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CHAPTER 9 :

MANUFACTURED
SUBSTANCES IN
INDUSTRY

NAME: NUR INSYIRAH BTE. AB HAMED

CLASS: 4 SAINS GUNAAN (SG)

SCHOOL: SMK SERI INDAH

CONTENT
Content
Introduction
9.1 Sulphuric acid
9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid
9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid
9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture of sulphuric acid
9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid
9.2 Ammonia and its salt
9.2.1 Properties of ammonia
9.2.2 The uses of ammonia
9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia
9.3 Alloys
9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals
9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys
9.4 Synthetic polymers
9.4.1 The meaning and types of polymers
9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers
9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers
9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused
by synthetic polymers
9.5 Glass and ceramics
9.6 Composite material
Conclusion
References

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INTRODUCTION
All the objects that exist around us are made up of chemical substances. These
objects exist an element, compound or mixture. All these objects contribute benefit to
humankind. As time goes on, human has done many researches to ensure all these
chemical substances will be enough for the use of themselves.

Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students with manufactured


substances in industry. This is important for the students to appreciate the knowledge of
chemistry that is still new for themselves. Personally, I think that this chapter is an
interesting chapter as it revealed the way of scientist produces the material around me. It
also gives me new knowledge of the uses of chemical substances that I usually found in
the laboratories.
I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more interested in learning chemistry as
it will help me in the future. All the equations from this chapter make me more
understand of the previous chapters.

9.1 SULPHURIC ACID


9.1.1 Properties of sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.


2. Its molecular formula is H2SO4.
3. It is soluble in water.

Figure 9.1 A molecule of


sulphuric acid.

4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid.


5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.
6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless liquid.

Soluble in
water
Non-volatile
acid

Diprotic
acid

Properties of
sulphuric acid

Highly
corrosive

Oily
liquid

Dense

Viscous
colourless
liquid

Figure 9.2 Properties of sulphuric acid

9.1.2 The uses of sulphuric acid


1) To manufacture fertilizers
There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are:
a)

Calcium dihydrogen phosphate (superphosphate)


2 H2SO4 + Ca3(PO4) 2 Ca(H2 PO4) 2 + 2CaSO4
sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate calcium dihydrogen phosphate
4

b)

Ammonium sulphate
H2SO4

+2NH3 (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia ammonium sulphate


c)

Potassium sulphate
H2SO4

+2NH3 (NH4) 2SO4

sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia ammonium sulphate


2) To manufacture detergents
Sulphuric acid reacts with hydrocarbon to produce sulphonic acid. Sulphonic acid is then
neutralized with sodium hydroxide to produce detergents. Examples of hydrocarbon
3) To manufacture synthetic fibres
Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic
fibre that is produced from the action of sulphuric acid on cellulose.
4) To manufacture paint pigments
The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of
sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate.
5) As an electrolyte in lead-acid accumulators
6) To remove metal oxides from metal surfaces before electroplating
7) To manufacture pesticides
8) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are:
a.

As a strong acid

b.

As a drying or dehydrating agent

c.

As an oxidizing agent

d.

As a sulphonating agent

e.

As a catalyst

Manufacture
pesticides
Remove metal
oxides from
metal surfaces
before
electroplating

As an
electrolyte in
lead-acid
accumulators

Uses of sulphuric acid

Manufacture
fertilizers

Manufacture
detergents

Manufacture
paint
pigments

Manufacture
synthetic
fibres

Figure 9.4 Uses of sulphuric acid in industry

9.1.3 The industrial process in manufacture sulphuric acid


1.

Sulphuric acid is manufactured by the Contact process.

2.

Sulphuric acid is produced from sulfur, oxygen and water via the contact
process.

3.

The Contact process involves three stages.

Sulphur
acid

Sulphur dioxide Sulphur trioxide


I

4.

II

Sulphuric

III

Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide gas, SO2.

This can be done by two methods,


a)

Burning of sulphur in dry air.


