.y. IX.40, X.9

combinatorial explosion 111.5 ,


HI .32, X15
commonsense knowledge II . 33,
V .2, V .16, IX . 24, DC . 36
communication V .26( w )
community III. 14
compactness IV.29, IV . 37
comparative stylistics II2, X .23

co reterence IV . 21 , IV",
V.26(gg) V 14, VIII.6
f

correctness 11.6

co-sense IV 26
creativity IV 20
criticism X .18; see literary criticism
cues IV . 43
current state VI . 13

cybernetic regulation III . 14 .


cybernetic system III . 14 , IX . 29 .

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decision III.11, III.13, X . 5, X.12


declarative knowledge V .9
decomposition V.6-7
deep structure II 16 , II 19
default 0.6, 111.8 , III . 18 , IV.43 ,
VI. 13 VI .28 VH 12, VII.18.1,
VIII.9, X 25
definiteness VII.22 23, VII12
deictics VIII.7
deletion II.36, II.37
delimination II.23
delivery II.3
depth II19, III .9, III6, III24; cf.
processing depth
depth-first search III .17( a )
description II1.3, VIII2, IX .26
descriptive linguistics II.19-27, X.6
descriptive text I X .6
desirability VI . 13 , VII6, VIII.9,
VIIIs
determinacy IV .20, IV .28
determinate knowledge V .5,
V . 12, V .28, V . 39 VII.15, VII . 23
determinateness operator V .28 ,
V.39
determination II .23
determiner IV .7, IV .9
deterministic versus probabilistic
0.6, 1.12
didactic text IX . 10 , X4
differentiation IV. 51, X .4
directionality 1.10, II . 25, III. 32,
VII. 11

dividedness IV .41
dominance HI. 18, III.30, VIII. 1,
VIII.8, VIII.17, IX.6 7
downgrading VII .12 16 , VII.27,
VII .40, VIII . 3 , X .16, X16
dramatic text VIII. 5
ease of processing III.9
economy V .15, V . 18
effectiveness 1.16, 1.23, II .6, III.9,
IV .28 IV .58, VII.28, VIII. 11,
IX. 11 , X. 16
efficiency 1.23 , II .6, III .9, IV . 11,
IV . 28-29, IV .32, IV.37, IV . 58,
VIII.11, IX.11
elegance II.6.
elicitation II.13.
ellipsis IV. 3, IV.32 37, IV . 59, IV33,
VI.26, VII.18.4
elocution II .3
emotion V .26( t )
enablement 1.7 8 , V .26(o)
entry operator V .28
episodic memory V .13
equivalence II.21-22, IV .20, IV. 57,
IV 24, V .26(ee) , VII . 31
escalation; see plan box escalation
ethnographic semantics VII .18.5
cthnomethodology II. 15
event V .25, V11, IX . 25
event boundaries III .24
evidence VI. 15 18 , VIII . I , VIII . 19
exact sciences O.5
existence X.6

discontinuity IV . 32 , V . 32, VI . 2,
VII . 13 , X .16
discourse 11.16, IIs, DC. 20
discourse action IV . 54 , VI .11 ,
VIII . 10, VIII10
discourse analysis II . 16, II.22
discourse world model DC.23
discrepancy III . 16, IV .19, VII . 13,
VII.40, VII16, IX 7, X.16
discreteness III . 24
discrimination II.23
disjunction IV .42 , IV .44
disposition II. 3
distribution IV.41
disturbance IV.15, V .4, VI.10,
VI . 20, VII . 15

exit operator V .28


exophora VI 11.6-8
expectations IV . 6, VII . 18- 19 ,
VIII . 4, VIII .8
experience V . 12 14
explanation III. 3
explicitness 1.6 , IV . 38, V. 12 , IX .25
explosion; see combinatorial

explosion
expression IV . 52 , V . 2-3
expression phase III .23
facts Vlll. 18.1 , VII . 18.5 , VII . 39 ,
VII . 42 , DC.10, IX . 19 , IX . 22 ,
X 25
failure III. 17 , VIII.10, DC . 26
family resemblances V.18, V 4

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features II . 19 , V . 18 , V . 22, V4, V6,


X.6
focus IV . 24, IV . 52 53, VII. i ,
VII . 10
foreign-language teaching X . 24
form V .26( j )
frame V . 16 , VII . 18.2, VII . 38, IX .6,
IX .29, DC .37 2, X 25
frequency VII .19 20, VIII . 3
function 1.2, II.19. III .14, III . 16,
IV .3 , VII2, VIP, VII .18.3, IX .6,
IX 2
functional sentence perspective
11.18 , IV . 3 , IV . 51 53, IV .60,
VII.18.4
function words VII .9, VII 2
fuzziness 0.6, V . 4-5 , V . 8 , V . 22,
V . 39, VI . 26, VII . 7, VIII . 1 ,
VIII.8, DC.4, IX . 11
fuzzy parsing IV .36, VII.9
fuzzy set theory V3
gamblers fallacy VII .11
gap V .32
gapping IV .34
general problem-solver IIP3; see
problem-solving

