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ASPEK ERGONOMI DARI RISIKO PSIKOSOSIAL DI TEMPAT KERJA

IDP Sutjana
Abstract
Perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi (IPTEK) sangat pesat beberapa dekade
terakhir ini telah terbukti memberikan manfaat yang sangat besar bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat,
namun tanpa disadari juga menimbulkan dampak negatif seperti meningkatnya keluhan, penyakit
akibat kerja, kecelakaan kerja, maupun stres. Disamping itu di era global para pekerja
menghadapi 3 C (complexity, competition, changes), sehingga dituntut selalu harus mengikuti
perkembangan IPTEK, kalau tidak akan ditinggal dan pasti akan selalu ketinggalan. Pada
kondisi demikian itu bagi yang kurang mampu mengikuti perkembangan akan mengalami
kegelisahan yang diikuti dengan stres sebagai salah satu risiko psikososial dengan segala
akibatnya. Oleh karena masalah yang dihadapi makin kompleks dengan persaingan yang makin
ketat maka gejala gangguan psikososial itupun makin meningkat. Gangguan psikososial akan
menimbulkan berbagai keluhan yang diikuti penurunan produktivitas kerja, bahkan
bisa menimbulkan kecelakaan kerja. Ergonomi sebagai pendekatan multi/interdisiplin, dimana
disiplin psikologi merupakan bagian dari pendekatan ergonomi juga membahas risiko psikososial
yang dihadapi pekerja. Ergonomi berupaya menciptakan kondisi kerja yang sehat, aman,
nyaman, efektif dan efisien atau serasi dengan pekerja untuk meningkatkan produktivitas dan
kesejahteraan pekerja. Dalam hal ini diupayakan adanya keserasian antara task, organisasi dan
lingkungan kerja terhadap kemampuan, kebolehan dan batasan manusia, sehingga seseorang
mampu bekerja dengan maksimal, dengan risiko yang minimal, termasuk risiko psychosocial.
Jadi semua aspek ergonomi tersebut juga merupakan faktor yang bisa menimbulkan risiko
psycholsosial. Komponen dari task seperti jenis pekerjaan, beban kerja, tanggung jawab
merupakan aspek ergonomi, juga sebagai faktor yang dapat menimbulkan risiko psikososial.
Organisasi seperti pengaturan giliran kerja, jam kerja dan jam istirahat, hubungan antara pekerja
atau dengan atasan atau bawahan, sistem penggajian, penghargaan dan sangsi, demikian
jugafaktor lingkungan kerja seperti faktor sosial, perbedaan ras, etnis, budaya, agama adalah
aspek ergonomi yang merupakan faktor yang dapat menimbulkan risiko psychsosial. Apabila

ditinjau dari pendekatan ergonomi total dimana dibahas hubungan pekerja dengan task,
organisasi dan lingkungan kerja maka aspek ergonomi hampir sama dengan faktor risiko
psikososial.

PERBAIKAN CARA ANGKAT-ANGKUT MATERIAL BANGUNAN


MENGURANGI AKTIVITAS LISTRIK OTOT ERECTOR SPINAE DAN
KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL TUKANG BANGUNAN
I Made Muliarta
Abstract
The development of the property sector bring consequency increasing number of skillfull labour
who work in this sector. They work as a conventional management. One of the activity is lifting
and carrying building material. Less ergonomic lifting and carrying due to increasing in the
electrical activity of erector spinae muscle and musculoskeletal complaints among skillfull
labours.The aim of the study was to determine that the improvement of lifting and
carrying building material may reduce erector spinae muscle electrical activity and
musculoskeletal complaints among skillfull labours. This study was using the experimental
design extended by treatment by subject design. Samples were taken by purposive sampling,
involving 11 males skillfull labour with a mean age of 38.5 7.4 years. The results showed that
the average electrical activity of erector spinae muscles in 1stPeriod 36.95 3.85 % and in
1ndperiod 4.10 1.10 % . Statistically, there was a decrease in the electrical activity of
erector spinae muscles about 32.85 or 88.90 % with a 95 % CI 30.22 to 35.48 (p=0.000). The
mean score of musculoskeletal complaints in 1stPeriod 50.36 2.54 and in 2ndperiod 38.82
4.36. Statistically, there was a decrease in musculoskeletal complaints score 11.54 or 22.92%
with a 95 % CI 7.66 to 15.43 (p=0.000).From this research can be concluded that the
improvement of lifting-carrying building material reduce erector spinae muscle electrical
activity 88.90% and musculoskeletal complaints 22.92% among skillfull labours

Sikap Kerja Duduk-Berdiri Bergantian Menurunkan Kelelahan, Keluhan


Muskuloskeletal Serta Meningkatkan Produktivitas Kerja Penyetrika Wanita di
Rumah Tangga
I Made Krisna Dinata, Nyoman Adiputra, I Putu Gede Adiatmika
Abstract
Many routine activities undertaken in the household are repeated every day throughout the year
so can potentially cause health problems if not applied theprinciples of ergonomics. From the
survey and measurement of domestic workers in several places in Denpasar, we found that the
most complained was the process of ironing so its a priority to look for a solution. That
complaints arise because the process of ironing is in static and monotony position. In addressing
this issue , we need a change in attitude of working so that static work posture can be avoided.
The use of specially designed chairs can make workers to work with a dynamic working attitude
that is alternating sitting-standing posture.This experimental study using teatment by subject
design with two periodeintervension that sitting posture and alternating sitting-standing
posture. The number of samples studied were 9 people using simple random
sampling technique. The study was conducted in a place that has been designed such as
a simulation. Data collection was conducted over three days to sitting posture and three days to
alternating sitting-standing posture at 8:00 to 17:00 pm divided into three sessions.In the
assessment of workload showed a decrease of 19.72 % working pulse and the reduction of
%CVL was 19.80%. Musculoskeletal complaints fell by 13.15%. Pain in the waist and buttocks
most complained at work sitting posture (waist 37.04%; buttocks 33.33% ). For fatigue
assessment using Bourdon Wiersma Questionnaires obtained 11.79% increase in speed, 42.68%
in accuracy, and 13.21% in constancy. There was an increase in productivity by 38.46%, which is
associated with reduced workload and duration of work. After statistical tests, obtained all the
change that occur significant (p<0.05). Working-time graph showed that workers could work for
eight hours continuously.It can be concluded that alternating sitting-standing posture can
reduce workload, fatigue, and musculoskeletal complaints, as well as increase productivity iron
women in the household. The results of this research can be used to improve the quality of life of
the worker in household.

http://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/jei/article/view/12026

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