+ O2
SO2
S

b)

Burning of metal sulphide such as zinc sulphide in dry air.

2ZnS + 3O2 2SO2 +


2ZnO

5.

Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide SO3.

This is then oxidised to sulfur trioxide under the following conditions:


a) The presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.
b) A temperature of between 450C to 550C.
c) A pressure of one atmosphere

6.

2 SO2 + O2
2 SO3
Stage III: Production of sulphuric acid

a) Sulphur trioxide is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 to produce oleum,


H2S2O7
H2SO4+ SO3
H2S2O7
b) Oleum is reacted with water to form concentrated H2SO4.

7.

H2S2O7+ H2O 2
H2SO4
In stage II, sulphur dioxide is dried first before being added to dry air to
produce sulphur trioxide. This is:

a)

To remove water vapour

b)

To remove contaminants

8. In stage III, sulphur trioxide is not dissolved directly in water to produce sulphuric
acid. This is because:
a)

sulphur trioxide has low solubility in water

b)

sulphur trioxide reacts violently and mists are formed instead of


a liquid

Sulphur or metal sulphide

burned in air

Sulphur dioxide, SO2


a) the presence of a vanadium(V) oxide as a catalyst.
b) a temperature of between 450C to 550C.
c) a pressure of one atmosphere

Sulphur trioxide, SO3


dissolved in sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Oleum, H2S2O7
diluted with equal volume of water H2O

Concentrated sulphuric acid H2SO4

Figure 9.5 Flowchart of Contact process

9.1.4 Environmental pollution by sulphuric acid


1.

Sulphur dioxide is the main byproduct produced when sulfur-containing fuels


such as coal or oil are burned.

2.

Sulphuric acid is formed by atmospheric oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the


presence of water. It also produces sulphurous acid.

3.

Sulphuric acid and sulphurous acid are constituents of acid rain.

4.

Acid rain can cause many effects such as:


i.

Corrodes concrete buildings and metal structure

ii.

Destroys trees and plants

iii.

Decrease the pH of th soil and make it become acidic

iv.

Acid rain flows into the rivers and increases the acidity of water and kill
aquatic living things.

5.

Hence, we must reduce the sulphur dioxide from the atmosphere by:
i.

Use low sulphur fuels to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide in exhaust
gases

ii.

Remove sulphur dioxide from waste air by treating it with calcium


carbonated before it is released.

9.2 AMMONIA AND ITS SALT


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9.2.1 Properties of ammonia


1.

A colorless, pungent gas.

2.

Its molecular formula is NH3

3.

It is extremely soluble in water.

4.

It is a weak alkali.

Figure 9.6 A molecule of


ammonia.

5.

It is about one half as dense as air

6.

It reacts with hydrogen chloride gas to produce


white fumes of ammonium chloride.
NH3 + HCl NH4Cl

7.

Ammonia is alkaline in property and reacts with dilute acids in neutralization


to produce salts. For examples:
NH3 + HNO 3 NH4NO 3
2NH3 + H2SO4 (NH4) 2SO4

8.

Aqueous solutions of ammonia produces OH ions (except Na+ ion, K+ ion,


and Ca 2+ ion) forming metal hydroxides precipitate.
Fe3+ + 3OH Fe(OH) 3
Brown precipitate

Mg2+ + 2OH Mg(OH) 2


White precipitate

9.

Some metal hydroxides such as zinc hydroxide and copper (II) hydroxide
dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form complexes.