1:

11

rv

hypothesis-testing III.32 , IV .6,


IV .8 9, V .8, X.4
iconirity III . 14
idea II.37, IU .21
idea recovery phase III .29
ideation phase III .21
illocutionary act VI.7-8
illustration IX .22
inferencing I n , 1.14, III.30,
IV .41, V.21, V .29, V .32-34,
IX.25, DC.3 i , DC .37, IX .37.6,
IX 21
informant VI.22, VI.24
information state VII.16, VII6
information theory VII.2
informativity 1.16- 18 , 1.22, 112 ,
III.15 16, IV.13, IV.17, IV .31,
IV.50 53 IV .58, Vllpassim ,
IX.14, IX .40, X. i 1
informing IV .54 , VIII .10
inform reason VIII.10, VIII . 24,
VIII.26
initial state III . 17, VI. 13
instance V .17 , V .26( y )
instructions VI.21
instrument V .26( i )

- .

v c v

HI

g U l t l 4 U ^4 U U l! I I . J / .
, 6

generative poetics X .

generate II . 30 32 II

14, X 14
generative semantics II.32

generative transformational
grammar, sec transformational
grammar
global pattern V.10, V.16, V . 29,
V .38, VII.18.2, IX .37.2
goal I .3 , V.16, VI.6, VII . n 16,
VI . 28 30, VI . 33 , VIII . 1 , X
goal state III.17
grammar II.3 , III.7 8, VI .22
grammar state IV . 5
grammar /syntax VIPS
grammatical dependency 1.4 ,
UI.25 26, III.29, IV . 5-10, IV 6,
V .24, VII.3 , VII.34
grammatical dependency
network IV .8 , V.31
head IV .7 9
hold stack IV .8 , IV . 23 . X 25
homonym IV .31

intelligent computers III 27, X . 26 27


intention VI.6, IX . 18
intentionality I . 13 , 19, II.16, III.16,
IV.58, VI.1 21, VI.27
intention of the text III . 27 28
interaction I.5, 1.12, III .4 , III.18,
IV.37, IV .61, V .5, VII .18.5,
VII. 29
interactive planning VI . 16
interestingness 1.22 , IV . 30 , VII . 13 ,
VII . 28 , VIIs, X. n
interruption IV .13
intertextuality 1.21-22 , 19, 115,
III . 16, IV . 19 , IV . 38 , VI . 5 ,
IXpassim
intonation II . 29, IV . 3 , IV .55-58 ,
IV .60, VII.18.4
intuition III .7
invention II.3
invoke theme VIII . 10 , VIII . 18,
VIII.24, VIII. 26
invoking IV .54 , VIII . 10

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joining IX .22
junction IV.3 , IV.8, IV .42-50 ,
IV.60
junctive I6, 17, IV .8, IV .42-50 ,
VII .24
key IV .56-57 , VI. 5, VII.18.4
knowledge V 1
knowledge of the world; see world
knowledge
knowledge spaces III .22 , V.23,
V .31
lack of knowledge inference V.21
legal discourse IV . 19, VI . 8
level II .9, II .40, Z/7
lexical recurrence IV . 12 15
lexicon II . 30, II . 33 , II 13. IV . 29, V. 19
linearization II 14, III . 25 27, IV . 7
linkage IV 7, V .4-5; cf. strength of
linkage
literary criticism III.31, X . 18

minimal unit II. 19.


miscues IV 13, VI12
modality IV .48 , V . 26(bb)
modifier III .26, IV . 7 9 , IV8
modularity III .4 , III . 18
monitoring VII . 18.2, VIII 1 , IX . 13,
IX . 15 21, X 25; cf. situation
monitoring
morphemes II . 19 , IV .51
motion V .26( h ), IX .25
motivation 0.6, III.11, VII.13,
VII .39, IX . 16, IX .21 , X . 16
motivation search VII . 13, VII . 39,
IX 11
narrative text VIII 2, IX .6 , IX 13, IX 15
natural language II. 34
negation VII . 20, VII . 38
negotiation 1.13, VIII . 4-5 , VIII . 10,
VIII . 20
network IV. 5 10, V.23 39, X 25; see

literary studies II . n , EX . 13-16


literary text II .36, VII .18.7, VII.42 ,
VIII .5, IX .8 9, X . 13 16, X .22
location V .26( f ) , IX .31 32
logic 11.3 , 11.33 35, V .21
long term storage IV.2
macro-state IV .6, IV 4, IVs, V.31
macro-structure II.37, IVs
management VIIP , IX .15, X 25; cf.