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Zn(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Zn(NH3)4] 2++ 2OH

Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 [Cu(NH3)4] 2+ + 2OH

Extremely
soluble in
water

Weak
alkali
Properties of ammonia

Colorless

Pungent
smell

Figure 9.7 Properties of ammonia

9.2.2 The uses of ammonia


1.The major use of ammonia and its compounds is as fertilizers.
2.Ammonia is also used for the synthesis of nitric acid.
3.Ammonium fertilizers contain ammonium ions, NH4+, that can be converted into
nitrate ions by bacteria living in the soil.
4.Nitrogen is absorbed by plants to produce protein in the form of nitrates, NO3,
which are soluble in water.
5.The effectiveness of ammonium fertilizers is determined by the percentage of
nitrogen by mass in them. The fertilizer with a higher percentage of nitrogen is
more effective.
6.The percentage of nitrogen by mass can be calculated using this formula:

Mass of nitrogen

12
X 100%

Molar mass of fertilizers

9.2.3 The industrial process in manufacture of ammonia


1. Haber process is the industrial method of producing ammonia.
2. It needs direct combination of nitrogen and hydrogen under high pressure in the
presence of a catalyst, often iron.
3. Nitrogen gas used in Haber process is obtained from the frictional distillation of
liquid air.
4. Hydrogen gas used in Haber process can be obtained by two methods:
a) The reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon)
C + H2O CO +
H2
b) The reaction between steam and natural gas ( consisting mainly of
methane)
CH4 + 2H2O CO2 +
4H2
5. In the Haber process:
a) A mixture consisting of one volume of nitrogen gas and three volume of
hydrogen gas is compressed to a pressure between 200 500 atmospheres.
b) The gas mixture is passed through a catalyst of powdered iron at a
temperature of 450 - 550C.
c) At this optimum temperature and pressure, ammonia gas is produced.
N2+ 3H2 2NH3

9.3 ALLOYS
9.3.1 Physical properties of pure metals
1.Pure metals have the following physical properties
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a)Good conductor of electricity


b)Malleable
c)Ductile
d)High melting and boiling point
e)High density
2. Pure metals are weak and soft because the arrangement of atoms in pyre
metals make them ductile and malleable.
a) A pure metal contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and
organized closed-packed structure.
b) Pure metals are soft because the orderly arrangement of atoms enables
the layers of atoms to slide over each other easily when an external force
is applied on them. This makes the matels ductile and metals can be
drawn to form long wires.
c)

There are imperfections in the natural arrangements of metal


atoms. Empty space exist in the structures of pure metals. When
hammered or pressed, groups of metal atoms may slide into new
positions in the empty spaces. This makes metals malleable, able to be
made into different shapes or pressed into thin sheets.

3. The strong forces of attraction between metal atoms requires high energy to
overcome it. Hence, most metals have high melting points.
4.The close-packed arrangement of metal atoms results in the high density of
metals.

Good conductor of electricity


High melting and boiling point
Properties of
metals

High density
Malleable
Ductile

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Figure 9.8 Properties of metals

9.3.2 Meaning and purpose of making alloys


1. An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain composition
in which the major component is a metal.
2. in the process of alloying, one or more foreign elements are added to a
molten metal. When the alloy hardens, the positions of some of the metal
atoms are replaced by the atoms of foreign elements, which size may be
bigger or smaller than the original metal atoms.
3. In an alloy, these atoms of foreign elements disrupt the orderly
arrangement of the metal atoms and also fill up any empty space in the
metal crystal structure.
4. Hence, the layers of metal atoms are prevented from sliding over each
other easily. This makes the alloy harder and stronger, less ductile and less
malleable than its pure metals.

5. The properties of a pure metal are thus improved by making them into
alloys. There are three aims of alloying a pure metal:
a)

To increase the hardness and strength of a metal

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b)

To prevent corrosion or rusting

c)

To improve the appearance of the metal surface

9.4 SYNTHETIC POLYMERS


9.4.1 The meaning of polymers
1. Polymers can be defined as large molecules composed of numerous smaller,
repeating units known as monomers which are joined by covalent bonds.
2. Polymerisation is the chemical process by which the monomers are joined
together to form the big molecule known as the polymers.
3. There are two types of polymerization process:
a)Addition polymerization
b)Condensation polymerization
4. A polymer is a very big molecule (macromolecule). Hence, the relative
molecular mass of a polymer is large.
5. The properties of polymer are different from its monomers.
6. Polymers can be divided into two types:
a) Naturally occurring polymers
1. This type of polymer exists in living things in nature like the plants and
animals.
2. Examples of naturally occuring polymers are:
a) Protein
b) Carbohydrate
c) Natural rubber
3. Naturally occuring polymers are formed by the joining of monomers by
polymerization.
4. Protein is formed by the joining of monomers known as amino acid.
5. Carbohydrate is formed by the joining of monomers known as glucose.
6. Natural rubber is formed by the joining of monomers known as isoprene.

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b)Synthetic polymers
1. This type of polymer are man-made by chemical process in the
laboratories.
2.The raw material for synthetic polymers are obtained frompetroleum.
3.The types of synthetic polymers include:
a)

Plastics

b)

Fibres

c)

Elastomers

4. Examples of plastics are polythene(polyethylene),polyvinylchloride(PVC),


polypropene (polypropylene), polystyrene , Perspex and bakelite.
5.Polythene and PVC are produced by addition polymerization
6. Examples of synthetics fibres are nylon and terylene. They are produced
by condensation polymerization.
9.4.2 Advantages of synthetic polymers
a) Strong and light
b) Cheap
c) Able to resist corrosion
d) Inert to chemical reactions
e) Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured
f) Can be made to have special properties
9.4.3 Environmental pollution caused by synthetic polymers
a)

As most of polymers are non-biodegradable, they will not


decay like other organic garbage.

b)

Burning of polymers release harmful and poisonous gases.

9.4.4 Methods to overcome the environmental pollution caused by synthetic


polymers
a)

Reduce, reuse and recycle synthetic polymers

b)

Develop biodegradable polymers

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9.5 GLASS AND CERAMICS


1. The main component of both glass and ceramic is silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2.
2. Both glass and ceramic have the same properties as follow
a) Hard and brittle
b) Inert to chemical reactions
c) Insulators or poor conductors of heat and electricity
d) Withstand compression but not stretching
e) Can be easily cleaned
f)Low cost of production
3.

Differences between glass and cerement are, glass is transparent, while ceramic is
opaque. Ceramic can withstand a higher temperature than normal glass.

4.

Types of glass are


a) Fused glass
It

is consist mainly of silica or silicon dioxide

It

has high heat resistance

b) Soda lime glass


It

cannot withstand high temperatures

c) Borosilicate glass
It

can withstand high temperature

d) Lead glass
High

refractive index

5. Uses of improved glass for specific purpose


a) Photochromic glass
It

is sensitive to light intensity

b) Conducting glass
It

6.

conducts electricity
Ceramic is a manufactured substances made from clay, with the

main constituent of aluminosilicate with small quantity of sand and feldspar.


7.

Superconductor is one improved ceramics for specific purposes.

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Glass
1.
2.
3.

Glass is made up from sand.


The major component of glass is SiO2.
There are four types of glass which are as follows:
Fused glass
Soda-lime glass
Borosilicate glass
Lead crystal glass

Name of glass

Properties

Chemical
composition

Examples of uses

Very high softening


point (1700 C)
hence, highly heat
resistant
Transparent to
ultraviolet and
Fused glass

SiO2 (99%)
Ba2 O 3 (1%)

infrared light
Difficult to be made
into different shapes
Does not crack when

Telescope mirrors,
Lenses
Optical fibres
Laboratory glass
wares

temperature changes
(very low thermal
expansion coefficient)
Very resistant to
chemical reactions
Soda lime glass

Low softening point


(700 C), hence, does
not withstand heating
Breaks easily
Cracks easily with
sudden temperature

SiO2 (70%)
Na2O (15%)
CaO (3%)
Others (5%)