situation management
manner maxim VI.9.5 9, VI.33,

IX . 20
mapping III . 18, III16
markers V.6, V6
Markov chain VII . 2
maxim; see conversational maxim
meaning I8, V. i , V1
means end analysis III . 17( c ), III.20,
y 2o
mediation VI.18, VIll.l , VIII.5,
VIII.17, VIII .19, VIII.28, /X. /
memorization II.3
memory V 2; see conceptual
memory; episodic memory;
semantic memory; working
memory
mental imagery III.23 , III19, VI . 26,
VII.10, DC.32, DC18
micro-state IV .6, IV 4, V . 31

augmented transition network;


grammatical dependency
network; noun phrase network
transition network; verb phrase
network
nodes IV .5, V .29-30
non-determinacy IV. I 5 , IV . 29,V . 1
nonsense V .2 , VII . 14
non-text III.8
normality V . 5
normal ordering strategies
VI .9.9. VII. 18.2 , VIII . 2
normal science O.4
noticing VIII .2, VIII . 16, VIII . 18-

19

noun phrase II.9, IV .7-8


noun-phrase network IV .7-8
numericals IV.31
object 1.6, V .25 , Wu
obscurity VI .9.6

open system 11.27


operationally III .7, III. 35 , IV .37,
IV .61 V 15

operator V . 28 , X 25
opposition II .19, IV .20, V.26(ff )
orderliness VI.9.9; cf. normal

ordering strategies
orders of informativity VII.7 17,
VII.27

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267

INDEX OF IMPORTANT TERMS

overpower VIII . 10, VIII .12


parallelism IV 3, IV .17 , IV . 20,
IV . 59. VII . 34
parallel processing IV11
paraphrase II . 38 40, IV .3, IV . 1819 , IV . 58-59, V .35, VI .9.7,
VII .37, VII .41, VIII.24
parody 1.22, IV . 19
parsing III .25 , III.29, V .24
part V .26( k )
partial recurrence IV .3, IV . 16
pattern-matching III.19, III 17,
IV.3 , IV 2, V . io, V .38, V .40,

presenter of text I9

presupposition X .6
primacy effect IV 29, IX . 37.5, IX 23
primary concepts V .25
primitives V .6, V6
prior knowledge IX .19; cf. world
knowledge
probabilistic models 0.6, 1.12, V.4,
VI .26
probability VI .14, Vllpassim
problem III . 17 , III.24, V . 34,
VI.13, IX . 14, IX . 26, DC 12
problematic knowledge IV .23,
rx 1

TV

..

iv

TV 8

VII I 8.2 , 12S .37 I , I2V . 37.3 , 2V . 3

performatives VI .8
perlocutionary acts VI.7
permutation II.36
perspectives IV . 38, V.16
perspicuity VI.9.5
philology II . 18
phonemes 11.19, IX .2
phrase IV .3; cf. noun phrase; verb
phrase
plan 1.9, 1.13, V .16 , VI.3 VI.6,
VI.11 16, VI6, VII .4, VII.18.2,
VIII .9 13 IX .6, IX .37 2

.
plan activation VI.

13

plan attachment III .20, VI.11,


VI.20
plan recovery phase III . 29
planbox VIII.10, V1W
planbox escalation VIII . 10 13,
VIII.17-27, VIII7, VIII8
plexity IV .41
poetic text IV .14, IV17, VII.18.6,
VII . 30, IX . 5, IX .9, X .13-16, X 22
polyptoton IV .16
polysyndeton IV .43
polyvalence V .1, VI.9.7, X 22
possession V .26( x )
power X .5
pragmatics III. 1 , VI . 8
Prague structuralism X .13, X12
preconditions VIII 7
predicate calculus II15
preference 0.6, III. 14, III .18 ,
III.23, III.26, III12 IV .8, IV.26,
IV.29 30, V./30, VII.12,
VII.18.2, X .19

IV

.zo-zy, 12V . 14, 12V .^U, 12V -,

DC IX12
problem-solving III .17 , III.22-24,
III13, IV . 35, V .22, VI.13, VI.21,
VII. 13 , VIII .4, IX . 2 I X 10, X 25
procedural adequacy III4
procedural approach 111.6 ,
IHpassim , V. 15, X . 3, X . 12
procedural attachment III .19,
IV.10, VI . 10 , VIII . 13 , DC. 25
procedural knowledge V 9
procedural model III.33 , IV .37
procedural semantics V .9 ,
Vpassim
procedures IV .6
processing depth II19, II 1.9, III.27,
III6
processing ease III.9
processing resources III. 10
proclaiming IV .54
pro-complement IV .25
production of texts I9, II1, III.2028, V .12, VI . 15
pro forms II11, IV . 3, IV .21-31,
IV . 59, IV 31, V.31 , V . 35,
VII . 18.4, VIII.6, VIII. 12, VIII .20
projection IV .48, V .28
projection operator V .28
promising VI.7
pro-modifier IV .25
pronoun IV .21, VIII.7
propositional act VI .7
pro-verb IV.25
proximity operator V .28
pseudo-pronoun IV .26
psychiatry X .8

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Introduction to Text
Linguistics

Robert de Beaugrande and Wolfgang Dressier

an informa business
ISBN 0 - 582 - 55485 - 3

Routledge
Taylor & Francis Croup
www.routledge.com

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