Bottles
Windowpanes
Light bulbs
Mirrors
Bowls
( The most widely
used type of glass)

changes (high
coefficient of

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expansion)
Less resistant to
chemical reactions
Easy to be made into
different shapes
High softening point
(800C). Thus it is
heat resistant
Does not crack easily
Borosilicate
glass

with sudden
temperature changes
Transparent to

SiO2 (80%)
Ba2 O 3 (15%)
Na2O (3%)
Al 2 O 3

Laboratory apparatus
Cooking utensils
Electrical tubes
Glass pipelines

ultraviolet light
More resistant to
chemical reactions
Does not break easily
Low softening point
Lead crystal
glass

(600 C)
High density
High refractive index
Reflects light rays
and appears spar

SiO2 (55%)
PbO( 30%)
K2O (10%)
Na2O ( 3%)
Al2 O 3 ( 2%)

Decorative items
Crystal glasswares
Lens
Prisms
Chandeliers

kling

Ceramics
1. Ceramic is a manufactured substance made from clay that is dried and then
baked in a kiln at high temperature.
2. The main constituent of clay is aluminosilicate, (which consist of aluminium
oxide and silicon dioxide) with small quantities of sand and feldspar.
3. Kaolinite is an example of high
4. Red clay contains iron (III) oxide which gives the red colour .
5. General uses ceramics are as follows of :
very hard and strong but brittle
inert to chemical reaction
has a very high melting point
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good electric and heat insulator


able to withstand compression

9.6 COMPOSITE MATERIAL


1.

A composite material is a structural material formed by


combining two or more materials with different physical properties, producing a
complex mixture.

2.

The composite material produced will have different properties


far more superior to the original materials.

3.

The composite material produced are harder, stronger, lighter,


more resistant to heat and corrosion and also for specific purposes.

4.

When composite material is formed, the weakness of the


components will not exist anymore.

Composite material

Reinforced concrete

Component

Properties of

Properties of composite

Concrete

component
Hard but brittle,

Stronger, higher tensile

With low tensile

strength, not so brittle,

strength
Hard with high tensile

does not corrode easily,

Steel

strength but expensive


and can corrode

Fibre optics

can withstand higher


applied forces and loads,
relatively cheaper
Reflect light rays and

Glass of low

Transparent, does not

refractive index
Glass of high

reflect light rays.


Heavy, strong but

refractive index

brittle and non-

Glass

flexible
Heavy, strong but

Light, strong, tough,

brittle and non-

resilient and flexible,

flexible
Light, flexible, elastic

with high tensile strength

Fibreglass
Polyester plastic

allow light rays to travel


along the fibre

and not flammable

but weak and


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Photochromic glass

Glass

inflammable
Transparent and not

Silver chloride, or

sensitive to light
Sensitive to light

silver bromide

Sensitive to light:
darkness when light
intensity is high,
becomes clear when
light intensity is low

Figure 9.9 Composite material and their new properties

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CONCLUSION
We must appreciate these various synthetic industrial materials. One of the way is by
doing continuous research and development ( R & D ) to produce better materials used to
improve our standard of living. As we live in a changing world, our society is getting
more complex. New materials are required to overcome new challenges and problems we
face in our daily lives. Synthetic material are developed constantly due to the limitation
and shortage of natural materials. New technological developments are used by scientists
to make new discoveries.
New materials for clothing, shelter, tools and communication to improve our daily
life are developed continuously for the well-being of mankind. New needs and new
problem will stimulate the development of new synthetic materials. For example, the new
use of plastic composite material will replace metal in the making of a stronger and
lighter car body. This will save fuel and improve speed. Plastic composite materials may
one day used to make organs for organ transplant in human bodies. This will become
necessity with the shortage of human organ donors.
The understanding of the interaction between different chemicals is important for
both the development of new synthetic materials and the disposal of such synthetic
materials as waste. A responsible and systemic method of handling the waste of synthetic
materials and their by-product is important to prevent environmental pollution. The
recycling and development of environmental friendly synthetic material should be
enforced.

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REFERENCES
1.

Tan Yin Toon, Loh Wai Leng, Tan On Tin, 2008, SUCCESS
Chemistry SPM, Oxford Fajar Sdn.Bhd.

2.

Website http://www.answers.com

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